Bengel under the Mughal 1576-1855

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Offline Dr. Md. Harun-or Rashid

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Bengel under the Mughal 1576-1855
« on: June 25, 2012, 10:33:16 AM »
Mughal Emperors 1526-1857
Jahir Uddin Mohammad Babur 1526-1530
Nasir Uddin Humayun 1530-1535, 1555-56
Jalal Uddin Akbar 1556-1605
Nur Uddin Jahangir 1605-1627
Shihab Uddin Shahjahan 1628-1658
Mohiuddin Alamgir Awrangajeb 1658-1707
Shah Alam 1707-1712
Jahandar Shah 1712-13
Farrukh Shear 1713-1719
(Last) Bahadur Shah 2nd 1837-1857
In 1576 last Afghan ruler Daud Khan Karrani was defeated by Mughals and Bengal came to under the Mughal Empire leaded by Akbar.
Since the Nababs, Bengal was under the Mughal rule.
Tanda, near Maldah, was the capital of Bengal

Bhateer Baro Bhuyans
At the time of Mughal invention, the major parts of Bengal remained under some local leaders. They are famous by the name “Bhateer Baro Bhuyans”.
Baro Bhuyans are not actually number of 12; they were the local Raja or Jomidars who are anty-Mughal force.
Bhati means the coastal area of Padma, Brhomhoputra and Megna River. 
Isha Khan was one of the famous Bhuyans. Mughal Emperor tried to control over the Bengal appointing Subedar from Delhi.

Famous Bhuyans
Isha Khan Mosnod-e Ala, Musa Khan (son)
Fazal Gazi, Bhawal
Chand Ray, Kedar Ray of Bikrampur
Lakhman Manikko of Bhulua (Noakhali)
Kandarpa Narayan of Bakla/Chandradeep
Masum Khan Kabulee, Chatmohor, Pabna
Mojlish Kutub, Fathabad, Faridpur

Mughal Subedars in Bengal:
Bengal under Akber up to 1605 AD
Munim Khan
Khan Jahan
Muzaffar Khan
Mirza Aziz Koka
Shahbaj Khan
Uzir Khan
Said Khan
Raja Manshing 1594-1606 AD

Bengal under Jahangir up to 1627 AD
Qutb-ud-din Khan Koka (1606–1607)
Jahangir Kuli Khan (1607–1608)
Islam Khan Chisty(1608–1613)
Qasim Khan Chisty (1613–1617)
Ibrahim Khan Fatehjang (1617–1624)
Mohabbat Khan 1625-1626)
Mukarrom Khan (1626–1627)
Fiday Khan 1627

Bengal under Shah Jahan (up to 1660 AD)
Kashim Khan Juyuni 1628-1632
Azam Khan 1632-1635
Islam Khan Mash-hadi 1336-1639
(Prince) Shah Shuja 1640-1660

Bengal under Awrangajeb (up to 1712 AD)

Meer Jumla 1660-1663
Shayesta Khan 1664-1677, 1679-1688
Azam Khan Koka 1677-1678
Khan Jahan Bahadur 1688-1689
Ibrahim Khan 1690-1697
Azim Uddin 1697-1712

Nawab era 1727-1763
The period from the times of Murshid Quli Khan to Sirajuddaula is popularly known as the Nawabi era.
But none of them during this period had officially styled himself as a nawab. From
This time the Subahdari was no longer an office controlled by the central government. It became a masnad (throne) for the succeeding incumbents.

Suja Uddin Khan 1729-1739
Sarforaz Khak 1739-1740
Ali Bardi Khan 1740-1756
Sirajud Dawla 1756-1757
All of them considered themselves independent and always tried to receive sanad  from the emperor of Delhi on payment.

Murshid Quli Khan
His first name was Dewan Kartalab Khan, was Dewan of Bengal.
 In 1700 he shifted Dewankhana from Dhaka to Maksudabad and renamed it Murshidabad in 1704.
He was the first Nawabs, & became the Subedar of Bengal in 1717; he reigned over Bengal, Bihar and Orissa from his capital Murshidabad with only a nominal allegiance to the Mughal Emperor.
He also opened a mint and introduced the coin.
Murshid Quli Khan had built the magnificent Katra Masjid.

Suja Uddin Khan 1729-1739
Suja Khan son-in-law of Murshid Quli Khan succeeded after Murshid Quli Khan's death with the name and of Suja-ud-deen.
His regime is famous for charitable, just and impartial rule.
He is also famous for encouragement to learning, a patron of art and culture.
Suja-ud-Deen died in 1739 and his son Sarafraj Khan ascended the throne.

Sarafraz Khan
The tenure of Sarafraz Khan was very short.
He received the imperial title of "Motamul-ul-Mulk, Alauddowla etc for his famousness.
He was defeated at the battle of Giria on 1740 AD by Alivardi Khan.

Alivardi Khan
Alivardi Khan is famous as the father in law of Siraj-ud dowla.  He was the Governor of Patna, got the Sanad as Subedar of Sube Bangla and became the Nawab by defeating and killing Sarfaraz in 1740.
Alivardi ruled Bengal for 16 years. Though an efficient ruler, he had to face continual attacks by the Maratha and rebellion by the Afghans.
He had to buy peace from the Maratha by allowing concessions. He maintained good relationships with the Europeans but did not allow them to increase their military power.

Siraj was the grandson of Alivardi. He ascended the throne on the death of Alivardi on 1956 AD. Siraj was so young and faced the trouble of the powerful British and his irritated relatives and bureaucrats.
He tried to encounter these by first robbing his intriguing aunt, Begum Ghasiti, of her wealth and reducing the rank of the Commander-in-Chief (Bakshi) of the royal army, Mir-Jafar.
On 1756 Siraj occupied the Kasimbazar factory of the British. Then he went on to occupy Calcutta in June 1756.

Battle of Palashi
But then he had to go to Purnea, Bihar to quench the rebellion of cousin Shaukat Jang, a claimant to the throne.
Taking advantage of this situation the British amassed forces and re-conquered Calcutta in February 1757 and then struck a secret treaty with Mir-Jafar. The British captured The French factory at Chandernagore.
The French sought asylum from the Nawab. The Nawab and the British army, under Robert Clive, met for the final round at Polashi.
 In an act of great betrayal by Mir-Jafar, Siraj was defeated on the 23rd June 1757, and killed. Mir-Jafar ascended the throne of Bengal.

MeerJafar 1757-1760, 1763-1765 Meer Kashim 1760-1763
He was incompetent ruler even as a puppet.
The British replaced him with his son-in-law Mir-Qasim in 1760 on account of non-payment of dues.
Mir-Qasim paid the dues off but started to show signs of independence. He shifted his capital to Monghyr in Bihar and tried to reorganise his own army.
The British did not approve of this and defeated Mir-Qasim in the Battle of Buxar in 1764.
Mir-Qasim  was a man of strong passions as well as of resolution.
Mir-Jafar regained the crown. He died the following year. This was followed by a number of Nawabs in succession who were merely puppets.

After the Battle of Boxer
Meer Jafar Ali Khan 1763-1765
Najam-ud-Doula 1756-1766 AD
Saif-ud-Doula (1766-1770 AD)
Mubarak-ud-Doula 1770-1793
Babar-Ali 1993-1810
Zainuddin Ali Khan, known as Ali Jah 1810-1821
Syud Ahmed Ali Khan, known as Wala Jah 1821-1824
Mubarak Ali Khan , Known as Humayun Jah 1824-1838 AD
Syud Mansur Ali Khan, known as Feradun Jah 1838-1881

Further Study: Jadunath Sarkar, The History of Bengal, Vol. II, Dhaka University

« Last Edit: June 25, 2012, 10:40:19 AM by Dr. Md. Harun-or Rashid »
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Offline fahad.faisal

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Re: Bengel under the Mughal 1576-1855
« Reply #1 on: January 29, 2018, 06:31:15 PM »
Thanks a lot for the informative post.
Fahad Faisal
Department of CSE