Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Topics - sumon_acce

Pages: [1] 2
Open Source Forum / History of industrialization of Bangladesh:
« on: June 18, 2012, 11:35:10 AM »
British period:

The process of industrialization and the growth of industrial capitalism in India was integrally connected with the consolidation of British colonial rule and the transformation of India from a feudal into a colonial and semi-feudal country.

Industrial capitalism emerged and developed in India in conditions basically different from those in which it had developed in the West. It arose in a dependent country, ruled by foreign power and so was unable to develop along independent lies. Colonial rules transform the Indian economy into an appendage of the metropolitan economy.

Secondly, unlike in Britain, industrial capitalism grew in this country not by beginning of 20th century Jamidars like Monindra Chandra Nandi of Kashimbazar, Brajendra Kishor Roy Chowdhury of Mymensingh, Biprodas Paul Chowdhury of Nadia, Taran Gobinda Chowdhury of Pabna and others invested in industrial enterprises.

Thus industrial capitalism did not make its appearance in this country in the course of the normal evolution of industries as it did in the countries of the West. No anti feudal, bourgeois social revolution, or technical leap has prepared the way for its emergence. On the contrary, it was transplanted from an advanced capitalist country to a dependent feudal country to cater the imperial needs of the former. This is what industries in the 19th century were and Bengal was no exception to this pattern.

Pakistan period:

After the partition of Bengal in 1947, East Pakistan inherited a small share of industries of Bengal. East Pakistan got none of 108 jute mills, 18 iron & steel mills and 16 paper mills of Bengal. Only 90 of Bengal’s 389 cotton mills, 10 of its 166 sugar mills and 3 of its 19 cement factories fell in the territory of East Pakistan. The cement factory Chattak, Sylhet had to depend on limestone supplied from Ashaam, India. The cotton mills of East Pakistan had to depend upon imported raw materials. The 1951 census revealed that East Pakistan had 63,234 unskilled non-agricultural labourers, 115,480 skilled labourers engaged in manufacturing sectors, 184,535 mining and quarry workers and 121,522 professional persons. The manufacturing sector comprising mainly of food, drink and tobacco processing units employed a total 602,875 persons (4.67% of the total labour force), of whom 433,148 were involved directly in production process and 172,727 in subsidiary activities. There were a total of 360,603 cottage enterprises which employed 949,074 persons. Of the manufacturing units only about 200 of the enterprises used power.

The industrial development policy of the Govt. of Pakistan had the manufacture of arms and ammunitions, hydroelectric power, railway wagons, telephone, telegraph and wireless reserved for the state and encouraged the private sectors to come up with industrial ventures in all other sectors. 24 industries including jute, textiles, silk and rayon were subjected to a central planning. The Govt. created the Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) and Pakistan Industrial Finance Corporation (PIFC) to promote industrialization. PIDC made significant contribution in the establishment of industrial units in sectors such as jute, paper board, cement, fertilizer, sugar, chemicals, textiles, pharmaceuticals, light engineering and ship building. The central Govt., however, followed a discriminatory policy. It favoured West Pakistan in industrial development and drained resources from East Pakistan for the purpose. It also directed most of Pakistan’s external resources to the cause of industrial development of West Pakistan. Non-Bengalis dominated the list of entrepreneurs coming up with new industries ventures in East Pakistan. Local capital hardly got opportunity to flourish. The central government had control over product pricing to such extent that products growth or manufacture in East Pakistan was sold in the local market at prices higher than in West Pakistan.

Despite all these impositions, however, some progress was made in industrialization in East Pakistan during the period between 1950-1970. The number of industrial enterprises in East Pakistan in different sector in 1970 was-

                            Enterprises                               No
•   Food manufacture………………………………………  408
•   Beverage………………………………………………....      6
•   Tobacco processing…………………………………….  26
•   Textile………………………………………………….......   792
•   Footware……………………………………………….....   204
•   Wood and cork…………………………………………     14
•   Furniture……………………………………………….....     17
•   Paper products…………………………………………     33
•   Printing and publishing ………………………………. 14
•   Chemical products……………………………………..   572
•   Petroleum & coal products…………………………….  3
•   Rubber products………………………………………..      3
•   Mineral products……………………………………….     53
•   Basic metal……………………………………………....     35
•   Metal products…………………………………………    257
•   Non-electric products………………………………….  88
•   Electrical machinery……………………………………   34
•   Transport equipment………………………………….  65
•   Miscellaneous…………………………………………...   166

Official sources of the government, however, that in 1970, there were 1580 manufacturing units in East Pakistan that employed 206,058 persons. Their gross output was valued at taka 3.636 billion and the value added amounted to taka 1.708 billion. The share of the manufacturing sector in the GDP was 8.9% in 1970 as compared 3.9% in 1950.

Bangladesh period:

The industry sector was severely damaged during the war of liberation in 1971. Replacement and rehabilitation cost estimated for the industries were estimated at taka 291 million of which taka 223 million was estimated for public sector enterprises. The public sector started in 1972 with-

o   72 jute mills with production capacity of 79,200 tons.
o   44 textile mills with production capacity of 13.4 million pounds.
o   15 sugar mills with production capacity of 169,000 tons.
o   2 fertilizer factories with production capacity of 446,000 tons.
o   1 steel mill with production capacity of 350,000 tons.
o   1 diesel engine with production capacity of 3000 barrels.
o   1 ship building yard (Khulna dock yard).

Mills and factories in the public sector, however, soon become loosing concerns largely because of mismanagement and leakage of resources. The Govt. had to quickly review its policy of dominating the public sector. Although it continued to exercise control over industries, it soon raised the allowable ceilings of private investment. However, this did not bring much improvement.
After a series of adjustment and temporary changes in state policy, the Govt. finally adapted a new industrial policy in 1982 following which 1076 state-owned enterprises were handed over to private owners. Unfortunately denationalization created a new problem of industries. They started getting sick because of failure of the inexperienced owners. Many of them were more interested in getting credit cash from selling of the cheaply acquired properly than in sustaining and developing the industries. The result was that industrial sickness affected-

o   50% of the industries in food manufacturing.
o   70% of them in textile industry.
o   100% of them in jute.
o   60% in paper and paper based industry.
o   90% in leather and rubber products.
o   50% in chemical and pharmaceuticals.
o   65% in glass and ceramics and
o   80% in engineering industries.

The largest group of industries in Bangladesh fall in the category of small and cottage industries and their number in 1984 was 932,200 units of which-

o   20.7% were in handlooms.
o   15.4% in bamboo and cane work.
o   8.1% in carpentry.
o   6.1% in product from jute and cotton yarn.
o   3.4% in pottery.
o   3.2% in blacksmith.
o   0.3% in oil crushing.
o   0.8% in bronze casting and
o   The rest in others type of crafts.

Weavers work in all most all parts in Bangladesh but the majority concentrated in the area like Norshingdi (Baburhat), Homna, Bancharampur, Bajitpur, Tangail, and Shahjadpur. However, silk has flourished in Rajshahi and Bholarhat, cigar in Cox’s bazaar, coil in Barisal, checked carpet in Rangpur, pottery and bamboo works in Comilla, mat and cane furniture in Sylhet, bronze casting in Nawabgonj.

In 1984 Bangladesh had 58 textile mills with an annual production of capacity 106.2 million pounds of yarn and 63 million meters of cloth. Textile is a public sector dominated in Bangladesh and like most other sectors textile also brings losses which amounted to taka 353.4 million in 1984. Problems of this sector include poor management as well as difficulties in developing skilled workers and storage in supply of raw materials and power.

Bangladesh had 70 jute mills with 23,700 spindles in 1984. These employed 168,000 workers and 27,000 other staff and used 545,000 tons of raw jute. But their production was less than the 561,000 tons figure in 1969, when the country had 55 jute mills with 21,500 spindles. The jute industry in the country has been declining in the face of competition from India and China and in an international situation where jute goods are being replaced by cheap and durable plastic products.

Development of new industries like Sulphuric acid, chemicals, paper, caustic soda, glass, fertilizer, ceramics, cement, steel and engineering in Bangladesh was slow in the period before 1985. There were only two plants for production of sulphuric acid in the country in 1985 with a total production of 6,000 metric ton while the production of this important ingredient for industries like soap, paper, cast iron & steel was 6,500 metric ton in 1970. Production of caustic soda in 1985 was 6,787 metric ton. This was used almost entirely in paper mills.

Because of the availability of sand, salt and limestone within Bangladesh, the country has a good prospect in developing its glass industry. Dhaka and Chittagong are the two largest centers for this industry. The only automatic glass factory that time (Usmania glass sheet factory at Kalurghat, Chittagong) produce 12.9 million square feet of sheet glass.

The fertilizer industry in the country uses natural gas as the main raw materials. The fertilizer factories produce a total of 808,660 metric ton in 1985. 741,463 metric ton was urea, 9,634 metric ton was ammonium sulphate and 57,563 metric ton was TSP. the three major factories were at Fenchugonj, Ghorashal and Ashuganj.

The total production of cement in the country in 1985 was 293,000 metric ton. The major industries were at Chattak and Chittagong.

Pakshi of Pabna, Chandraghona of Chittagong hill tracks were the main location for paper production in Bangladesh. The total production of paper in 1985 was about 75,000 metric ton. In 1985 Khulna had a news print mill with a production capacity of 55,000 metric ton and a hard board mill that produce 1,621 square meters of hard board. Around this time Bangaldesh also had some mills for production of particle boards and partex.

The country also achieved self sufficiency in producing matches. The major centers of match production were Dhaka, Khulna, Khepupara, Chittagong, Sylhet, Bogura and Rajshahi. The total production was 1.3 million gross boxes in 1985.

That year (1985) Bangladesh had 8 sugar mills with a total production of 87,000 tons. The sugar mills of Bangladesh produce only white plantation sugar. Gur is also produced which is sweater than sugar because of some impurities present in it. The sugar mill at Dorshona also produces alcohol, methylated spirit and rectified spirit besides pharmaceutical grade sugar.

The iron and steel industry in Bangladesh were mostly under the steel and engineering corporation and were concentrated in Chittagong & Dhaka with a few enterprises with Khulna, Kushtia and Bogura.

Industries marked by notable development in Bangladesh in the mid 1980’s which includes-

o   Ship building.
o   Automobile assembling.
o   Oil refinery.
o   Insulators and sanitary-wares.
o   Telephone equipments.
o   Electrical goods.
o   TV assembling.
o   Cigarettes and
o   Vegetable oil (REVO- Refined edible vegetable oil).
The country achieved a significant success in developing garments industry in this decade. The Govt. followed a strategy of plant growth with ‘free-play’ of market forces. The manufacturing sector showed some growth in the 1990’s. The share of the manufacturing sector in countries GDP grows to 11% in the 1996. Investment in the manufacturing sector was taka 57.8 billion in 1997 as compared to 22.6 billion in 1991. The share of the public sector in the total investment came down to 8.63% in 1997 compared to 37.03% in 1991.

The Govt. continues to implement a privatization programme to hand over public sector enterprises to private owners. Simultaneously the Govt. implement a programme of rehabilitation of industries identified as sick because of various reasons. Industries identified for rehabilitation under the programme in 2000 included-

o   1 cement factory (Annual production capacity 0.15 million tons).
o   1 paper mill (Annual production capacity 30,000 tons).
o   1 news print mills (Annual production capacity 52,000 tons).
o   6 cigarette factories (Annual production capacity 630 million sticks).
o   8 oil mills (Annual production capacity 934,818 tons).
o   2 food processing unit (950,000 tons).
o   2 fish processing unit (6.9 million tons).
o   2 cold storages (5.9 million pounds).
o   1 bevarage producing unit (4.3 million bottles).
o   3 chemical industry units (26,000 tons).
o   1 glass factory (97.5 million feet) and
o   12 pharmaceutical industries.

In 2000 the total employment in industry was estimated as 600,000 of which the privatization sector employed 500,000.

Industrialization efforts of Govt. during 1990’s included investment in balancing modernization and reconstruction, creation of new industrial state and export processing zones, promotion of private investment and attraction of foreign direct investment. The policy changes have been in line with trends in international market, recommendations of donor countries and agencies of liberalization of trade and investment and structural adjustment programmes.

Almost at regular interval of 4 to 6 years after 1982, the Govt. adapted new industrial policies with increased incentives for private investors from both home and abroad. These policies have some common aspects such as-

•   Incentives to promote industrialization in rural and remote areas and
•   To encourage entrepreneurs to use local raw materials

and the efforts towards development of a system that would help in development indigenous product as well as transfer of modern technology.

Science Discussion Forum / Raw materials (For loose face powder)
« on: June 15, 2012, 12:44:56 PM »
              The first and foremost ingredient to be considered in the formulation and manufacture of face powder is talc. Talc is the softest material on the Mohs scale of hardness. Chemically, it is a magnesium silicate, 3MgO.4SiO2.H2O and is the basic ingredient of face powder formulation. Its outstanding properties are easy spreadability (slip) and low covering power.

             An extensive variety of talc is available and it should be judged on the basis of slip, smoothness, fineness, grit, density, color and odor. For face powder use, talc should be white and virtually odorless with a smooth greasy feel with excellent slip properties.

             Kaolin or china clay is a generic term, which is applied to several hydrated aluminium silicates. Kaolin is naturally mined product derived from feldspar. It possesses good covering power and adhesion as well as certain grease-resistant and perspiration-absorbent properties. Kaolin helps to remove the shine of talc and has certain soothing effects on the skin.

            All aluminium silicates cannot be classified as kaolin. There are three distinct groups of clay which have essentially the same formula, Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O and may be called kaolin: nacrite, dickite, and kaolinite.

            The color of kaolin used should be as light as possible (slightly off-white to pale cream colored) and kaolin should be highly purified and free from gritty impurities and coarse particles. Since kaolin is hygroscopic, its use in face powders does not normally exceed 25%. Kaolin, like talc, is a innocuous material.

Precipitated chalk:
            In face powder formulation and manufacture, a good cosmetic grade precipitate chalk serves to preserve a certain balance between slip and adhesion, covering power and transparency.

            A grit free precipitate chalk or calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is mildly alkaline, white, odorless, microcrystalline powder and it reduces the shine of talc and has a good covering power, its helps to absorb the perfume and is also grease resistant and perspiration absorbent. It is also excellent for developing the bloom effect when face powder is applied. If this raw material is used in excess, the powder may acquire a dry feel, but moderate usage is most helpful to face powder formulas.

Magnesium carbonate:
            The valuable characteristics of magnesium carbonate make it a commonly used ingredient in face powder. MgCO3 has fine absorbent properties and has been proven satisfactorily as a means of distributing perfume. The MgCO3 used should be fine in quality and free from contamination and a moderate amount of MgCO3 is used, since use in excess may result in drying effect on the skin.

Metallic stearates:
            Among the metallic stearates, zinc and magnesium stearates are most widely used. For face powder, the stearates must be of highest quality to avoid the development of rancid, disagreeable odor.

            The most important characteristics of zinc and magnesium stearates are their adhesive and water proofing properties. Zinc stearate, the most commonly employed, also possesses a soothing quality. Used in excess stearates may create a smeared, blotchy effect on the skin. In moderate amounts (4-15%) zinc stearate contributes to the adherent qualities of a face powder.

Zinc oxide and Titanium oxide:
             Since one of the primary function of the face powder is to mask minor skin blemishes, covering power must receive careful consideration. There are two basic opacifiers employed in face powder formulas: zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Too much coverage by either may produce a mask like effect which is undesirable; too little gives a powder with insufficient body.

             Zinc oxide possesses moderate adhesive properties and is comparatively inert. Zinc oxide has certain therapeutic properties and helps to clear up minor skin disorders. When employed in face powders, it should be of high quality as white color as possible. Odorless, uniform, fine and free from grit. Excessive use of ZnO may result drying effect. To avoid any drying effect and allow sufficient coverage, a formulation may consist as much as 25% ZnO.

             Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is three to four times better as a covering agent than ZnO, but it has less adhesion and cannot be blended quite as well. For a face powder with a desired covering power a blend of this two is necessary.

             The use of rice or wheat starch was a basic face powder ingredient; its current activity is limited. The bloom and adsorbent properties of starch make it useful ingredient. As starch is decomposed by bacterial action, it is now replaced by calcium carbonate and other materials.

Silicas and Silicates:
             Silicas and silicates maintain free flowing characteristics of face powder even at high humidity. Silicates also serve as perfume carriers. Magnesium trisilicate is also used.

Frosted look materials:
             Natural pearlessence (guanine) consists of needlike, colorless, and transparent crystals which, by simultaneous reflection and transmission of incident light on their platelets, impart a pearl luster. Pearlessence exhibits extreme light-stability.

             The synthetic pigment bismuth oxychloride was developed to replace guanine. Although photosensitive, bismuth oxychloride is quite adaptable for use in frosted face powders to impart a metallic, pearl-like luster. Metallic powders (mica, aluminium, bronze) are widely used to formulate powders with sheen.

             Inorganic pigment or organic lakes or toners are used. The opacity of the oxides and transparency of the talc greatly influence the quantity of color needed. The color that used must be Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) certified grade.

            The selection of proper perfume is of extreme importance, since the odor of powder plays an important role in the sales potential of the product. The perfume that used must be non-irritating, stable to mildly alkaline condition and not undergo oxidation or volatilization easily. The fragrance must be compatible with all of the powder ingredients since problem with rancidity, heterogeneity of odor, and discoloration may results from improper odor selection.

Science Discussion Forum / Freezing processes
« on: June 10, 2012, 12:39:19 PM »
   Three types of freezing processes are:

    Immersion freezing:

The foods to be frozen are plunged directly into a very cold solution. At one time brine was employed, particularly for freezing whole fish. Alternative freezing liquids that have more recently come into use are invert sugar solutions, particularly for fruits & vegetables. A variation of immersion freezing is the indirect contact system in which the food is placed in a metal container & the container then immersed in a bath of refrigerated brine or some other freezing solution.

    Convection freezing:

This system involves the use of a blast of cold air which, when directed on the foods, quickly freezes them.
      For example: fluidized-bed freezing. Here, a blast of cold air is blown upwards through a bed of the food to be frozen & the portions of food bounce up & down in the air flow & the entire mass behaves almost as if it were a liquid.

    Cryogenic freezing:

      This method involves the exposure of food to a cooling medium at a very low temperature. Liquid nitrogen at a temperature of -195.80 C has been used successfully on a commercial scale. The principle may be used in a number of ways.
     For example: strawberries immersed in liquid nitrogen for 30 seconds can be cooled from 230C to -120C. Alternatively, the food to be frozen can be exposed to a spray of liquid nitrogen or to a blast of the very cold N2 gas. The rapid freezing by these processes can give the products good flavor.

Open Source Forum / Different Components of Technology
« on: June 10, 2012, 12:35:04 PM »
There are, in general, four components of technology, viz.

o   Object- embodied forms of technology which can be called Technoware. It includes such items as tools, equipment, machines, vehicles, physical facilities etc.
o   Person- embodied forms of technology which can be called Humanware. It refers to experiences, skills, knowledge, wisdom, creativity etc.
o   Document- embodied forms of technology which can be called Infoware. It includes all kinds of documentation pertaining to process specifications, procedures, theories, observations etc.
o   Institution- embodied forms of technology which can be called Orgaware. It includes laboratories, consulting and design firms, management structure, legal framework etc.

Science Discussion Forum / Drug abuse & Types of drug abuse
« on: June 03, 2012, 09:05:51 PM »
Drug abuse means self-administration of any drugs for non therapeutic purpose almost always for altering consciousness. In other words, it is the bad use or excessive use without the prescription of a doctor.

   Three types of drug abuse are-

1.   Physician originated.
2.   Patient originated.
3.   Adolescent originated.

Physician originated:

          This type of drug abuse may result when a doctor is reluctant about the dose and dosing frequency of psycho-active drugs or drugs with addictive potential. It is rarely common in the 1st world countries because of the control of pharmacist in drug dispensing. It contributes about 5% of the drug abuse.

Patient originated:

          This type of drug abuse is relatively uncommon in the 1st countries where pharmacist control is present. But some patients may visit several physicians to obtain a number of prescriptions for psycho-active drugs or drugs with addictive potential, i.e., barbiturates, tranquillizers, stimulants and narcotics & collect the drugs from different retail pharmacy. In some patient originated abuse, psychological compulsiveness is the main reason of taking drugs with addictive potentials.

Adolescent originated:

          Mental pressure, depression, heroism, mass media advertising, affluence are the factors more frequently reported for drug abuse by adolescent. In this drug abuse, alcoholic beverages, cigarettes, marijuana, hashish, pethidine, morphine & heroin are frequently used. In some cases experimental intake of medicine which is prescribed for the family members also cause adolescent drug abuse.

Science Discussion Forum / What does validation means?
« on: June 03, 2012, 09:03:00 PM »
Validation is an integral part of quality assurance. The term validation, in manufacturing, often scares people as a very difficult subject. Actually it is nothing much new but an organized approach for establishing GMP. In Pharmaceutical industry, the term validation and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) have become two inseparable concepts and are part of the overall concept of Quality Assurance.

                 Validation may be defined as a systematic study which helps to prove that the systems, facilities and processes perform the job adequately and consistently as specified. To be more precise, a validated operation is one which has been proved to have the potentials for the manufacture of uniform batches meeting the required specifications.

                 The term validation can be applied to the design, engineering, construction, pre-commissioning of new pharmaceutical facilities and microbiological validations.

Science Discussion Forum / Preshave preparation
« on: May 30, 2012, 01:13:24 PM »
   Preshave preparations:

The purpose of a preshave preparation is to prepare the beard and the skin of the face more completely and effectively for shaving. The product accomplishes this by such effects as-

o   Better softening of the hair.
o   Increasing the lubricity of the shaving soap lather and
o   Reducing the sensitivity of the skin to the chemical effect of shaving soap and cream.

Preshave preparations are generally of two types-

o   Skin conditioners.
o   Beard softeners.

Skin conditioners:

Vanishing cream and cold cream type’s preparations are used as preshave preparation. Multipurpose medicated skin cream is very useful as preshave preparation. This cream increase beard softening, moisturizing, skin-lubricating and skin protecting properties.

Beard softeners:

Beard softeners are used when one intends to use non-lathering or brushless shaving creams. Non-lathering or brushless shaving creams are high in lubricating action but frequently do not soften the beard rapidly or adequately. This short coming is most evident when the preparation of the face before the shave is otherwise incomplete or curtailed as to time.

Emulsification of the natural oil on the beard and suspension of the facial soil by a solution of soap or synthetic detergent, applied before the brushless cream, are highly effective in speeding up and making more complete the wetting and softening of the beard. A mild shampoo detergent with some fatty alcohol ethoxy sulphate and an octyl half-ester also can serve the purpose of beard softener.

Science Discussion Forum / Why ISO is necessary?
« on: May 28, 2012, 01:16:38 PM »
The existence of non-harmonized standards for similar technologies in different countries or regions can contribute to so-called “technical barriers to trade”. Export-minded industries have long sensed the need to agree on world standards to help rationalize the international trading process. This was the origin of the establishment of ISO.

             International standardization is well established for many technologies in such diverse fields as information processing and communications, textiles, packaging, distribution of goods, energy production and utilization, shipbuilding, banking and financial services. It will continue to grow in importance for all sectors of industrial activity for the foreseeable future.

The main reasons are-

Worldwide progress in trade liberalization:

Today’s free-market economies increasingly encourage diverse sources of supply and provide opportunities for expanding for expanding markets. On the technology side, fair competition needs to be based on identifiable, clearly defined common references that are recognized from one country to the next, and from one region to the other. An industry-wide standard, internationally recognized, developed by consensus among trading partners, serves as the language of trade.

Interpenetration of sectors:

No industry in today’s world can truly claim to be completely independent of components, products, rules of application, etc., that have been developed in other sectors. Bolts are used in aviation and for agricultural machinery; welding plays a role in mechanical and nuclear engineering, and electronic data processing has penetrated all industries. Environmentally friendly products and processes, and recyclable or biodegradable packaging are pervasive concerns.

Worldwide communications systems:

The computer industry offers a good example of technology that needs quickly and progressively to be standardized at a global level. Full compatibility among open systems fosters healthy competition among producers, and offers real options to users since it is a powerful catalyst for innovation, improved productivity and cost cutting.

Global standards for emerging technologies:

Standardization programmes in completely new fields are now being developed. Such fields include advanced materials, the environment, life sciences, urbanization and construction. In the very early stages of new technology development, applications can be imagined but functional prototypes do not exist. Here, the need for standardization is in defining terminology and accumulating databases of quantitative information.

Developing countries:

Development agencies are increasingly recognizing that a standardization infrastructure is a basic condition for the success of economic policies aimed at achieving sustainable development. Creating such an infrastructure in developing countries is essential for improving productivity, market competitiveness, and export capability.

Industry-wide standardization is a condition existing within a particular industrial sector when the large majority of products or services conform to the same standards. It results from consensus agreements reached between all economic players in that industrial sector- suppliers, users, and often governments. They agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in the choice and classification of materials, the manufacture of products, and the provision of services. The aim is to facilitate trade, exchange and technology transfer through:

   Enhanced product quality and reliability at a reasonable price.
   Improved health, safety and environmental protection, and reduction of waste.
   Greater compatibility and interoperability of goods and services.
   Simplification for improved usability.
   Reduction in the number of models, and thus reduction in costs.
   Increased distribution efficiency, and ease of maintenance.

Science Discussion Forum / How ISO standards are developed?
« on: May 28, 2012, 01:15:00 PM »
ISO standards are developed according to the following principles:

   Consensus:

              The views of all interests are taken into account: manufacturers, vendors and users, consumer groups, testing laboratories, governments, engineering professions and research organizations.

   Industry-wide:

             Global solutions of satisfy industries and customers worldwide.

   Voluntary:

             International standardization is market-driven and therefore based on voluntary involvement of all interests in the market place.

There are three main phases in the ISO standards development process:

            The need for a standard is usually expressed by an industry sector, which communicates this need to a national member body. The latter proposes the new work item to ISO as a whole. Once the need for an International Standard has been recognized and formally agreed, the first phase involves definition of the technical scope of the future standard. This phase is usually carried out in working groups, which comprise technical experts from countries interested in the subject matter.

            Once agreement has been reached on which technical aspects are to be covered in the standard, a second phase is centered during which countries negotiate the detailed specifications within the standard. This is the consensus-building phase.

            The final phase comprises the formal approval of the resulting draft International Standard (the acceptance criteria stipulate approval by two-thirds of the ISO members that have participated actively in the standards development process, and approval by 75% of all members that vote), following which the agreed text is published as an ISO International Standard.

It is now also possible to publish interim documents at different stages in the standardization process:

            Most standards require periodic revision. Several factors combine to render a standard out of date: technological evolution, new methods and materials, new quality and safety requirements. To take account of these factors, ISO has established the general rule that all ISO standards should be reviewed at internals of not more than five years. On occasion, it is necessary to revise a standard earlier.

            To date, ISO’s work has resulted in some 12,000 International Standards, representing more than 3,00,000 pages in English and French (terminology is often provided in other languages as well).

Science Discussion Forum / What is ISO?
« on: May 28, 2012, 12:53:13 PM »
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 140 countries, one from each country.

              ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity.

              ISO’s work results in international agreements, which are published as International Standards.
Many people will have noticed a seeming lack of correspondence between the official title when used in the full form, International Organization for Standardization, and the short form, ISO. Shouldn’t the acronym be “IOS”? Yes, if it were an acronym-, which it is not.

              In fact, “ISO” is a word, derived from the Greek isos, meaning “equal”, which is the root of the prefix “iso-” that occurs in a host of terms, such as ‘isometric’ (of equal measure or dimensions) and ‘isonomy’ (equality of laws, or of people before the law).

              From “equal” to “standard”, the line of thinking that led to the choice of “ISO” as the name of the organization is easy to follow. In addition, the name ISO is used around the world to denote the organization, thus avoiding the plethora of acronyms resulting from the translation of “International Organization for Standardization” into the different national languages of members, e.g., IOS in English, OIN in French (from Organisation internationale de normalisation). Whatever the country, the short form of the Organization’s name is always ISO.

« on: May 28, 2012, 12:49:37 PM »

Deposits of peat occur at shallow depths in different low-lying areas of Bangladesh. According to Geological Survey of Bangladesh, the reserve of dry peat is about 170 million tons. The major deposits are in greater in the districts of Faridpur (150 million tons), Khulna (8 million tons). Peat requires drying before making briquettes for use as fuel. Petrobangla implemented a pilot project for extraction of peat and making briquettes but the result were discouraging and economically not viable at present. This scenario may however change in future.

In 1953, a large scale of peat was discovered at Baghia-Chanda Bil in Faridpur and at Kola-Monja in Khulna.

Uses of peat –
•   These peats can be used at dry stage.
•   In industries for combustion of brick.
•   To generate electricity in villages.
•   As fuel in huge amounts.

Lime stone:

Limestone is a very important mineral resource for Bangladesh. It is primarily used in cement industry. In Bangladesh limestone is found in Taker Ghat, Lalghat and Bangli Bazar of sylhet area, Jaypurhat and Saint-mertine of Cox’s bazaar district. The lime stone of Takerghat limestone mining project is supplied to Chattak Cement Factory.


Bangladesh has a dearth of construction materials. A large deposit of hard rock has been discovered by GSB (Geological Survey of Bangladesh) at depth 130-160 m below the surface at Maddhayapara, Dinajpur.

The Maddhayapara project is extended over a wide range of area, from Baborgonj and Mithapukur of Rangpur district to Fulbari and Parbatipur of Dinajpur district. The hardrock project will be completed from this year and it will be possible to recover 1.65 million ton hardrock every year. This hardrock will be used in construction such as road, highway, and railway track.

Construction sand:

It is very much available in the river beds through out the country. Sand consists mostly of quartz of medium to large grains. It is extensively used as construction materials for buildings, bridge, roads all over the country.


Deposits of gravel are found along the piedmont area of Himalyas in the northern boundary of Bangladesh. These river borne gravels come from the upstream duning the rainy season. A total reserve of gravel is about 10 million cubic meters.

Glass sand:

Important deposits of glass sand are at Balijuri, Shahjibajar, Chauddagram, Maddhayapara and Barabukuria. Total deposit is about 109.58 M ton. It is used in glass industry. There are two types of glass sand according to geological status.

1.   Recent piedmont alluvium in eastern zone.
2.   Underground glass sand in the northern zone.

White clay: 

Lower quality of white clay is found in Netrokona, Sherpur and Chittagong. It is used in ceramic industry.

Beach sand:

This may be a potential source in the future. Deposits of beach sand have been identified in the coastal belt and in the coastal island in Bangladesh.

Black gold:

Black gold is a very valuable mineral resource. Among it, the main are zircon, monazite, riotile etc. It is discovered in Cox’s bazaar sea beach.

« on: May 24, 2012, 11:01:44 AM »
There is a saying “few have died for lack of love; many have died for lack of water”. Water, indeed, is life.

One of Bangladesh principal resources is its water which forms the basis for its transportation system and holds the key to agricultural development. The economic growth and development of Bangladesh has been all highly influenced by water and its regional and seasonal availability and the quality of surface and ground water.

Bangladesh is a riverine country having more than 230 rivers of 11739 km length. For hydrological purposes, the country is divided into six regions – North West, north central, north east, south west, south east and eastern hilly. All the regions are bounded by the major rivers like the Jamuna, the Padma, the Meghna, the old Brahmaputra, etc. all converge empty into the Bay of Bengal. The volume of water is huge. The rivers are estimated to discharge 5.0 million cubic feet water per second at peak period. The contrast between high and low runoff is dramatic. During the lowest month the total runoff is only about 20000 cubic feet per second.

The overall force and movement of water are significant. The sediment carried downstream by the river system has been estimated as 2.4 billion tones annually. Significant amount of lands are eroded by the water movement especially along unprotected river banks. The flooding bring enough slit and makes the soul fertile. The flooding deposits new soils and the ponds of the water left by the flooding can facilitate chemical reactions to produce a nitrogen fixing process in the soils where asequate green algae is present.

Both irrigation and manuring are done by these rivers. Irrigation potential is good. The largest use of water is made for irrigation. Pumping directly from the river provides immediate opportunity due to the ease of access to the water and the low lift requirement to raise water to the land. Additionally, the geological structure produces excellent supplies of underground water which ate readily available for irrigation at less than twenty feet. In general, all areas are suitable for shallow tube well irrigation except for the coastal belt bordering the Bay of Bengal, the Madhupur area, north west of Dhaka, the Barinda area in north Bengal and the entire Sylhet and Chittagong hill tracts region where deep tube wells generally must be used. The supply of ground water has not yet been accurately determined but most estimates indicate that sufficient amounts are available to meet the most projected irrigation demands, although deficiencies could arise during the dry season.

About 69% of the area are irrigated by ground water and rest 31% from surface water. Besides agriculture, some other uses are for domestic and municipal water supply, industry, navigational purpose etc. In addition, water is of fundamental importance for ecology and the wider environment.
Our rivers are also source of energy. Those that have a strong current can produce electricity. The Karnafuli hydroelectric project is an instance of this. We can use the rivers especially the swift flowing ones in the north east region to produce more electricity.

Additionally, the vast water resources provide salt and fresh water habitat for the production and harvest of a wide variety of sea products. Various types of fishes and shrimps are important food sources for both local consumption and for export. About 63% of the total protein need has been satisfied by fishes and contribution to foreign currency income is 5.7%. A significant portion of population of Bangladesh earns a living from fishing and from services associated with water transportation, which is an essential element of the nation’s economy.

The future of the water resources from the river system is in doubt because of a long standing dispute with India over rights. All of the rivers found in Bangladesh initially pass through India and used by Indian farmers. The construction of a barge or a diversion dam on the Ganga (Padma) at Farakka in 1974 to divert greater amount for use in India has created great concern in Bangladesh. The dispute has had adverse consequences for Bangladesh in its attempts to develop flood control and produce electricity involving these waters. Several important projects have been delayed or withdrawn due to the uncertainties of water availability resulting from the diversion dam.

The impacts are-

•   Flow of upstream water is decreasing and ground water level is going down particularly in the dry season and at the same time saline water is introducing to the inland area. Sometimes abundance of water in monsoon causes flood and natural disasters.
•   Water quality in the coastal area is degraded by the intrusion of saline water that has occurred due to lean flow in the dry season.
•   Physical construction changed or damaged the local ecosystem and hydrological features resulting in irreparable damages to fisheries resources.

The increasing urbanization and industrialization of Bangladesh have negative implications for water quality. Pollution level has reached alarming level, marine and aquatic ecosystem is affected and the chemicals that enter the food chain have public health implications. Indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, discharge of pollutants into water bodies is highly responsible for the destruction of aquatic life.
So, responsible authority should take proper step to survive our water resources.

Science Discussion Forum / Why apply cGMP
« on: May 24, 2012, 11:00:09 AM »
   Why apply cGMP:

   It assures the quality of the product consistently.
   It is recognized by regulatory & helps in drug registration.
   To obtain facility approval.
   To obtain production manufacturing license.
   To achieve business objective.
   To reduce product failure to zero.
   To make process efficient & reproducible.
   Future performance should be predictable.
   Amount of recall and complaints should decrease.
   The equipment should be well maintained to operate consistently within process specification.

Science Discussion Forum / Components of cGMP
« on: May 24, 2012, 10:58:46 AM »
The components of cGMP are as the following-

1.   Quality management in the drug industry.
2.   Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products.
3.   Quality control.
4.   Sanitation and Hygiene.
5.   Validation.
6.   Complaints.
7.   Self-inspection and Quality audit.
8.   Personnel.
9.   Premises.
10.   Equipment.
11.   Materials.
12.   Documentation.

Quality management in the drug industry:

            Quality management is defined as the overall intentions and directions of an organization regarding quality regarding quality as formally expressed and authorized by the top management. The basic elements of quality management are an appropriate infrastructure or quality system. The concepts of quality assurance, cGMP and Quality control are inter related aspects of quality management.

Good manufacturing practices for pharmaceutical products:

            Good manufacturing practice is that part of quality assurance, which ensures that the products are consistently produced and controlled to the quality standards. Good manufacturing practice directly diminishes the risks inherent in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be prevented completely through testing of final products. Such risks are essentially of two types, viz.: cross contamination and mix ups caused by false labels being put on containers.


             Validation studies are an essential part of cGMP and should be conducted in accordance with the predefined products. Critical processes should be validated prospectively and retrospectively.

Sanitation and Hygiene:

            A high level of sanitation and hygiene should be practiced in every aspect of the manufacture of drug products. The scope of sanitation and hygiene covers personnel, premises, equipment, apparatus, production materials and containers. Potential source of contamination should be eliminated through an integrated comprehensive programme of sanitation and hygiene.

Quality control:

            Quality control is that part GMP concerned with sampling, specifications, testing and with organization, documentation and release procedure, which ensure that the relevant and necessary tests are released for sale or supply until their quality, has been judged to be satisfactory. The quality control department should be independent of other departments. The basic requirements for quality control should be adequate facilities, trained personnel and approved procedure should be available for sampling, inspecting and testing starting materials, packaging materials, intermediate bulk and finished products. Test method must be validated. Record must be made demonstrating that all the required sampling, inspecting and testing procedures have actually been carried out and deviations have been fully recorded and investigated. Sufficient samples of starting materials and products must be retained to permit future examination of the product if necessary; the retained sample must be kept in its pack.


            All complaints and other information concerning potentially defective products must be carefully reviewed according to written procedures. Any complaint concerning a product defect should be recorded with all the original details and thoroughly investigated reports. The person responsible for quality control should normally be involved in the study of such problems.

Self-inspection and Quality audits:

            The purpose of self-inspection is to evaluate the manufacturer’s compliance with GMP in all aspects of production and quality control. Self-inspection should be performed routinely. The procedure for self-inspection should be documented and there should be an effective programme. A quality audit is usually conducted by outside or independent specialists or a team designated by the management for this purpose.


           The manufacturer should have an adequate number of personnel with the necessary qualifications and practical experiences. All personnel should be aware of the principles GMP. All the personnel should be motivated to support the establishment and maintenance of high quality standards. Key personnel include the head of production, the head of quality control, and the head of sales distribution. Their study should include the study of an appropriate combination of a) Chemistry-analytical, organic or bio-chemistry; b) Chemical engineering; c) Microbiology; d) Pharmaceutical sciences and technology; e) Pharmacology and technology; f) Physiology or g) Other related sciences. They should have adequate practical experiences in the manufacture and quality assurance of pharmaceutical products.


           Starting materials should be purchased only from suppliers named in relevant specification and where possible directly from the producer. All incoming materials should be checked to ensure that the consignment corresponds to order. All materials and products should be stored under appropriate condition, temperature, light and segregation and guarantee as and when required.

            Premises must be located, designed, constructed, adapted and maintained to suit the operations to be carried out. Their lay out and design must aim to minimize the risk of error and permit effective cleaning maintenance in order to avoid cross contamination, build up of dust or dirt, and in general any adverse effect on the quality of products. Electrical supply, lighting, temperature, humidity and ventilation should be appropriate and as such they do not adverse effect directly or indirectly the pharmaceutical products during manufacture or storage or the accurate of the functioning of equipment. Premises should be designed and equipped so as to afford maximum protection against entry of insects or other animals.


             Equipment must be located, designed, constructed, adapted and maintained to suit the operations to be carried out. The lay out and design of equipment must aim to minimize the risk of error and permit effective cleaning and maintains.


             Good documentation is an essential part of the QA system as such related to all aspects of GMP. Its aim is to define the specifications for all materials and methods of manufacture and control. Documentation ensures that the authorized person have all the information necessary to decide to release a batch of drug or sale. Documentation should be regularly reviewed and kept up to date.

Science Discussion Forum / GMP & Its Importance
« on: May 22, 2012, 01:41:39 PM »
   GMP:

                 GMP or Good Manufacturing Practice is a term that is recognized worldwide for the control and management of manufacturing and quality control testing of foods and pharmaceutical products.

                 GMP is that part of quality assurance which ensures that products are consistently manufactured and controlled to the quality standards appropriate to their intended use. It is thus concerned with both manufacturing and quality control procedure.

                 GMP regulations address issues including record keeping, personnel qualifications, sanitation, cleanliness, equipment verification, process validation and complaint handling. GMP is a good business tool which will help to refine both compliance and performance of a company.

                 GMP is the regulations promulgated by the US Food and Drug Administration under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. These regulations, which have the force of law, require that manufacturers, processors, and packagers of drugs, medical devices, some food, and blood take proactive steps to ensure that their products are safe, pure, and effective.

   Importance of GMP:

               GMP is the only key factor for successful manufacturing plant can lead the proper fulfillment of both inventors & consumers GMP ensures-

   Purity of raw materials.
   Consistency of supply & preservation.
   Proper & skilled manpower for all the respective section.
   Recent technology & product design.
   Update instrumentation.
   Required quality, supply & marketing.
   Product recall & proper counter actions.
   Proper waste management.

Pages: [1] 2