Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - Anta

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 27
Syntax and Semantics / How Words Relate: lexical relationships
« on: August 05, 2021, 03:47:30 PM »
How Words Relate: lexical relationships

There are a few ways to characterize the meaning of a word; we can do it through morphology, phonology, or even through its categorization: whether it is animate, human, female, or adult. However, there is another way to characterize the meaning of a word: namely, to characterize the word through its lexical relations.

Lexical relationships are the connections established between one word and another; for example, we all know that the opposite of “closed” is “open” and that “literature” is similar to “book”. These words have a significant relationship to one another, whereas words like “chair” and “coffee” might have no meaningful relationship; thus, certain lexical relationships can inform us about the meaning of a word.

There are a few common types of lexical relationships: synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy, and polysemy. This is not all the known types of lexical relationships, but as an introduction to lexical relations, these will suffice.

This is perhaps the most commonly understood of all the lexical relations. Synonymy is the idea that some words have the same meaning as others, though this is not always the case; that is, there are some synonyms which cannot replace one another in a sentence, we will give some examples of this further down.

When words have the same meaning, they can replace one another without altering the meaning of a sentence; for example:

Jane is quick

Jane is fast

Jane is speedy

All three sentences have the same meaning even though they are each unique instances of that sentence; only because the meanings of all three words at the end of the sentences are the same. This, by extension, then allows each sentence to maintain the same meaning as before.

Now, this lexical relationship, as said earlier, does not necessarily hold for all synonyms. Consider some of these pairs: quick/high-speed, quick/brisk. When we do the same sentence exercise as above, we will get radically different meanings:

Jane is quick

Jane is high-speed

Jane is brisk

So, synonyms sometimes lack the same meanings when applied to a specific context or sentence; indeed, there are cases where the result will give us something incoherent or incredibly odd. Therefore, the key to remember with synonyms is that, although they have a relationship in meaning, they do not always have the same meaning in sentences.

Antonymy is precisely the opposite of synonymy. With antonymy, we are concerned with constructions which are opposite to one another with respect to lexical relationships. For example, ice/hot, beautiful/ugly, and big/small. These words have meanings which are opposite to one another, and these opposite meanings come in two forms: categorical and continuous.

The categorical distinction is one that has two categories that contrast one another; for example, fire/water. These are categorical because there is no continuum between them; that is, less fire never means more water and less water never means more fire. Comparatively, antonyms that are on a continuum are constructions like big/small.  This is due to the relative nature of these words; meaning, when we call a horse small, it may be relative to something else like another horse. And when that same horse is compared yet again, it might be the case that the horse is now big. So, the meanings between big and small are on a continuum relative to the object of discussion.

Some example phrases of antonymy are as follows:

Jane is small

Jane is big

Jane is slow

Jane is fast

These phrases all have opposite meanings to one another, and we can see this more readily through their applications to sentences.

It is also important to note that antonymy can have issues as well, though only when we shift the nature of our communication: I.e., “The economy is going nuts,” can also be said, though sarcastically, in the following manner: “the economy is perfectly healthy”. Traditionally, “going nuts” and “mentally healthy” are viewed as opposite meanings, but when we shift the manner in which we speak, like with sarcasm, this relationship fails to hold up. Thus, antonyms work differently when we hold as an assumption a literal or straightforward view of discourse.

Hyponymy is similar to the notion of embeddedness; meaning, the semantics of one object is implied by another. That is to say, because words represent objects, the semantic properties of a particular object, like whether it is a female or animate, can be embedded in a word that implies those same objects; and so, the meaning of word “x” can be embedded in word “z”. For example, “Donald Trump” implies “human,” or “animate”. This is due to the fact that Donald Trump, despite the beliefs of others, is both a human and animate. With each word, there is implied the notion of another semantic feature.

These semantic features, might I add, are organized in an ordinal fashion, which means there is a rank for embeddedness: from specific to general. The most general word would sit atop the hierarchy; so, with respect to our friend Donald Trump, the hierarchy might look something like the following:

1. Animate

2. Human

3. Male

4. Adult

There are also technical terms that are used to describe the relationships amongst these hierarchies: superordinates and co-hyponyms. In the previous example, animate would be considered superordinate to human and human would be considered superordinate to female. On the other hand, when a term is on the same level as another word, then it is named a co-hyponym; for instance, “dog” and “cat” are a co-hyponyms that have “pet” as their superordinate. So, hyponyms move from either specific to general or general to specific, where general is at the top of the hierarchy and specific is at the bottom.

So hyponymy is the idea of embedded semantic features in a hierarchical order. When we speak of Donald Trump, we necessarily bring up specific semantic features.

Polysemy deals with constructions that have multiple meanings; for example, “head,”, “over,” or, “letter,” can all adopt multiple meanings. These words could be considered polysemous since they each have many potential meanings.

The word “head” can be used to refer to the top of someone’s body: “Jane received a head injury”; it can be used to refer to the front of a line: “Jane is at the head of the line”. It can also be used to refer to how prepared someone is: “Jane is way ahead of the curve, she already read the chapter for next week”.  So, the word “head” is polysemous since it has many meanings.

Another word with many meanings is “over”. The word “over” can be used more ways than countable; for instance, “she lives over there,” is different from, “she lives over the hill”. Even furthermore, “the lid is over the pot,” and, “is it over yet,” are both different from one another and the two previously mentioned examples. The word “over,” as said already, has more meanings than countable.

Words are not alone when it comes to being polysemous, sentences are polysemous to; for instance, “Jane hit the man with the umbrella”. Here, it is unclear as to whether Jane had hit someone with an umbrella, as though the umbrella were a weapon, or if she had bumped into someone that was holding an umbrella. And not every meaning associated with a given polysemous sentence will be the same.

So, polysemy pertains to words and phrases that can have more than one meaning; sometimes the context of a specific phrase will allow us to negate other phrases, like if someone was holding an umbrella, but when removed from context, phrases remain ambiguous. And thus, polysemy highlights the importance of analyzing semantic features of words rather than analyzing syntax alone.

Lexical relations are important for understanding language and cognition; they teach us how words relate to one another and how human thought and perception get organized.

On the one hand, the lexical relations allow us to create reference points for words and therefore add meaning to our language. For example, if I say, “she is as cold as ice,” we know that cold is the opposite of warmth; that is, we experience cold and warmth as two opposite ends of a spectrum. In addition, warmth has as a superordinate “love” because we associate love with warmth: i.e., she warms my heart, his touch melts me,” and so love is a superordinate of warmth. So, the antonym of warmth is cold, which then aids in our understanding of “she is as cold as ice,”: namely, she is unloving or unempathetic. These types of lexical relations are important for semantics and the understanding of language.

On the other hand, the relationships between words also teach us how it is we think about the world. The very fact that we view “happy” as the opposite of “sad” tells us something about human cognition and experience.  In addition, the fact that fast and quick can mean the same thing tells us something about the organization of perception; that is, when we call something fast or quick we are paying little attention to placing it on a continuum and are instead merely observing its speed; this is evident by the fact that synonyms for speed do not necessarily entail differences within speed. So, words can reveal features about how we perceive the world.

And so, the importance of lexical relationships is that it can speak volumes about human cognition; lexical relations can allow us to infer the cognitive resources necessary to organize the world in a particular manner, or they can allow us to infer how it is that we relate phenomenon.

Syntax and Semantics / Semantic Roles
« on: August 05, 2021, 03:46:04 PM »
Semantic Roles

Semantic relations were introduced in generative grammar during the mid-1960s and early 1970s ([Fil68], [Jac72], [Gru67]) as a way of classifying the arguments of natural language predicates into a closed set of participant types which were thought to have a special status in grammar. A list of the most popular roles and the properties usually associated with them is given below.

A participant which the meaning of the verb specifies as doing or causing something, possibly intentionally. Examples: subjects of kill, eat, hit, smash, kick, watch.
a participant which the verb characterizes as having something happen to it, and as being affected by what happens to it. Examples: objects of kill, eat, smash but not those of watch, hear, love.
A participant who is characterized as aware of something. Examples: subject of love, object of annoy.
A participant which is characterized as changing its position or condition, or as being in a state or position. Examples: objects of give, hand, subjects of walk, die.
The thematic role associated with the NP expressing the location in a sentence with a verb of location. Examples: subjects of keep, own, retain, know, locative PPs.
Object from which motion proceeds. Examples: subjects of buy, promise, objects of deprive, free, cure.
Object to which motion proceeds. Examples: subject of receive, buy, dative objects of tell, give.

Syntax and Semantics / The Principles of Coordination and Subordination
« on: August 05, 2021, 03:43:35 PM »
"The Principles of Coordination and Subordination"
by Johnie H. Scott, Assistant Professor

Coordination: linking together words, groups of words (clauses), or sentences of equal type and importance, to put energy into writing. Coordinating Conjunctions: and, or, nor, for, but, so, yet, either/or, and neither/nor.

Two principles to keep in mind:
By combining words and groups of words, you avoid repetition that steals energy from what you write; and By combining whole sentences, you reveal the relationships between the thoughts.
Example: Over the past decade many African American students have chosen to complete their formal education at Southern colleges and now in the city of Atlanta there is a major educational center built expressly to accomodate this upsurge of interest in the New South. (Two main clauses are given equal emphasis and connected by the coordinating conjunction and )

Subordination: clearly empashizes which words, groups of words (clauses), or sentences are the most important in the writing.

Subordinate Conjunctions: Takes into account five (5) factors --
 (1) Time: when, after, as soon as, whenever, while, before;
(2) Place: where, wherever;
(3) Cause: because, since, in order that, so that;
(4) Contrast/Concession: although, as if, though, while; and
 (5) Condition: if, unless, provided, since,as long as.

Example: Because CSUN is located in the San Fernando Valley, the university has become very attractive to students living in the inner city who want to stay close to home and yet not face the pressures of city life. (Dependent clause introduced by the subordinating conjunction because; independent or main clause begins with the university)

Caveat: One wants to avoid faulty or excessive coordination.

Faulty coordination:  gives equal emphasis to unequal or unrelated clauses.

Example: The African American playwright August Wilson has won two Pulitzer Prizes for drama, and he now lives in Seattle, Washington.

The clause he now lives in Seattle, Washington has little or no connection to The African American playwright August Wilson has won two Pulitzer Prizes for drama. Therefore, the clauses should not be coordinated. But you, writer, may want to include this information in the paragraph because it is interesting and perhaps even important, even though it does not pertain directly to the main idea of the paragraph. Placing he now lives in Seattle, Washington might detract from the paragraph's unity.

We can revise faulty coordination by putting part of the sentence in a dependent clause, modifying phrase, or appositive phrase (an appositive is a noun or pronoun -- often with modifiers -- placed near another noun or pronoun to explain, describe, or identify it).

CSUN's Square, a hangout for its African American student community, has been quiet of late. (A hangout for its African American student community describes CSUN's Square); or
My sister Tiyifa lives in Colorado Springs. (Tiyifa identifies sister )
Typically, an appositive follows the word it refers to, but it may also precede the word:

A very inspirational tale of courage and honor, Glory is based on actual accounts of the all-black 54th Regiment during the American Civil War. (A very inspirational tale of courage and honor describes Glory)
Resuming with means of correcting faulty or excessive coordination, we note the following examples:

The African American playwright August Wilson, who now lives in Seattle, Washington, has won two Pulitzer Prizes for drama. (Dependent Clause)
The African American playwright August Wilson, now Seattle-based, has won two Pultizer Prizes for drama (modifying phrase)
The African American August Wilson, a Seattle playwright, has won two Pulitzer Prizes for drama (An appositive phrase).
We can go further by noting that when a single sentence contains more than one clause, the clauses may be given equal or unequal emphasis. Clauses given equal emphasis in one sentence are coordinate and should be connected by a cooordinating word or punctuation. Clauses given less emphasis in a sentence are dependent, or subordinate, and should be introduced by a subordinating word (conjunction).

Rules to Remember Concerning Faulty Subordination: There are three (3) rules to keep in mind with respect to faulty or excessive subordination in writing:
Faulty subordination occurs when the more important clause is placed in a subordinate position in the sentence or when the expected relation between clauses is reversed.
Example:  Japanese-made cars are popular with American consumers although their import poses at least a short-term threat to the livelihood of some American workers (In an essay or composition about he problems of the American worker this sentence would take attention away from the worker and incorrectly emphasize Japanese-made cars.)

Correct faulty subordination by changing the position of the subordinating word or phrase;
Example:  Although Japanese-made cars are popular with American consumers, their import poses at least a short-term threat to the livelihood of some American workers.

Keep in mind that excessive subordination occurs when a sentence contains a series of cluses, each subordinate to an earlier one. To correct excessive subordination, break the sentence into two or more sentences or change some of the dependent clauses to modifying phrases or appositives.
Example:  LaTosha Robinson, who was a San Francisco-native who lived in the University Park Apartments, enjoyed those special moments when a group of students who also came from Northern California visited her dorm, which was lonely for most of the school year.

This sentence is very confusing for the reader. The writer seems to have added information as it came to mind. To correct excessive subordination, note the following:

LaTosha Robinson, a San Francisco-native, lived in the University Park Apartments. Because her dorm was lonely most of the school year, she enjoyed those special moments when a group of students who also were from Northern California would visit.
One dependent clause, who was a San Francisco-native, has been changed to an appositive. A second dependent clause, who lived in the University Park Apartments, is now the predicate of the first sentence. These changes make the sentence more direct. The subordinator of the third dependent clause has been changed from which (identification) to because (cause) to show clearly the connection between the loneliness of the dormitory and LaTosha's enjoyment of those special visits.

Syntax and Semantics / Complex Noun Phrase
« on: August 05, 2021, 03:41:29 PM »
Please find the full article in the attachment.

Cognition and learning: How do students think and learn?

A great deal of research from cognitive and educational psychology has discovered how thinking and learning can be improved in the classroom. The first eight principles highlight some of the most important findings on teacher practices that impact student growth.

1. Growth mindset
Students’ beliefs or perceptions about intelligence and ability affect their cognitive functioning and learning.

Research shows that learners who hold the growth mindset that intelligence is malleable, and success is related to effort level are more likely to remain focused on goals and persist despite setbacks. A great way to start off the year in a psychology class is with a discussion of growth versus fixed mindsets because it helps students understand how their beliefs about intelligence can influence their own academic success. For more information about fixed and growth mindsets and how they impact student performance, see the TED talk by psychologist Carol Dweck. A TED talk by Angela Lee Duckworth discusses how student learning can be examined in the context of motivation and illustrates how the personality trait of grit, which is correlated with success, can be developed through teaching of a growth mindset. In addition to the numerous specific ideas in the Top 20 document for how instructors can encourage students to develop a growth mindset, there is also an APA online module on praise that offers excellent examples of how instructors can best frame communication with students to foster a growth mindset.

2. Prior knowledge
What students already know affects their learning.

Research shows that prior knowledge influences both conceptual growth and conceptual change in students. With conceptual growth, students add to their existing knowledge, and with conceptual change, students correct misconceptions or errors in existing knowledge. Facilitating conceptual growth or change requires first obtaining a baseline level of student knowledge prior to the start of each unit through formative assessment. One way to assess prior knowledge involves starting the unit with a short list of five to ten true/false statements and having a class discussion about the results. The results of this discussion can guide the selection of assignments and activities that will be appropriate for facilitating either conceptual growth or conceptual change. Prior knowledge can be used to help students incorporate background knowledge and draw connections between units during the course.

3. Limits of stage theories
Students’ cognitive development and learning are not limited by general stages of development.

Research indicates that cognitive development and learning are not limited by general stages of development. It is important for instructors teaching Piaget’s cognitive stage theory to also reference the limitations of this approach. Psychology curricula should highlight the significance of Lev Vygotsky’s theory of zone of proximal development and the critical role that interactions with those who are more capable can have on learning and growth. Instructors can use this research to facilitate learning by designing instruction that utilizes scaffolding, differentiation and mixed ability grouping. It is also critical that the most advanced students have the opportunity to work with others who will challenge them, including other students or the instructor.

4. Facilitating context
Learning is based on context, so generalizing learning to new contexts is not spontaneous, but rather needs to be facilitated.

Student growth and deeper learning are developed when instructors help students transfer learning from one context to another. Students will also be better able to generalize learning to new contexts if instructors invest time in focusing on deeper learning. One method of developing this skill is to have students use their understanding of a particular unit to generate potential solutions for real-world problems. APA Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools (TOPSS) offers an excellent example of this type of assignment with the problem-focused unit on childhood obesity (PDF, 260KB).

5. Practice
Acquiring long-term knowledge and skill is largely dependent on practice.

This principle details empirically based strategies that will help students more effectively encode learned materials into long-term memory. In addition to those in the memory unit, examples from this principle can help inform instruction throughout the course. By issuing formative assessment frequently through practice problems, activities and sample tests, instructors can help students increase their knowledge, skills and confidence. Additionally, instructors conducting practice activities at spaced intervals (distributed practice) will help students achieve greater increases in long-term retrieval ability. Practice tests should include open-ended questions that require both the retrieval of existing knowledge and the challenge of applying that information to new situations or contexts, thus also incorporating principle four. See also the APA teaching module on practice for knowledge acquisition.

6. Feedback
Clear, explanatory and timely feedback to students is important for learning.

This principle highlights the importance of instructor responses and indicates the best manner in which to deliver feedback to students in order to maintain or increase motivation to learn. Providing students with clear, explanatory and timely feedback is important for learning. The CPSE publication titled “Using Classroom Data to Give Systematic Feedback to Students to Improve Learning” provides additional information about feedback methods including five key strategies.

7. Self-regulation
Students’ self-regulation assists in learning and self-regulatory skills can be taught.

Self-regulation skills, including attention, organization, self-control, planning and memory strategies, improve learning and engagement and can be taught through direct instruction, modeling and classroom organization. Teachers can model organizational methods and assist students by highlighting learning targets at the start and conclusion of lessons, using classroom calendars, highlighting difficult concepts that will require more practice, breaking large projects into manageable components, using well designed rubrics and allowing sufficient processing time through questioning, summarizing and practice. Psychology students can apply this research to their own study habits such as learning to practice self-control by limiting the distractions presented by cell phones and social media. Students can also be encouraged to design experiments related to the limits of attention and discuss the practical implications of their results.

8. Creativity
Student creativity can be fostered.

Creativity is considered a critical skill for the technology driven world of the 21st century and because it is not a stable trait, it can be taught, nurtured and increased. This principle describes specific methods of structuring assignments to increase creativity and ideas for how to model creative problem solving. Creativity in the psychology classroom can include opportunities for student-designed research projects, video projects, demonstrations and model building. The TOPSS unit lesson plans include a variety of ideas for creatively engaging students.

Motivation: What motivates students?
Students who are motivated and interested in learning are more successful. CPSE has outlined the most important ways to help increase student motivation and engagement.

 9. Intrinsic motivation
Students tend to enjoy learning and to do better when they are more intrinsically rather than extrinsically motivated to achieve.

This principle is directed at how instructors can increase intrinsic motivation through classroom practices and activities that support the fundamental need of students to feel autonomous. It is important to note that not everything of importance is intrinsically motivating to all students and that there is a place for extrinsic motivation in education. During the unit on motivation, when intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are typically discussed, students can examine their personal motivations and how they influence their success. Lastly, students can examine the research related to the overjustification effect, also discussed in this principle.

For more information about motivation and the over-justification effect and how they impact student performance, see the TED talk by psychologist Dan Pink.

10. Mastery goals
Students persist in the face of challenging tasks and process information more deeply when they adopt mastery goals rather than performance goals.

Students who form mastery goals are focused on attaining new skills or increasing existing ability, but students who develop performance goals typically are focused simply on showing adequate ability. When students set performance goals, they have a tendency to avoid tasks that might expose weaknesses and end up missing opportunities that would foster the development of new skills. Those with mastery goals are more likely to be motivated to learn new skills and achieve higher levels of competence. Principle 10 provides specific methods for organizing instruction that can be used to help students choose mastery over performance goals although under certain circumstances such as competitions, performance goals may be more appropriate.

11. Teacher expectations
Teachers’ expectations about their students affect students’ opportunities to learn, their motivation and their learning outcomes.

The beliefs that teachers have about their students affect students’ opportunities to learn, their motivation and their learning outcomes. Psychological research has uncovered ways for teachers to communicate high expectations for all students and avoid creating negative self-fulfilling prophecies. When discussing self-fulfilling prophecies and the Rosenthal and Jacobson study during the social psychology unit, Principle 11 can be used by teachers to show students how they can prevent negative self-fulfilling prophecies.

12. Goal setting
Setting goals that are short term (proximal), specific and moderately challenging enhances motivation more than establishing goals that are long term (distal), general and overly challenging.

This principle explains how students can use short-term (proximal), specific and moderately challenging goals to increase self-efficacy and build toward larger goals. Students should maintain a record of progress toward their goals which is monitored by both the student and the instructor. After students experience success with moderately challenging proximal goals, they will be more likely to become intermediate risk takers, which is one of the most significant attributes present in achievement-oriented individuals. As a result, they will be capable of achieving larger distal goals. Tips based on this principle can easily be used to create engaging class assignments for the motivation unit in the introduction to psychology curriculum.

Social and emotional dimensions: Why are social context, interpersonal relationships and emotional well-being important to student learning?
These principles reflect the importance of relationships, culture, community and well-being on learning. They focus on how instructors can help students by fostering healthy relationships with them and an interest in their lives outside the classroom.

13. Social contexts
Learning is situated within multiple social contexts.

Principle 13 emphasizes how the various communities students belong to (e.g. families, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods) and their culture (e.g. shared language, beliefs, values and behavioral norms) influence learning. This principle is related specifically to many concepts from social psychology (e.g., norms, attribution theory, individualistic versus collectivist cultures) and provides suggestions for incorporating culture into every unit to increase student engagement and build stronger relationships. Introductory psychology classes can incorporate opportunities for students to engage with the larger community through service-learning projects, guest speakers and psychology clubs. TOPSS has developed a teaching module that includes background information and activities for expanding student understanding regarding culture and social contexts titled “An Introduction to Cross-Cultural Psychology .”

14. Interpersonal relationships

Interpersonal relationships and communication are critical to both the teaching-learning process and the social development of students.

This principle provides detailed and specific guidelines for improving both teacher-student and student-peer relationships in the classroom. See also the APA teaching module on improving students’ relationships with teachers for essential supports for learning based on this principle.

15. Well-being
Emotional well-being influences educational performance, learning, and development.

Various components of emotional well-being can be included across many psychology units, such as self-concept and self-esteem (social psychology), self-efficacy and locus of control (motivation and personality) and happiness and coping skills (emotion and stress). TOPSS has developed a teaching module that includes background information and activities related topositive psychology  (PDF, 164KB) and the science of improving emotional well-being.

Context and learning: How can the classroom best be managed?
The two principles related to classroom management emphasize how to develop a classroom climate that enhances learning.

16. Classroom conduct
Expectations for classroom conduct and social interaction are learned and can be taught using proven principles of behavior and effective classroom instruction.

Numerous research-based ideas are presented for both correcting inappropriate student behaviors and for establishing appropriate replacement behaviors at both the classroom and school-wide levels. See also the APA teaching module on classroom management and the APA video modules on classroom management.

17. Expectations and support
Effective classroom management is based on (a) setting and communicating high expectations, (b) consistently nurturing positive relationships, and (c) providing a high level of student support.

This principle highlights practical techniques to create a culture of high academic achievement and positive classroom behavior at both the classroom and school levels. The Top 20 document references information about restorative practices and social and emotional learning that includes a variety of specific and practical strategies for building teacher-student relationships.

Assessment: How is student progress assessed?
The three principles devoted to the process of student evaluation discuss methods for creating and implementing valid and fair assessments that contribute to student learning.

18. Formative and summative assessment
Formative and summative assessments are both important and useful, but they require different approaches and interpretations.

Formative assessments are typically used as a part of everyday practice and are given either prior to or during instruction. Such tools are designed to collect evidence regarding the progress of student learning in order to provide effective guidance. Summative assessments, on the other hand, result in an overall evaluation of student learning or program effectiveness and are typically utilized at the end of a unit or course thus having more limited impact on current instruction. Frequent use of formative assessment accompanied by immediate and specific instruction helps students achieve learning goals and assume a greater responsibility of their own learning process. The analysis of data collected through formative assessment allows the instructor to differentiate instruction and provide appropriate individualized support. See also the APA teaching module on formative assessment.

19. Assessment development
Student skill, knowledge, and ability are best measured with assessment processes grounded in psychological science with well-defined standards for quality and fairness.

Formative and summative assessments need to be evaluated for both reliability and validity. The Top 20 document provides instructors with four essential questions that can be used to evaluate the overall validity of a particular assessment for measuring student learning and tips for measuring reliability. Instructors can improve the reliability and validity of formative and summative assessments by aligning them to learning targets, utilizing item analysis, discussing the results with other educators, and monitoring outcomes for discrepancies across groups or subgroups of students. During the unit on intelligence and individual differences, it can be helpful to demonstrate to students how the exams they are taking can be evaluated for content validity by illustrating how the assessments are aligned with learning targets or the National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula.

20. Assessment evaluation
Making sense of assessment data depends on clear, appropriate and fair interpretation.

Effective teaching requires that instructors be able to accurately interpret test results and clearly communicate the results to students and parents. Students can use what they learn about testing and statistics to evaluate the various assessments given in class for reliability and validity. Discussions of descriptive statistics are more meaningful when students examine their own assessments.

Certainly there will be debate about the Top 20 principles, and many research-based educational practices are not included in the document. Although this is not an exhaustive list of educational psychological research, it does provide an important starting point for improving teaching and learning outcomes. The Top 20 principles were vetted over many years based on major documents related to the science of teaching and learning, and the purpose of the project was not to provide a comprehensive list, but a prioritized one. These principles are helpful for the instructor but can also be incorporated into the psychology curriculum as examples of how applied psychology can be used to solve real-world problems. At the same time, these principles will help students develop skills to learn more effectively in all of their classes.

Psycholinguistics / Why suggestopedia?
« on: August 05, 2021, 03:23:09 PM »
Suggestopedia is a pedagogic system of teaching, which is the combination of pedagogy, psychology and artistic approaches.

In order to understand what suggestopedia is and why it is the method which leads to the best and most long-lasting results, the main differences from traditional forms of education should be outlined.

Suggestopedia is the brainchild of Professon Georgi Lozanov, who was a physician, psychiatrist, psychotherapist, brain physiologist and pedagogue. More than 50 years ago he committed to do research on the potential capabilities of the person and their accelerated and harmonic development. 
Suggestopedic Methodology
The basis of suggestopedia is formed by the 7 laws of suggestopedia, which enable the successful acquisition of new knowledge by stimulating all senses and the intellect of the individual.
The suggested information is acquired spontaneously, joyfully and with a relaxing effect. A lot of music and classical art are incorporated in the learning process, which bring a great deal of positive experience and inspiration for learners.
Basis of suggestopedia
Suggestopedia is based on the activation and development of the potential capabilities of individuals, the so-called hidden reserves of the mind, which every person possesses.
The uncovering of these reserves leads to immensely faster and more effective learning (from 3 to 5 times faster compared with traditional methods), as well as the retaining of the acquired knowledge. This serves to answer the questions about the essence of suggestopedia and why it leads to such high results for short periods of time.
There are 7 laws, developed and experimented with by Prof. Lozanov, which are applied in suggestopedic methodology in order to reach the reserves.
Various means of joyful and wholesome communication are used in order to activate the hidden reserves. At the heart of the methodology are the active and passive concert sessions, during which the lessons are read out in a specific way with classical music in the background. Suggestopedic methodology incorporates various role plays and interactive techniques, popular songs and classical painting reproductions.
Why suggestopedia?
Both the conscious and the para-conscious perceptions are engaged during suggestopedic lessons by specifically selected emotional stimuli. Learners’ imagination is unleashed, which leads to both hemispheres of the brain working in harmony, an exceptionally important factor in the activation of long-term memory.

Suggestopedia is a natural way of teaching and learning. It is a type of communication, free, inducing love and supreme delight to the senses, which is in fact the secret to reaching the hidden reserves.

It is this that makes suggestopedia ‘a generally superior method’ according to UNESCO’s evaluation. As early as 1978 an international commission of experts arrived in Bulgaria in search for the following answers: What is suggestopedia and why does it need to be applied in various fields of learning?

Thanks for sharing  :)

Research Publications / Re: scopus publication
« on: August 04, 2021, 12:47:52 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

Speaking Skill / Re: THE ART OF SPEAKING
« on: August 04, 2021, 12:47:45 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

Writing Skill / Re: Writing notes in the class
« on: August 04, 2021, 12:47:38 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

Writing Skill / Re: Grammatical accuracy
« on: August 04, 2021, 12:47:29 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

« on: August 04, 2021, 12:47:15 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

Speaking Skill / Re: Learn English to get a Good Job
« on: August 04, 2021, 12:47:07 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

History / Re: History of Muslim'S
« on: August 04, 2021, 12:46:37 PM »
Thanks for sharing  :)

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 27