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Messages - Talukdar Rasel Mahmud

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Jokes / Re: Comedy King Gopal Varn
« on: April 12, 2015, 11:48:19 AM »
Hahaha....really funny. :D

Jokes / A Little too Literal
« on: April 12, 2015, 11:42:49 AM »
If you’re interested in becoming a lawyer, you’ll need a degree. But as these court transcripts reveal, the question is, in what?

Attorney: "How was your first marriage terminated?"
Witness: "By death."
Attorney: "And by whose death was it terminated?"
Witness: "Guess."

Attorney: "Doctor, how many of your autopsies have you performed on dead people?"
Witness: "All of them. The live ones put up too much of a fight."


Jokes / Re: Alif Layla
« on: April 12, 2015, 11:26:00 AM » have huge humor indeed...

Jokes / Re: Car Jokes
« on: April 12, 2015, 11:24:06 AM »
Very funny...

Funny but informative...

Law of Bangladesh / The Importance of Patent
« on: April 12, 2015, 12:59:11 AM »
A patent is a form of intellectual rights protection that enables inventors to prevent other people from making use of their ideas. Patents can be very important, both for the individual inventor whose rights are protected and for the economy. Patent laws can ensure that no one is able to take unfair advantage of the work and ideas of other inventors. Patents can help to ensure that businesses and individuals work to create new ideas, which can help to provide an important boost for the economy by helping to encourage innovation.
By protecting a new idea for a process or product, patents make it possible for individuals and businesses to protect their work and investments. Without this kind of protection, it would not be worthwhile for people to invest large amounts of money in new inventions since they would not be able to prevent their competitors from immediately making use of their invention, without having had to put in the same time, money and hard work.
Patents can be particularly important for individual inventors and small businesses, since they can prevent larger companies from taking advantage of their creations. A patented invention can form the basis for a new business or even enable an inventor to make their fortune. Without patent protection, a small business would not be able to compete with larger companies that could take their idea and produce it more efficiently and on a larger scale. Large companies can also use patents to protect their inventions.
The patent system can also be incredibly important because it stimulates invention and innovation. It encourages people to come up with new ideas by ensuring that their rights will be protected to move the economy forwards. Since patents have limited terms and they require that the patented idea is made public, they can also help to encourage development by ensuring that ideas for processes and products will be available for use at the end of the patent term.
The importance of patents can also become clear when a company or an inventor finds themselves on the wrong side of patent law. Patents prevent anyone other than the patent holder from making use of an idea, even if they have come up with a new idea that based upon an old, patented product or process. It is, therefore, important that businesses understand how the patent system works in order to ensure that they avoid falling foul of it. If they should infringe upon the patent of another person or business, then it could result in expensive legal problems.
Patents can be important for individual inventors and for the business community and the economy at large. Patents encourage investment and the development of new ideas, they make new inventions available to the public so that they can be made use of at the end of the term of the patent, and they can also provide protection for the inventors of new products and processes.
Importance of patents is illustrated below:
   First, patents provide freedom of movement in the company’s field. For many companies, this freedom of movement can be very valuable, especially in a crowded field with many competitors or in a field dominated by one player. Filing patent applications early helps limit the risk that someone else has obtained a patent on the same idea. This early mover position provides the company with greater assurance that it will not have to license technology from a patent holder. Indeed, the sooner patents are applied for, the better the chance that someone else will not be the first.
   Secondly, patents provide licensing opportunities with companies inside and sometimes even outside a company’s field. An active patent program can generate revenue from the licensing of patents which cover technology or business processes that are not practiced by the company. Patents allow individual inventors and small businesses the option of obtaining licenses or selling rights to others who may be in a better technical and/or financial position to bring the ideas to market. Qualcomm and other technology companies are among those that no longer manufacture products but rather focus on technology innovation and licensing.  Some companies license the intellectual property on technology used by the company to competitors, forcing the company to constantly innovate and re-invent itself. Other companies regularly patent technology which they never commercially practice, but instead sell to others that do.
   Thirdly, patents provide increased overall corporate value. Corporate valuation relies greatly on a company’s intellectual assets, such as, patents. Today, the capital assets of Fortune 500 companies account for only 15% of the company’s value, whereas intellectual assets account for 85% of the company’s value. Fourthly, patents provide for the generation of prior art to protect the company from patent infringement suits. An active patent program provides a reservoir of prior art which prevents others from receiving patents which may exclude a company from practicing important technology and processes.

Law of Bangladesh / The Objectives of Patent Law
« on: April 12, 2015, 12:58:00 AM »
The object of granting a patent is to encourage and develop new technology and industry. The theory upon which the patent system is based is that the opportunity of acquiring exclusive rights in an invention stimulates technical progress in four ways:
(i) that it encourages research and invention,
(ii) in induces an inventor to disclose his discoveries instead of keeping them as a trade secret;
(iii) it offers a reward for the expenses of developing inventions to the stage at which they are commercially practicable, and
(iv) it provides an inducement to invest capital in new lines of production which might not appear profitable if many competing producers embarked on them simultaneously.
The object of patent law is to encourage scientific research, new technology and industrial progress. Grant of exclusive privilege to own, use or sell the method or the product patented for a limited period stimulates mew inventions of commercial utility. The price of the grant of monopoly is the disclosure of the invention at the Patent Office, which after expiry of the fixed period of monopoly, passes into the public domain.
The object of granting a patent is to encourage and develop new technology and industry. An inventor may disclose the new invention only if he is rewarded; otherwise he may work it secretly.
In consideration of grant of monopoly for a limited period, the inventor discloses the details of the new invention and the method of working it so that after the expiry of monopoly period others can use the invention or improve upon it.
The consideration for grant of a patent monopoly are: (i) the working of the invention within the country so as to result in the establishment in the country of a new industry or an improvement of an existing industry which would profitably employ the labor and capital of the country and thus increase the national wealth, and (ii) disclosure to the public of the invention and the manner of its working so that on the expiry of the life of the patent the public are enabled to work the invention themselves and in comparison with each other.

Law / What is Patent?
« on: April 12, 2015, 12:55:45 AM »
Generally speaking the term ‘Patent’ means a document or license issued by government authority conferring a right or title for a particular period, especially the sole right to exclude others from making, using, or selling an invention. A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem.  It refers to a grant of some privilege, property or authority made by the Government or the Sovereign of the country to one or more individuals. It is a monopoly right granted to a person who has invented a new and useful article or an improvement of an existing article or a new process of making an article. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent.
Patent protection means that the invention cannot be commercially made, used, distributed or sold without the patent owner’s consent. These patent rights are usually enforced in a court, which, in most systems, holds the authority to stop patent infringement. Conversely, a court can also declare a patent invalid upon a successful challenge by a third party.

Patents provide incentives to individuals by offering them recognition for their creativity and material reward for their marketable inventions. These incentives encourage innovation, which assures that the quality of human life is continuously enhanced.

The patent owner has the right, for a period limited to the duration of the patent term, which is normally 20 years from the filing date, to stop others from making, using or selling the invention without his permission or to let others use the invention under agreed terms. After the expiry of the duration of patent, anybody can make use of that invention.
So finally, we can say that patent is a document that issued upon application by a government office which describes an invention and creates a legal situation in which the patented invention can normally only manufactured, used, sold, or imported with the authorization of the owner of the patent. “Invention” means a solution to a specific problem in the field of technology. An invention may relate to a product or a process.

In some countries, inventions are also protectable through registration under the name of “utility model” or “short-term patent.” The requirements are somewhat less strict than for patents. For example, in respect of inventive step and in comparison with patents the fees are lower, and the duration of protection is shorter, but otherwise the rights under the utility model or short-term patent are similar.

Law / What is unfair competition?
« on: April 12, 2015, 12:43:15 AM »
Generally unfair competition means A term which may be applied generally to all dishonest or fraudulent rivalry in trade and commerce, but is particularly applied in the courts of equity (where it may be restrained by injunction) to the practice of endeavoring to substitute one's own goods or products in the markets for those of another, having an established reputation and extensive sale, by means of imitating or counterfeiting the name, title, size, shape, or distinctive peculiarities of the article, or the shape, color, label, wrapper, or general appearance of the package, or other such simulations, the imitation being carried far enough to mislead the general public or deceive an unwary purchaser, and yet not amounting to an absolute counterfeit or to the infringement of a trade-mark or trade-name.
Unfair competition in a sense means that the competitors compete on unequal terms, because favorable or disadvantageous conditions are applied to some competitors but not to others; or that the actions of some competitors actively harm the position of others with respect to their ability to compete on equal and fair terms. It contrasts with fair competition, in which the same rules and conditions are applied to all participants, and the competitive action of some does not harm the ability of others to compete. Often, unfair competition means that the gains of some participants are conditional on the losses of others, when the gains are made in ways which are illegitimate or unjust.
Article 10bis (2) of the Paris Convention act of unfair competition as “any act of competition contrary to honest practices in industrial or commercial matters”. Article10bis (3) continues specifying which acts in particular, shall be prohibited:

1.   “all acts of such a nature as to create confusion, by any means, with the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
2 false allegations in the course of trade of such a nature as to discredit the establishment, the goods, or the industrial or commercial activities, of a competitor;
3.   indications or allegations the use of which in the course of trade is liable to mislead the public as to the nature, the manufacturing process, the characteristics, the suitability for their purpose, or the quantity, of the goods.”

Law / Re: right to privacy by UN
« on: April 11, 2015, 04:36:11 PM »
Good initiative of UN. Thanks for sharing...

« on: April 11, 2015, 04:32:04 PM »
In tort parties are known as plaintiff and defendant.
In criminal law, parties are known state and accused.
Tortfeasor has to pay damages.
Criminal are sent to prison.
In tort, proceedings are regulated by civil procedure code 1908.
Proceeding are regulated by the criminal procedure code 1898.
Intention is not relevant in tortiuous act.
Intention is always relevant in criminal act.
Necessity is a defence in tortiuous act.
Necessity is not a defence in criminal act.
In tort, compromise is permissible.
Compromise is not permissible in criminal law.
Proceedings are conducted by injured person in law of tort.
Proceeding are conducted by the state in criminal law.
Law of tort is not codified.

A person under seven year is tortuously liable in tort.
A person under seven year is not criminally liable.

« on: April 11, 2015, 04:30:56 PM »
Law of tort protects right in rem available against the whole world.
Law of contract protects rights in personam which means against a particular individual.
In tort, damages are unliquidiated.
In contract damages are liquidiated.
Tort is always inflicted against consent of the person.
Contract is always founded on consent of a person.
Law of tort is not codified.
Law of contract is codified.
Rights and duties are fixed by law in law of tort.  Rights and duties
are fixed by parties in contract.
In law of tort necessity is a defence.
In contract, necessity is no defence.
Principle or doctrine of vicarious liability applies.
Principle or doctrine of vicarious liability does not apply.
Limitation of time is one year in tort.  Limitation of time is three years in contract.
In law of tort a minor person can sue and can be sued.
In contract a minor person can not sue and can not be sued.

Law / Some conceptual issues of Law of Tort
« on: April 11, 2015, 04:28:38 PM »
What is Tort
-Tort means a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, that results in injury to another's person, property, reputation, or the like, and for which the injured party is entitled to compensation.
- A ‘tort’ is a legal wrong, for which the law provides a remedy. It is a civil action taken by one citizen against another and tried in court. A person who sustains injury or suffers pecuniary damage as a result of the wrongful act of another person is known as the plaintiff and the person who is responsible for inflicting the injury and incurs liability for the damage is known as the defendant or tortfeasor.
   -Tort is  a civil wrong arising from an act or failure to act, independently of any contract, for which an action for personal injury or property damages may be brought.
-Tort law is that body of law which covers violations where one person’s behavior causes injury, suffering, unfair loss, or harm to another person.  This is a broad category of law that can include many different types of personal injury claims.
-Tort laws serve two basic, general purposes: 
1) to compensate the victim for any losses caused by the defendant’s violations; and
2) to deter (discourage) the defendant from repeating the violation in the future.
How are Torts Classified?
Torts may be classified into three broad categories:
•   Intentional torts such as battery
•   Unintentional torts such as negligence in a slip and fall case
•   Strict liability torts such as those involving ultrahazardous materials that are dangerous in and of themselves
Torts are categorized under civil laws, rather than criminal laws.  This means that some torts may involve conduct that is not necessary illegal, but causes harm to another person.  However, some tort cases may involve an overlap with criminal laws (such as assault).
What are Some Examples of Torts?
Some common examples of torts include:
•   Negligence-related claims
•   Civil assault/civil battery
•   Wrongful death claims
•   Trespassing
•   Products liability and dangerous products
•   Intentional inflection of emotional distress
Probably the most common type of tort lawsuit is negligence.  In order to prove negligence, the victim needs to prove that the defendant breached a duty of care owed to them, and that the breach was the cause of their injuries or losses.
For instance, if the defendant had a duty to keep their shop floor clean, but failed to do so, the plaintiff may be able to sue them if they were injured due to a slip on the dirty shop floor
What are Some Common Remedies in a Tort Case?
Remedies in a tort case will of course be different depending on the type of violation involved, and depending on how the victim was injured or suffered losses.  Some common remedies in a tort case may include:
•   Monetary damages awards for economic losses
•   Damages awards for other related losses, such as emotional distress, pain and suffering, lost wages, or other costs
•   An injunction, which is a court order requiring the defendant to cease their harmful actions or to begin taking a specific action (such as reducing pollution or cleaning up after a toxic spill)
You should note that some tort cases may also allow the plaintiff to recover a “punitive damages” award.  This is an additional monetary damages award meant to punish the defendant for their conduct.  This can sometimes be a very high amount in comparison to the victim’s losses.
However, punitive damages are usually issued only in connection with very offensive or damaging behavior by the defendant.  Some states may also place limits on punitive damages (such as up to two or three times the amount of economic losses). 
Some examples of tort law
The tort of negligence is the most common type of tort you will come across and is the term used to characterize behaviour that poses unreasonable risks of harm to persons and property. The elements that need to be established for the tort of negligence are:
•   The existence of a duty of care between the defendant and the plaintiff
•   A breach of that duty by the defendant (did his behaviour fall below the threshold of a ‘reasonable man’?)
•   Injury or loss suffered by the plaintiff as a direct result of the defendant’s breach
Three further factors that must be considered when establishing duty of care: that the harm was reasonably foreseeable; that the defendant and plaintiff were in a relationship of ‘proximity’; and that it is fair, just and reasonable to impose liability on the defendant.
The concept of ‘Novus Actus Interveniens’ is a Latin concept that revolves around the idea that the act of a third party will intervene between the original act or omission and the damage that is produced as a result. This is often considered to be a general defence to the law of tort and particularly the tort of negligence.
People have the right to quiet enjoyment of their own land and if anyone should interfere with that, be it through being noisy, creating bad smells or polluting the land they are liable to be sued by the property owner under the nuisance tort law.
Intentional torts
Intentional acts that are reasonably foreseeable to cause harm to someone, and do cause harm to someone, are covered by intentional tort law. These include several subcategories, including tort(s) against the person such as assault, battery, false imprisonment, the intentional infliction of emotional distress and fraud. Property related torts involve any intentional interference with someone’s property, such as trespass to land.
Successful plaintiffs in tort law cases will usually be awarded compensation in ‘damages’ or money. However, in the case of a continuing tort or a tort that is merely threatened, the court may grant an injunction to prevent future harm.

আপনি যদি গুগল ক্রোম ব্যবহার করে ওয়েবসাইট দেখেন, তবে কিছু কৌশল প্রয়োগ করে আরও সহজে দ্রুত কাজ করতে পারবেন। গুগল ক্রোমের আছে কিছু শর্টকাট এবং লুকানো বৈশিষ্ট্য।
অটো প্লে বন্ধ: ইউটিউব, ভিমিও, পেন্ডোরার মতো ওয়েবসাইটের ভিডিও বা ফ্ল্যাশ ফাইল যদি আপনাআপনি চলতে থাকে, তবে সেটি বন্ধ করে নিন। এ জন্য ক্রোম চালু করে ব্রাউজারের অমনিবক্সে (অ্যাড্রেস বার)chrome://settings/content লিখে এন্টার চাপুন। Content Settings খুলে যাবে। এর নিচে এসে Plug-ins বিভাগের Click to play নির্বাচন করে দিন। তবে কোনো ভিডিও আর স্বয়ংক্রিয় চালু হবে না, ফলে ইন্টারনেটের মেগাবাইটও সাশ্রয় হবে।
ইনকগনিটো মোড: ইনকগনিটো মোড একটি ব্যক্তিগত ব্রাউজিং সুবিধা। আপনি যদি ইনকগনিটো মোডে ব্রাউজ করেন তবে হিস্ট্রি, কুকিজ, ডাউনলোডের কোনো তথ্য ব্রাউজারে থাকবে না। কাজ শেষে সব মুছে যাবে। ক্রোম ব্রাউজার চালু করে Ctrl + Shift + N চাপলে এটি খুলবে। আবার ক্রোমের Settings-এ গিয়ে New incognito Window-এ ক্লিক করলেই হবে। এ ছাড়া যেকোনো লিঙ্কের ওপর ডান ক্লিক করে open link in incognito window খুললে ওই সাইটের কোনো রেকর্ড ব্রাউজার জমা করবে না। একইভাবে এই সুবিধা ব্যবহার করে আপনি একই ব্রাউজারে দুটি আলাদা ই-মেইল বা ফেসবুক অ্যাকাউন্টে ঢুকতে পারবেন। আপনার যদি দুটি আলাদা ই-মেইল অ্যাকাউন্ট থাকে তবে ক্রোমে সেটি চালু থাকা অবস্থায় ইনকগনিটো মুডে আরেকটি অ্যাকাউন্ট খুলতে পারবেন।
সহজ ব্রাউজিং: ওয়েব ব্রাউজারে কোনো তথ্য খুঁজতে গিয়ে নতুন কোনো বিষয় চোখে পড়ল এবং সেটি সম্পর্কেও জানতে চাইছেন। এমন হলে হয়তো সেই বিষয়টা আবার আরেকটা ট্যাবে লিখে সার্চ করতে চাচ্ছেন। থামুন ! আলাদা ট্যাব খুলে সার্চ না করে সেই বিষয়ের লেখাগুলো নির্বাচন করে ডান ক্লিক করে Search Google for-এ ক্লিক করলে আলাদাভাবে গুগল সাচের্র সুবিধা পেয়ে যাবেন।
Written By: মো. রাকিবুল হাসান

Law of Bangladesh / জন্মনিবন্ধন
« on: April 11, 2015, 12:53:09 PM »
জন্মনিবন্ধন সনদ নাগরিকের সকল মৌলিক অধিকারকে নিশ্চিত করে। পৃথিবীর উন্নত দেশে জন্মনিবন্ধন সনদকে গুরুত্বসহকারে দেখা হয়। কিন্তু দুঃখের বিষয় আমাদের দেশে এই সনদ গ্রহণের ব্যাপারে সমাজের একটি অংশ এখনও অসচেতন। ফলে সমাজের এই নাগরিকরা সুযোগ-সুবিধা থেকে এখনও দূরে থাকছে, যা মূলত জাতীয় উন্নয়নকে ব্যাহত করছে।
সম্প্রতি এ সংক্রান্ত একটি প্রতিবেদন প্রকাশ করেছে সেভ দ্য চিলড্রেন। সংস্থাটি তাদের গবেষণা প্রতিবেদনে জন্মনিবন্ধন সনদে অসচেতনতার এই চিত্র তুলে ধরেছে। প্রতিবেদনে উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে জন্মনিবন্ধন করার ক্ষেত্রে বস্তির জনগোষ্ঠী এখনও পিছিয়ে আছে। বস্তিতে জন্ম নেয়া মাত্র ৩৭ শতাংশ শিশুর জন্মনিবন্ধন করে থাকে এবং সিংহভাগ শিশুর পরিবার এই প্রক্রিয়া থেকে দূরে রয়েছে। গবেষণা প্রতিবেদনে আরও উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে, বিপুল সংখ্যক শিশুর এই জন্মনিবন্ধন সনদ প্রক্রিয়া না হওয়ার পেছনে রয়েছে সংশ্লিষ্ট বিভাগের দায়িত্বহীনতাও। শুধু তাই নয়, সংশ্লিষ্ট জন্মনিবন্ধন সনদের ব্যাপারে উল্লিখিত জনগোষ্ঠী এখনও সচেতন হয়ে উঠতে পারছে না।
সরকার জন্মনিবন্ধন করার ক্ষেত্রে ২০০৪ সালে একটি আইন প্রণয়ন করে। এই আইনে জন্মনিবন্ধন করাকে বাধ্যতামূলক ঘোষণা করা হয়। বস্তির শিশুদের বেশিরভাগ অভিভাবক মনে করেন জন্মনিবন্ধন অনেক সমস্যার বিষয়। শতকরা ৪১ ভাগ শিশুর অভিভাবক বিষয়টির গুরুত্বই বোঝে না। এদের মধ্যে ৩২ শতাংশ অভিভাবক জানেনই না শিশু জন্মের পর কিভাবে জন্মনিবন্ধন করাতে হয়। বস্তি এলাকায় যে ৩৭ শতাংশ শিশুর জন্মনিবন্ধন সম্পন্ন হয় তা সাধারণত হয় স্কুলে ভর্তি হওয়ার সময়। কারণ জন্মনিবন্ধন ছাড়া স্কুলে ভর্তি সম্ভব নয়। বস্তির শিশুরা প্রাইমারি স্কুলে ভর্তি হলে তারা সরকার প্রদত্ত নানা সুবিধা লাভ করে থাকে। বিনামূল্যে বই, বৃত্তিসহ নানা সুবিধা পেয়ে থাকে। প্রতিবেদনে আরেকটি চিত্র উল্লেখ করা হয়েছে বস্তিতে বসবাসকারী শিশুদের ৪৪ শতাংশ পোশাক কারখানায় কাজ করে, ২৪ শতাংশ বিভিন্ন দোকান ও ৯ শতাংশ ভিক্ষা বৃত্তির কাজে জড়িত। কর্মজীবী শিশুদের ৯ শতাংশ শারীরিক নির্যাতনের শিকার, ১২ শতাংশ ঝুঁকিপূর্ণ কাজ ও বিপজ্জনক যন্ত্রপাতি ব্যবহার করে থাকে।
বস্তি এলাকায় বাল্যবিবাহও আশঙ্কাজনকহারে বৃদ্ধি পেয়েছে বলে প্রতিবেদনে তুলে ধরা হয়েছে। ১৩-১৪ বছর হলেই কন্যা শিশুকে বিয়ে দিচ্ছে অভিভাবকরা। জন্মনিবন্ধন সনদ নাগরিক সুবিধার প্রয়োজনীয় শর্ত। এই সনদ ব্যবহার করে নাগরিকরা রাষ্ট্রীয় সর্বোচ্চ সুবিধা ভোগ করে থাকে। শিশুদের জন্মনিবন্ধন করা অভিভাবকদের দায়িত্ব। তবে রাষ্ট্রীয়ভাবে যাদের ওপর এ দায়িত্ব তাদেরও উচিত এ বিষয়ে নাগরিকদের সচেতন বৃদ্ধির উদ্যোগ গ্রহণ করা।

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