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Topics - Md. Saiful Hoque

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As the world is now keener on natural fibres and eco-friendly products, a French company is thinking of setting up a joint venture in Bangladesh for making jute-based car interior components.

"Bangladesh is the best place to buy jute. But you have to ensure quality jute," said Karim Behlouli, chief executive officer of NatUp Fibres, a leading French company based in Normandy.

Talking to journalists visiting from Bangladesh in his office at Yvetot in Normandy last month, he said Bangladesh has a huge potential to become one of the major suppliers of jute to the global car industry.

If the natural fibre is used in cars, it reduces the vehicle's weight and improves fuel efficiency.

NatUp Fibres is one of the major suppliers of car components. It makes dashboards, door panels, parcel shelves, wheel arches, headliners, spare wheel covers, and backs of seats using natural fibres like flax (linen), hemp, kenaf (mesta), and jute.
The company also makes fibres and linen threads for the clothing, furnishing, transport, filtration, sports, and leisure industries and for domestic use.

Karim said his company buys around 1,400 tonnes of jute from Bangladesh every year.

"We are investing more to add value to jute. Although we usually use flax to make the interiors of vehicles, flax is expensive than jute," he said.

The price of flax is €1.1 per kilo whereas a kilo of jute costs €1, he added.

Touted as the "golden fibre" of Bangladesh, jute is one of the cheapest and the strongest natural fibres and considered as the fibre of the future, industry insiders said.

The lightweight fibre is increasingly making its way into composite makers for use in cars. In recent years, major global automakers have started using jute-based composites.

The car makers used to use fibreglass to make interiors before. But fibreglass is not recyclable or biodegradable, so in the mid 90's the search for a green alternative began. Jute emerged as the frontrunner.

Bangladesh started supplying jute to high-end car makers like BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and VW in the early 2000s, according to Bangladeshi jute exporters.

The global car industry needs approximately 80,000 to 100,000 tonnes of natural fibres a year, of which 10,000 to 12,000 tonnes of jute are supplied by Bangladesh, said Mushtaq Hussain, managing director of Golden Fibres Trade Centre, a leading jute exporter.

When asked about the French company's interest in joint venture, he said, "It would be a good initiative … It would add more value to jute."

Mushtaq, also a member of Bangladesh Jute Goods Exporters Association, said if any foreign company makes jute fibre-based components here in Bangladesh instead of buying raw jute, it would help generate more revenue.

However, Karim said, "If things go well, we may go for a joint venture in Bangladesh. But it is still at the planning stage."

There are many opportunities to transform jute fibre into diverse export products and expand its market globally. "The future of jute is very good. We need more innovations here," Karim said.

Jute industry was once the lifeblood of the country's economy but it lost the glory days since the 80's. By the late 2000s, production reached around 9.9 lakh tonnes.

Recently there has been some hope. In 2017-18 fiscal year, jute production was about 19.6 lakh tonnes from 7.58 lakh hectares.

The top executive of NatUp Fibres thinks this is high time for the country to tap into the potential of jute.

He suggested reorganising the sector and investing more on production.

The growers were not getting the benefits due to middlemen at different layers. "They [the farmers] are poor and work very hard... We need to empower the farmers," he said.

Source: Daily Star.

RMGExport / Port sharing with India to bring woes to apparel exporters
« on: December 13, 2018, 10:40:50 AM »
Bangladesh government’s decision to share seaports with India likely to bring woes to the apparel exporters as the capacity is still inadequate to handle the current export-import business of the country, business people apprehended. However, they think it would create more congestion at the port.

Source: Textile Today

RMGExport / Bangladesh’s RMG exports jump 20% in July-October of 2018
« on: November 13, 2018, 12:33:28 PM »
In July-October period of the current fiscal year, export earnings from the readymade garment sector sent up by 20.08% to $11.33 billion, which was $9.43 billion in the same period last year, according to Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) data released today.
Of the total amount, Knitwear products fetched $5.88 billion, which is 17.83% higher than the $4.98 billion in the same period a year ago. Woven products earned $5.45 billion, up by 22.61%, compared to $4.45 billion a year ago.

Source: Textile Today and Newspaper

Bangladesh government has reduced corporate tax from 15% to 12% and also brought down the tax at source on export items, except jute goods, from 0.7% to 0.6% for the current fiscal year for garments sector, the $30 billion industry and lifeline of the economy.

RMGExport / The tariff battle and Bangladesh apparel industry
« on: August 08, 2018, 12:53:31 PM »
Today, we are living in a global economy. A fair trade between the countries must serve the best interest of everybody. John Divine, Senior Investing Officer at US News and World Report describes the US economy in the light of tariff war ‘as Pandora is out of its box’.
Apparel industry will take a big hit in the light of US’s $200 billion in tariffs on China. Due to globalization, no country has the internal capability to match global efficiency for the production of goods and services.

Therefore, when we can avail ourselves of the global efficiency then it is comfortable for the people of a country to get something easily at a low cost. For example, due to the cheap labor cost in Bangladesh, a T-shirt is much cheaper in Europe than a burger. For the same reason, hi-tech telecom and internet services can cheaply be provided to the people of Bangladesh in a free trade economy. With an added tariff on Chinese goods and when it comes to apparel, the landed price for China-made goods will be higher compared to others. In that area, the next countries can compete to take as much as from those are lost by China.

Therefore, it is not difficult to understand with such a tariff on Chinese apparel the export and price of Bangladesh apparel are expected to increase.

At the same time, when Chinese garment factories will lose business then Chinese textile mills have surplus raw materials such as yarn, fabrics that will be sold in Bangladesh at a more competitive price as a result of competition among Chinese mills.

Therefore, there is a slight chance that the woven fabric mills and denim mills in Bangladesh may face a little more competition but with the transfer of fast fashion category, they may assume to be stronger.

If Chinese producers making for the US are hurt they will aggressively seek for new markets in Europe, Latin America, Australia, Far East Asia, etc. where suppliers from Bangladesh will experience a little more difficult.

Now question is that in the event of growing landing cost of the Chinese made apparel- will Bangladesh be able to catch those orders rebounded from China.

With no preparation Bangladesh would most likely start to daydream, however, substantially will not be able to get any benefit from there. Just look at the US business at present in Bangladesh. Walmart, Sears, JC Penny, GAP, Levi’s, Phillips Van Heussen, etc. all these businesses are being controlled from the business hub in India. Therefore, Indians are getting most of the benefits out of these US retailers.

Apart from these most of the US importers want to buy in a LDP (Landed Duty Paid). Bangladeshi exporters do not want to accept this payment system. It is true that they can go for secured payment under LC and shipping term FOB. But if we do not try to be competitive by accommodating customer’s term then we slowly lose the US market which consumes two-third of the world economy.

Bangladesh government and BGMEA must start negotiating with the US to qualify for FTA (Free Trade Agreement) and start preparing financial package so that our manufacturers can work under LDP/ Cash on Delivery as secured as FOB/ LC at sight.

Otherwise, there will still be an influx of US orders being controlled by Chinese and India importers. Those orders will have no price because most of the margins will be taken away by importers in their pocket.

Source: Textile Today.


    1.Strong government support to the entrepreneurs– it has been seen distinctively in recent times that the government is extending all sort of necessary supports to the industry owners. Some of those supports could be mentioned as a tax cut, continuing incentives, depreciating taka against USD, more and more apparel businessmen in the government etc.
    2.Huge private sector investments: despite turmoil in the banking sector, it has been seen that unprecedented amount of investment went to the textile and apparel sector of Bangladesh. Most of the renowned apparel makers are increasing their capacities very rapidly.
    3.Getting more close to the growth markets: A trend has been visible in recent times that, Bangladeshi manufacturers once getting bigger they have achieved the capacity to invest in their own marketing and so they are going closer to the markets and bringing more orders to them.
    4.Safety reputation: Because of the strong intervention of Accord and Alliance, Bangladesh has achieved a strong reputation on workers’ safety. Now the country is one of the safest apparel making countries in the world.
    5.Huge capacity, easier control on the supply chain: Bangladeshi companies have built unbelievable vertical capacity which is unique to China. Brands those who want to make their supply chain more transparent, they are shifting more orders to Bangladesh as if controlling the supply chain is easier here.
    6.A huge crowd of global brands: Any global retail brand selling apparel now considers Bangladesh if they want to open second overseas sourcing office after China. In Bangladesh, they get experts and suppliers to run their operations.
    7.Technology adoption, qualitative transformation: The country in recent times has adopted most sophisticated technologies for textile and apparel manufacturing. The achievement rate of quality and technical compliance is very high in Bangladesh.
    8.Power & gas supply is getting better: Even though the cost is increasing, the government now in the position to make the sure uninterrupted supply of power and gas to the industries.
    9.Human capital transformation: It is not only a slogan now. Even though the quality of education is still a question, but the country is producing a huge number of graduates every year in the area of textile and apparel. Such big influx of educated and trained youth is making the sector capable of taking any challenge forward. There has been a strong growth in professional level training as well.
    10.Green branding: Being the host of top 7 USBC LEED-certified green factories; Bangladesh has done a revolution in green investment in the garment This is the time for Bangladesh to capitalize on ‘Green’ branding by attracting the attention of global consumers and the brands.

Source: Textile Today

Apparel exports grew 9.37 percent year-on-year to $25.30 billion in the first 10 months of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2017-2018. Knitwear exports rose 11.43 percent to $12.54 billion and woven garments exports were up 7.42 percent to $12.76 billion.

According to the data from the Export Promotion Bureau (EPB), overall, exports increased 6.41 percent year-on-year to $30.40 billion in the July-April period. The earnings slightly missed the periodic target of $30.49 billion.

Exports rose 7.11 percent year-on-year to $2.95 billion in April riding on the higher shipment of garment items. Although the receipt is 0.51 percent higher than the monthly target of $2.94 billion, it was the lowest in six months.

The president of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) Siddiqur Rahman stated, “We will be able to achieve more than 10 percent garment export growth at the end of the fiscal year as the trend in the international market shows very bright prospects.”

“At the end of the current fiscal year, we will be able to surpass the garment export of $30 billion for the first time,” he added.

According to the report of EPB for FY 2017-18 July-April, Cotton, cotton products, and yarn exports went up by 19.01 percent to $108.22 million, jute and jute goods increased 7.66 percent to $889.74 million, home textile exports rose 13.07 percent to $751.67 million, leather and leather goods sector down 10.02 percent to $916.74 million.

Source: Textile Today

Day by day the consumptions of technical textile are increasing and it is going to make Asia-Pacific the world’s largest market for technical textiles by the period, 2017-2027. It is seen that the global technical textile market is likely to be worth of US$260.3 billion by the end of 2027 considering a growth at a CAGR of 4.7%.

The technical textiles available in the global market are indutech, mobiltech, oekotech, protech, geotech, agrotech, packtech, clothtech, hometech, buildtech, meditech, and sporttech. The meditech segment is projected to soar in the coming years because of its application in the areas of patient clothing and surgical equipment. It is expected likely to be worth US$20 billion by the end of 2027 as compared to US$12 billion in 2016. Between the period of 2017 and 2027 this segment is projected to show a rise of 4.9% CAGR.

The demand for geotextiles is also increasing being used in civil engineering, geotechnical & environmental design. Towards the end of the forecast period, the geotextiles segment is estimated to value US$7 billion. On the contrary, rise in the civil engineering activities is also expected to promote the uptake of this material in the near future.

Source: Textile Today

Bangladeshi apparel exports to non-traditional markets are increasing day by day. Bangladesh has huge potential in the non-traditional markets. Russia, a non-traditional export destination for Bangladeshi garments, has a market of $52 billion in garments sector and recently Bangladesh has begun its zeal to take part in the market. As part of this, a fair will be held in Moscow from May 21-23 this year.

Bangladeshi garments and jute sector entrepreneurs will participate in the fair. Organization of owners and entrepreneurs of ready-made garment sector BGMEA, jute entrepreneur, BJMC and Jute Diversification Promotion Center (JPDC) will participate in the fair.

According to the Ministry of Textiles and Jute, the fair will be held at the Radisson Slavianskaya Hotel and business centre in Moscow. The Bangladesh Export Promotion Bureau and the Bangladesh Embassy of Moscow will organize the fair, which cost is around 10 million taka. The Export Promotion Bureau is carrying out its entirety.
State Minister of Textiles and Jute Mirza Azam said, “At present, Russia is a big market for jute and Readymade Garments. In the past, no initiative has been taken from Bangladesh to make this market place. We hope that through this fair, the people of Russia will be able to know about Bangladesh’s clothing and textiles.”

“And if you can catch the Russian market, it will be easy for Bangladesh to enter the market of other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent State (Commonwealth of Independent State),” he added.

According to the Ministry sources, the garments, jute and leather goods fair will be held in Tokyo, Japan right after the fair of Russia.

Parliamentary Committee on Textile and Jute Ministry’s Saber Hossain Chowdhury, Member of the Committee Munnujan Sufian and Secretary of the Ministry Faizur Rahman Chowdhury are going to Russia on 19 May. Besides, BGMEA, BJMC and JPDC officials are also going to take part in the fair.
Source: Textile Today

Recently Canadian government has expressed its interest to import textile products from Bangladesh, which enjoys duty-free access to Canadian markets. The interest was proclaimed at the 4th Showcase Canada 2018 (Trade and Education Fair) held from 6-7 May 2018 at the International Convention City, Bashundhara, Dhaka.
Commerce Minister Tofail Ahmed said, “If the present trade facilities offered by the Canadian government remain unchanged, Bangladesh’s exports to Canada will reach $3 billion by 2021.”

“In enlarging trade volume in the Canadian market, we are planning to showcase our products especially leather and diversified jute products as there is a huge opportunity for growth,” he added.

“Last year Bangladesh’s exports to Canada were worth $1.1 billion, while imports from Canada were worth $600 million,” said Tofail Ahmed.

High Commissioner of Canada to Bangladesh Benoit Préfontaine said, “Canada is going to be a key garment export destination for Bangladesh in achieving the $50 billion overseas sales target by the end of 2021’’.
Keith O’Brien, First Secretary Immigration Refugees and Citizenship Canada, High Commission of Canada in Singapore said, “Sustainable economic growth, health, and education are the three areas Canada’s government wants to work on in Bangladesh. Besides, we are also working with the government of Bangladesh to strengthen garment worker safety in the country. Canada wants to expand in the services sector in Bangladesh, such as aircraft safety.”
Source: Textile Today

 1. About the Digital Textile Printing (DTP)
The advantage of digital printing and coloring of textures, yarns, and garment includes a piece of a couple of decades, a dynamic present and likely a brilliant future. This presentation represents the birthplaces and advancement of material printing to computerized arrangements. It distinguishes a portion of the numerous makers and pioneers of these innovations and surveys their effect on the printing industry. It talks about a couple of the false begins that added to supported accomplishments of computerized printing innovations for material embellishment. It utilizes the presentations that have seen the presentation of inventive advances for material printing as street denotes that demonstrate patterns and indicate the way computerized material printing's brilliant future.

In the near future, customer-oriented mass customization will become one of the most important trends in many manufacturing industries. DTP (Digital Textile Printing) is appropriate for mass customization in the article of clothing the business. In any case, DTP isn't so appropriate for large-scale manufacturing in light of low profitability and generally high cost contrasted with customary printing forms. For commercial textile products, good strength and fastness of color are necessary. Therefore, most studies on DTP focused on the pre-and post-processing of fabric, as well as modification of additives to increase color strength and fastness, used cotton fabric and reactive dye ink to determine the optimum printing condition for each color. Challenge in, to find the optimum steaming condition including process time and temperature for reactive dyes.
Inkjet technologies

Inkjet technologies are typically classified into two large classes: Continuous Ink Jet (CIJ) and Drop-on-Demand Ink Jet (DOD). In CIJ, ink is squirted through spouts at a steady speed by applying a consistent weight. The stream of ink is normally shaky and separates into beads soon after leaving the spout. The drops are left to go to the medium or diverted to a drain for distribution relying upon the picture being printed. The redirection is generally accomplished by electrically charging the drops and applying an electric field to control the direction. The name continuous' starts in the way that drops are shot out consistently.

In DOD ink stream, drops are shot out just when expected to frame the picture. The two principles drop ejector components used to produce drops are piezoelectric ink fly (PIJ) and warm ink fly (TIJ). In PIJ, the volume of an ink chamber inside the spout is immediately decreased by methods for a piezoelectric actuator, which crushes the ink bead out of the spout. In TIJ, an electrical warmer situated inside every spout is utilized to raise the temperature of the ink to the point of air pocket nucleation. The unstable development of the vapor bubble pushes the ink outside the spout.

Also Read: Digital Textile Printing Process
2. Classification of Inkjet technologies
There are mainly 2 types of inkjet technologies.

    CIJ (Continuous ink jet)
    DOD (Drop on demand).

Classification of Ink Jet Technology
2.1 Continuous inkjet
In CIJ the jet of ink generated by each nozzle breaks up into droplets shortly after exiting the nozzle. Without any other intervention, the breakup would occur randomly and would result in droplets of variable sizes. This is usually corrected by providing a periodic excitation

to the nozzle in the time domain that translates into a spatial perturbation in the jet of fluid. The combination of the jet velocity and frequency of the excitation determines the droplet size, which can be controlled to very high accuracy. In the traditional CIJ approach, a piezoelectric transducer is coupled to the print head to provide the periodic excitation. The oscillations are therefore mechanical in nature. After leaving the nozzle, the drops are electrically charged by an amount that depends on the image to be printed. The drops then pass through an electric field to cause them to deflect. There are two ways of deflecting the drops in piezoelectric-driven CIJ. In the binary deflection method, the droplets are directed either to a single pixel location in the medium or to the recirculating gutter. In the multiple-deflection method, the deflection is variable so the drops can address several pixels.

In CIJ, ink is squirted through nozzles at a constant speed by applying a constant pressure. The jet of ink is unstable and breaks into droplets as it leaves the nozzle the drops are left to go to the medium or deflected to a gutter for recirculation depending on the image being printed. The deflection is usually achieved by electrically charging the drops and applying an electric field to control the trajectory. The name `continuous' originates in the fact that drops are ejected at all times. (E MARIANO FREIRE, 2006)

2.2 Drop on demand technology
In DOD ink jet, drops are ejected only when needed to form the image. The two main drop ejector mechanisms used to generate drops are piezoelectric ink jet (PIJ) and thermal ink jet(TIJ).

In PIJ, the volume of an ink chamber inside the nozzle is quickly reduced by means of a piezoelectric actuator, which squeezes the ink droplet out of the nozzle. In TIJ, an electrical heater located inside each nozzle is used to raise the temperature of the ink to the point of bubble nucleation. The explosive expansion of the vapor bubble propels the ink outside the nozzle. (E MARIANO FREIRE, 2006)

Drop on demand
3. Digital Textile Printing Method
The digital textile printing method

    Direct to Fabric (DTF)
    Direct to Garment (DTG)

3.1 Direct to Fabric (DTF)
In Direct to Fabric (DTF), the printing is performed directly on a roll of fabric. Depending on the type of fabric various inks are used, which include:

    Pigment ink is used for cotton fabrics
    Acid dyes work primarily with nylon and silks
    Reactive dyes provide best results on cotton and other viscose materials, and
    Disperse dyes (sublimation) are almost exclusively used with polyester. DTF digital textile printer enables printing on cotton, silk, polyester and rayon using reactive ink, acid ink and disperse ink.

Source: Clothing, Sports Wear, Home Textile, Soft Signage. (

3.2 Direct to Garment (DTG)
Direct to garment printer by EPSON
DTG printing is a process of printing on textiles and garments using specialized or modified inkjet technology. Direct to Garment (DTG) print making the best use of the newest in print technology with smaller droplet sizes, more precise placement and ever clearer images printing onto light and dark t-shirts.

The following applications under DTG covered:


4. Pre-treatments for ink-jet printing on cotton & cellulosic fiber

Pretreatment with stentering machine
Cotton, viscose rayon and lyocell fabrics are normally jet printed with reactive dyes by the two-phase method, i.e. the fabric is pre-treated with thickener and alkali, while the ink contains the dye. The pre-treatment liquor is normally applied with the aid of a pad mangle, though it could be screen printed. In either case the fabric must be dried to about 5±7% moisture content before printing. The main constituents of the aqueous liquor are usually thickener, alkali and urea.

4.1 Pre-treatment for reactive dyes (MCT type) on cotton

    100 g/L Medium viscosity sodium alginate, e.g. 6% Lamitex M5
    100 g/L Urea
    20±30 g/L Sodium carbonate
    Pad (approx.75% pick-up) ± Dry at120°C or below*
    For viscose rayon increase urea to 200 g/L and add10 g/L Lyoprint RG (Ciba)
    The reason for the low drying temperature is that urea is unstable at higher temperatures and these cause high levels of fumes at the stenter exit.

4.2 Pre-treatment for silk prior to reactive ink-jet printing

    10 g/L Lyoprint RG (Ciba)
    100 g/L Alginate medium viscosity, e.g. 6% Lamitex M5
    100 g/L Urea
    30 g/L Sodium bicarbonate
    Pad (approx.75% pick-up) ± dry at low temperature,100±120°C.

4.3 Pre-treatment for wool and silk prior to acid dye ink-jet printing
Pre-treatment of silk (Fabric passing the from Stenter machine)

    150 g/L Guar gum thickener, e.g. Meyprogum NP 8 (8% solution)
    100 g/L Urea
    50 g/L Ammonium tartrate solution (1 part water to 2 parts ammonium tartrate)
    Pad (approx.75% pick-up) ± dry at low temperature,100°C or below.

4.4 Pre-treatment for polyester printed with disperse dye ink

    10 g/L Cibatex AR (Ciba)
    100 g/L Sodium alginate medium viscosity, e.g. 6% Lamitex M5
    Pad (70% pick-up) ± dry.

5. Reasons for pre-treatment
The main reasons for separating the dye ink from thickeners and other chemicals and applying them separately to the fabric are as follows.

    'All-in' inks are less stable and have lower storage stability, e.g. reactive dyes are more likely to hydrolyze when alkali is present in the ink.
    Chemicals in the ink cause corrosion of jet nozzles; the deleterious effect of sodium chloride on steel surfaces is well known, for instance; inks for use in `charged drop' continuous printers should have low electrical conductivity.
    Thickeners in the ink often do not have the desired rheological properties.
    Some chemicals can be utilized in pre-treated fabric but would cause stability problems in the ink; e.g. sodium carbonate as alkali for reactive dye fixation is acceptable on the fabric but not in the ink.
    The presence of large amounts of salts in aqueous inks reduces the solubility of the dyes; concentrated inks are required in jet printing due to the small droplet size.
    The advantage of applying thickeners and chemicals separately from the dyes is that it allows the wettability and penetration properties of the fabric to be adjusted.

6. Post-processes
Post-processes include steaming, washing, and drying. Steaming is used for fixing the dye on the printed fabric. The temperature, pressure, and time should be determined for optimum results.

When the pre-treated fabric has been dried and then jet printed there is usually little need to provide a drying station to dry the print, as the printing process is so slow. By the time the fabric is batched on a roll it has dried by exposure to the warm atmosphere in the room. However, in most instances, fixation and washing will be necessary. This not only ensures that the full fastness properties of the dyes are realized but also brightens and alters the colors significantly.

6.1 Fixation
Steaming is the process normally used to fix printed textiles. Reactive and acid dyes are steamed under atmospheric pressure at just over 100 Degree Centigrade. During the process, steam condenses on the fabric and is absorbed by the thickener and hygroscopic agents in the printed areas. Dyes and chemicals dissolve and form extremely concentrated dyebaths within the thickener film. As a result of the extremely low liquor ratio (approximately 1:1) fixation is much more rapid than in exhaustion dyeing. High-temperature steam is necessary for the fixation of disperse dyes on polyester. The Tg of polyester in steam is lower than it is in dry air, and fixation is more efficient. Usually, the steam is heated to 170±180°C at atmospheric pressure, but sometimes pressure steaming at 130±150°C is used. Pigment prints are cured using hot air in a stenter or a roller baker.

Fixation: Steaming process

6.2 Washing-off
After printing and steaming, washing of ink-jet printed fabric is carried out. Washing the fixed jet printed fabric is likely to be carried out on a batch-wise basis since the lengths printed are usually quite short. The process, whether batch-wise or continuous, takes place in several stages, the first of which should be a cold rinse. The reason for this is that thickener, auxiliaries and loose dye should be removed under conditions where the dye is unlikely to stain white or unprinted ground shade areas. The risk of this happening may be reduced further by the inclusion of reagents that hold the unfixed dye in the bath. For instance, the inclusion of 1 g/L sodium carbonate in the first bath when washing off acid dyes prevents protonation of amino groups on nylon, wool or silk, thus removing any potential dye sites.

Washing after printing

Washing after printing

The washing was done in three steps:

    First, the fabric was cold rinsed.
    The main requirement after the first cold rinse when washing off reactive dye prints is to ensure that the temperature of the hot wash reaches a minimum of 90°C, otherwise, hydrolyzed dye may not be removed.
    Then the fabric was washed with hot water (at the temperature of 80 - 90°C) containing 2-3 drops of surfactant (soaping SN).
    After that, the fabric was again cold rinsed.

Washing after printing


Along with your goals to be more productive, focused, or healthy in the new year, you might also be thinking about ways in which you might increase your creativity. While there are many tangible ways you can improve your creative ability, recent research suggests that some effective methods may actually be at odds with the typical goals and resolutions we set for ourselves. Here are three surprising yet simple methods to increase your creativity.
1. Think Less

In a 2017 experiment, UK researchers discovered that when they used an electric current to suppress the part of our brain that controls cerebral and executive order thinking, people were less mentally constrained, and were thus able to think more creatively. Earlier research at Stanford demonstrated similar findings, in which researchers found that excessively using our prefrontal cortex, as in when you are overthinking a problem, actually hinders creativity. When we think too hard, our brain tries to use the same mental shortcuts it has previously used to solve problems, making it difficult to come up with novel solutions.

The next time you are in search of a creative solution, find ways to think less deeply about it, perhaps with a glass of wine, when you are especially tired, or while you go for a walk.
2. Clutter your life

Past studies have shown that clutter has damaging effects to our productivity--it makes it difficult for us to focus and process information. This mental constraint, however, is perfect grounds for sparking creative thought. In fact, in a study at the University of Minnesota, researchers found that messy rooms actually help people try new things and come up with more creative ideas.

Though it may not make sense to continually clutter and declutter your workspace based on the type of outcome you'd like to achieve, you might instead consider designing a thoughtfully "cluttered" creative room or space for yourself at work or at home.
3. Ditch your routine

In a study by researchers at Albion University, students were asked to solve puzzles requiring either analytical or creative skills. It was found that when people completed the puzzles during their least optimal times of day (as in, when a night owl was asked to respond in the morning, or an early bird at night), they were 50 percent more successful at solving the creative tasks. Performance on analytical tasks did not change based on time. Fatigue makes our brains disorganized. This means that we can't focus, but it also means we make messy connections that we don't make when we are feeling sharp.

When needing to solve a problem creatively, find ways to break away from the routine you typically find effective. If you work best when you're awake, tackle this particular project when you're winding down for the night. You might find that, in your quest for creativity, you're actually more productive when you don't feel as such.

As you pursue your goals of discipline and focus in the new year, don't forget that one of your most important skills as an entrepreneur--your creativity--actually requires something different. Both are important, and your first creative endeavor will to be find a way to balance both.

Source: Inc Magazine

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