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NGOs and Development / Re: Dynamic Functions of NGOs
« on: August 25, 2018, 05:46:42 PM »
NGOs can never be the causes of development of a country, which is 100% proved.

Good sharing.

Good study.Bookishly can be yes, vortually not!!

Good sharing sir.

Because, we strong military force to spend for lion share of budget!?

Yes, if we want to prevent tobacco consummations, burden of diseases, disability or death for tobacco consumption, first of all we have to completely ban the tobacco farming. How no individual, institution, laws, policies or government is working or talking vigorously to stop farming tobacco farming??? Governments around the world always propagated against the tobacco using, but taking huge taxes from the tobacco companies and maintain good relationship with them?

So, how we can get over the situation???

 It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.

Source: Please go through the whole paper following the link-


A slowly progressive airway disease that causes the gradual loss of lung function. COPD is an umbrella term that includes chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive bronchitis, emphysema, and combinations of these diseases. The symptoms of COPD include chronic cough and sputum (a mixture of saliva and mucus) production and severe shortness of breath. As the disease progresses, people increasingly lose their ability to breathe. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. The most common risk factor for COPD by far is cigarette smoking.

A number of studies have suggested that COPD is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. A study published in Diabetes Care in 2004 followed over 100,000 female nurses enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study from 1988 to 1996. They were periodically surveyed about whether they had been diagnosed with emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, or diabetes. Those with COPD were nearly twice as likely to develop Type 2 diabetes as those without COPD. (Women with asthma, however, were no more likely to develop diabetes than those who didn’t have asthma). Although the study was carried out in women, the researchers saw no reason not to believe the same association would apply to men.

The researchers suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress may explain this association: Increasingly, inflammation is thought to play a major role in causing Type 2 diabetes, and some of the same inflammatory markers that are increased in diabetes are increased in COPD. Both conditions have also been linked to a phenomenon called oxidative stress, in which highly energized compounds called reactive oxygen species, which react strongly with other molecules, damage tissue. In the case of COPD, oxidative stress injures the airway and promotes inflammation in the lungs, and oxidative stress has been implicated as an underlying cause of the insulin resistance seen in Type 2 diabetes.

COPD cannot be cured, so prevention is key. The most important step for preventing COPD—or stopping or slowing its progression—is avoiding smoking.


Ebola Virus / How Do You Get Ebola?
« on: August 25, 2018, 04:12:18 PM »
Ebola isn’t as contagious as more common viruses like colds, influenza, or measles. It spreads to people by contact with the skin or bodily fluids of an infected animal, like a monkey, chimp, or fruit bat. Then it moves from person to person the same way. Those who care for a sick person or bury someone who has died from the disease often get it.Other ways to get Ebola include touching contaminated needles or surfaces.

You can’t get Ebola from air, water, or food. A person who has Ebola but has no symptoms can’t spread the disease, either.

What Are the Symptoms of Ebola?

Ebola is a rare but deadly virus that causes fever, body aches, and diarrhea, and sometimes bleeding inside and outside the body.

As the virus spreads through the body, it damages the immune system and organs. Ultimately, it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop. This leads to severe, uncontrollable bleeding.

The disease was known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever but is now referred to as Ebola virus. It kills up to 90% of people who are infected.Ebola is a deadly disease caused by a virus. There are five strains, and four of them can make people sick. After entering the body, it kills cells, making some of them explode. It wrecks the immune system, causes heavy bleeding inside the body, and damages almost every organ.

The virus is scary, but it’s also rare. You can get it only from direct contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

What Are the Symptoms of Ebola?

Early on, Ebola can feel like the flu or other illnesses. Symptoms show up 2 to 21 days after infection and usually include:

    High fever
    Joint and muscle aches
    Sore throat
    Stomach pain
    Lack of appetite

As the disease gets worse, it causes bleeding inside the body, as well as from the eyes, ears, and nose. Some people will vomit or cough up blood, have bloody diarrhea, and get a rash.

How Is Ebola Diagnosed?

Sometimes it's hard to tell if a person has Ebola from the symptoms alone. Doctors may test to rule out other diseases like cholera or malaria.

Tests of blood and tissues also can diagnose Ebola.

If you have Ebola, you’ll be isolated from the public immediately to prevent the spread.
How Is Ebola Treated?

There’s no cure for Ebola, though researchers are working on it. Treatment includes an experimental serum that destroys infected cells.

Doctors manage the symptoms of Ebola with:

    Fluids and electrolytes
    Blood pressure medication
    Blood transfusions
    Treatment for other infections


Since   early   2006,   highly   pathogenic   avian   influenza H5N1 has been clocking up air miles at an alarming rate. It  has  spread  quickly  to  Europe,  the  middle  east,  India,  and Africa following no apparent pattern, and underlining how  little  scientists  know  about  the  virus  ecology  and  where  it  will  strike  next.  There  is  now  growing  concern  that  the  whirlwind  spread  of  avian  flu  in  some  parts  of  the world is not entirely governed by nature, but by the human activities of commerce and trade. Since mid-2005, the Food and Agriculture Organisation  (FAO) and WHO have given wide prominence to the theory that  migratory  birds  are  carrying  the  H5N1  virus  and  infecting   poultry   flocks   in   areas   that   lie   along   their migratory  route.  Indeed,  this  is  probably  how  the  virus  reached  Europe.  Unusually  cold  weather  in  the  wetlands  near  the  Black  Sea,  where  the  disease  is  now  entrenched,  drove  migrating  birds,  notably  swans,  much  further  west  than usual. But despite extensive testing of wild birds for the disease, scientists have only rarely identified  live  birds  carrying  bird  flu  in  a  highly  pathogenic  form,  suggesting 
these    birds    are    not    efficient    vectors    of    the    virus. 

Furthermore,  the  geographic  spread  of  the  disease  does  not  correlate  with  migratory  routes  and  seasons.  The  pattern  of  outbreaks  follows  major  road  and  rail  routes,  not flyways.  Far more likely to be perpetuating the spread of the virus is the movement of poultry, poultry products, or infected material from poultry farms—eg, animal feed and manure. But  this  mode  of  transmission  has  been  down-played  by  international agencies, who admit that migratory birds are an easy target since nobody is to blame. However, GRAIN, an   international,   non-governmental   organisation   that   promotes   the   sustainable   management   and   use   of   agricultural biodiversity, recently launched a critical report titled Fowl  play:  the  poultry  industry’s  central  role  in  the  bird  flu  crisis.GRAIN points a finger  at  the  transnational  poultry  industry  as  fuelling  the  epidemic.  Over  the  years,  large 
concentrations    of    (presumably    stressed)    birds    have    facilitated an increased affinity of the virus to chickens and
other domestic poultry, with an increase in pathogenicity. Since the 1980s, the intensification of chicken production in  eastern  Asia  has  gained  momentum,  changing  the  whole dynamic of avian influenza  viruses  in  the  southern China epicentre, which has had far-reaching consequences for the rest of the world.


chikungunya / Rural people in Bangladesh also at risk of chikungunya
« on: August 25, 2018, 05:45:09 AM »

Although chikungunya outbreak is limited in Dhaka city this year, people in rural areas are at risk of the disease as studies showed presence of aedes mosquitoes.

Senior Scientific Officer of Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) Dr SM Alamgir told the news agency, "Two species of mosquito -- aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus -- cause chikungunya diseases. Presence of aedes albopictus mosquito in rural areas is very high compared to urban areas.

The virus is transmitted from human to human by the bites of aedes mosquitoes, he said, adding, "Suspected chikungunya patients should visit nearby health complexes and hospitals to prevent outbreak of the disease."

Dr Alamgir said, "People living in rural areas and Dhaka city should be aware of chikungunya disease... First case of chikungunya disease in the country was reported in Poba upazila of Rajshahi in 2008."

"We also found some chikungunya cases in rural areas after its first outbreak in Bangladesh. So, rural areas are also venerable for the disease," he added.

He said though IEDCR is getting three to five samples for chikungunya case every day against 25 to 30 cases, it does not indicate that outbreak of the disease is decreasing as a huge number of people left Dhaka during Eid-ul-Fitr.

"We are apparently thinking that outbreak of the disease has decreased a little bit but we have to wait for next few days to confirm the real scenario of the disease," he said.

"Alongside eliminating the breeding sources of mosquito, people should be educated on the diseases as there is no special treatment of the diseases."

Director of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR) Prof Meerjady Sabrina Flora said, "We got 1,930 chikungunya suspected cases till June 21 this year."

She suggested destroying all potential mosquito breeding sources as the outbreak of chikungunya disease in the capital has increased sharply this year.

Dr Flora said a massive awareness campaign is needed to destroy the breeding sources of mosquito for stopping outbreak of chikungunya disease.

Health experts said chikungunya affected people should drink much water and take full rest. There is no need of any laboratory test as the diseases could be recognized easily by observing some common symptoms.

At a press conference held recently, Director General of Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) Prof Abul Kalam Azad said, "Chikungunya is not serious like other mosquito-borne diseases. After a particular time, patients get recovery without receiving any special medical treatment."

Chikungunya infected patients should not be admitted to hospitals and even they do not need to go to hospitals for any test to diagnose the disease, he added.

Chikungunya is a viral disease which is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. Health experts said symptoms of the disease appear between four and seven days after a person is bitten by an infected mosquito.

Chikungunya is characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever frequently accompanied by joint pain. Other common signs and symptoms of the disease include muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue and rash, they said, adding, the joint pain is often very debilitating, but usually lasts for a few days or may be prolonged to weeks.
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cancer / Breast cancer death rate high in Bangladesh: Says WHO study
« on: August 25, 2018, 05:38:18 AM »
Sixteen percent of the total cancer affected women in the country are victim to breast cancer, says a World Health Organisation (WHO) study.
WHO also ranked Bangladesh 2nd in terms of mortality rate of women in the country from breast cancer.
Dr Lutfar Rahman, project director of Dhaka Ahsania Mission, referred to the study while speaking at the inaugural session of the month-long International Breast Cancer Awareness Programme organised by Ahsania's cancer hospital in the city yesterday.
Cancer specialist Prof Mahbubul Alam said around three-fourth of women aged over 50 in the country are affected with breast cancer.
Unmarried women are at high risk of breast cancer, but it can be cured completely if detected at early stage, said National Prof Dr MR Khan.
Surgical oncologist Prof Haron-or-Rashid suggested women to marry after 20 and adopt first baby before 30 to avoid breast cancer.
Ahsania Mission Cancer Detection Centre and Hospital Director Brig Gen (retd) Syed Fazle Rahim presided over the function.
Jurist barrister Rafiq-ul-Haque, lawmaker MA Jabbar, artiste Parveen Mushtari, and the hospital adviser Mohammad Ali, among others, were present there.
As a part of the awareness programme, the hospital has set to provide free counselling on breast cancer from 9:00am to 2:00pm during the whole October beginning yesterday at the hospital.
People can also contact at 01718594682 and 01712103689 for any information relating to breast cancer.


Further disease outbreaks are likely if the refugees’ living conditions don’t improve.

Diphtheria, a disease long forgotten in most parts of the world thanks to increasing rates of vaccination, is re-emerging in Bangladesh, where more than 655,000 Rohingya have sought refuge since 25 August, following increased violence in Myanmar. As of 21 December, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has seen more than 2,000 suspected cases in its health facilities and the number is rising daily. The majority of patients are between five and 14 years old.

“I was very surprised when I got that first call from the doctor at the clinic telling me that he had a suspected case of diphtheria,” says Crystal Crystal VanLeeuwen, MSF emergency medical coordinator for Bangladesh.

“‘Diphtheria?’ I asked, ‘Are you sure?’ When working in a refugee setting you always have your eyes open for infectious, vaccine-preventable diseases such as tetanus, measles and polio, but diphtheria was not something that was on my radar.”

Diphtheria is a contagious bacterial infection that often causes the buildup of sticky grey-white membrane in the throat or nose. The infection is known to cause airway obstruction and damage to the heart and nervous system. The fatality rate increases without the diphtheria antitoxin (DAT). With global shortages of DAT and the limited quantity that arrived in Bangladesh just over a week ago, the likelihood of a public health emergency looms, threatening a population that has fled the threat of violence and is now faced with another: the outbreak of disease.

If patients don’t receive DAT early on in the progression of their illness, the toxin continues to circulate in the body. This can cause damage to the nervous, cardiac and renal systems weeks after the initial recovery period.

“The first suspected case we identified was a woman around 30 years old,” explains VanLeeuwen. “She came to our health facility in early November and we treated her with antibiotics. She left the clinic, only to return to us over five weeks later. Then she had numbness in her arms, could barely stand or walk and had difficulty swallowing. It is too late to give her DAT at this stage.”

As of today, there are only less than 5,000 vials of DAT globally. “There is not enough of the medication to treat all of the people in front of you who need it and we are forced to make extremely difficult decisions,” says VanLeeuwen. “It becomes an ethical and equity question.”

The emergence and the spread of diphtheria show how vulnerable Rohingya refugees are. The majority of them are not vaccinated against any diseases, as they had very limited access to routine healthcare, including vaccinations, back in Myanmar. Diphtheria is transmitted by droplets and spreads easily in the refugee settlements where people live in overcrowded conditions, with shelters squeezed up against each other and sometimes families with up to 10 people living in one very small space.

MSF has responded to the rapid spread of diphtheria by converting one of its mother and child inpatient facilities in Balukhali makeshift settlement, and the inpatient facility near Moynarghona – which was only days away from opening – into a diphtheria treatment centre.

Alongside this, MSF has set up a treatment centre in Rubber Garden, which was previously a transit centre for new arrivals. The total bed capacity will grow to 415 beds by 25 December. To prevent the further spread of the disease, our teams are also doing tracing and treatment of people who might have come in contact with the disease in the community. As soon as a case is identified, a team visits the family, gives them antibiotics and searches the area for additional cases for referral and treatment.

To contain the spread of the diseases, the most important measure is to ensure vaccination coverage in the shortest possible time. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, with the support of other entities, has just started a mass vaccination campaign, which MSF has been supporting by setting up fixed points in our health posts.

But the challenges remain.

An unvaccinated person gains immunity after a minimum of two vaccines, administered four weeks apart. This is a population that knows little or nothing about the benefit of vaccines. Less than a month ago, the Rohingya already participated in a mass measles vaccination campaign. Many do not understand why they need another vaccine. Communication with the population is key to ensuring good vaccination coverage. MSF is also trying to ensure all newly arrived refugees are vaccinated before they are relocated into the camps. But given the time required to complete the course of vaccination, and in the absence of a place where they can be temporally sheltered, it’s a big challenge. As a medical humanitarian organisation, we also face a dilemma.

“Even before the diphtheria, there was a severe lack of inpatient bed capacity. Now we have had to convert those scarcely available beds into dedicated treatment and isolation areas for diphtheria patients only,” says Crystal VanLeeuwen.

“The women and children who previously had access to the facility no longer have this as an option. This is also creating a strain on the space and staffing available in non-diphtheria inpatient facilities that have taken on these patients. The teams have been adapting to the rapidly changing situation but we all face new challenges each day.”

“These diphtheria cases come on top of an ongoing outbreak of measles and the huge load of general and emergency health needs of this many people,” says Pavlos Kolovos, MSF head of mission for Bangladesh.

“They are already vulnerable, coming with almost no vaccination coverage. Now they are living in an extremely densely populated camp, with poor water and hygiene conditions. Until those problems are addressed and improved, we will continue to face further disease outbreaks and not just of diphtheria.”


Despite progress in primary health care (PHC) since the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, challenges to the provision
of primary health care in Bangladesh still remain. Although the Government takes lead responsibility for national policy, planning and decision making for all health care and is – through the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) – the major health service provider, a PHC structure is still non-existent in urban areas. The health system is pluralistic and weak in terms of cross-sectoral operation. Government PHC services are administered in rural areas through the ‘Upazila health complex’, which consists of three tiers: at sub-district level (the Upazila level), the union level, and the ward or community level. These three lower tiers of the health system are intended to reach Bangladesh’s estimated 105 million people living in rural areas, and provide an upward referral system towards more specialised treatment.

Every Upazila complex is required to provide the same suite of services, with their budget allocation based on patient bed numbers in their health facilities, rather than local needs at the community level, including usage and geographical particularities. In reality, there
are uncertainties about how functional community clinics actually are in offering these services, particularly in light of limited staffing and expertise, drug availability, and significant evidence of low usage.


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