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Topics - Mahmud Arif

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Law / Digital Commerce Operation Guidelines, 2021(Draft)
« on: March 31, 2021, 04:39:22 PM »
The Govt. of Bangladesh (Ministry of Commerce) is going to publish the Digital Commerce Operation Guidelines, 2021. A draft of this has been recently surfaced online in the e-commerce hubs. It is claimed that the final version is to be published by gazette notification soon.

See the attachment.

বাজেট ২০২১-২২ (ভ্যাট ব্যবস্থায় সংস্কারের প্রস্তাব): বাংলাদেশ ভ্যাট প্রফেশনালস ফোরাম (ভ্যাট ফোরাম) থেকে ভ্যাট সংক্রান্ত বাজেট প্রস্তাবের ওপর একটা বুকলেট প্রকাশ করা হয়েছে। বুকলেটে ৮১টি প্রস্তাব অন্তর্ভুক্ত রয়েছে।

See the attachment.

The Supreme Court of Bangladesh recently issued a circular (March 21, 2021) directing the subordinate judiciary to prioritize "Mediation" for resolving disputes (in both trial and appellate stages). It is seen as a move for effectively addressing the mountainous backlog of cases.

See the attachment.

Law / Writ Petition challenging the virtual Court system
« on: March 31, 2021, 04:31:56 PM »
One of the learned Advocates of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, Mr. A.K.M. Asiful Haque filed a Writ Petition challenging the virtual Court system. The Hon'ble Court passed the following verdict.

See the attachemnt.

Bangladesh Bank recently launched a Start-up Fund of BDT 500 Crores (approx US$ 60 Million) for new entrepreneurs of the country. These loans will be distributed by scheduled banks (under a refinancing scheme), at a maximum interest rate of 4% for a maximum period of 5 years. One entrepreneur shall be eligible for a maximum loan of BDT 1 crore, against his/her original educational and professional certificates as securities (along with personal guarantees).

See the attachment.

Law / Violence against Rohingya Refugee Women and Children
« on: March 31, 2021, 04:24:49 PM »
I am pleased to share that our research paper titled: "Violence against Rohingya Refugee Women and Children: Protection under International Law", has been published in the BURNISHED LAW JOURNAL (Volume 2, Issue 1). The journal is open accessed and Manupatra indexed.

Link of the paper:

Law / Daffodil International University Law Alumni Database
« on: February 16, 2021, 07:27:14 PM »
An Institution of higher education is a partnership among students and alumni, faculty and administrators, donors and trustees, neighborhoods and more, to build a community - and a culture. Any institutions' alumni are key to its growth.

The Department of Law is focused on creating a complete database of our stars. Please fill out the form. In case of any query feel free to contact Mr. Arif Mahmud, Alumnus, Daffodil International University (+8801682036747).

Law / New judgement on cancellation of bail
« on: September 10, 2020, 10:42:12 PM »
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh on 8th September 2020 has published the judgement of the case "Md. Ibrahim Vs. The State", Criminal Appeal(H) 6513/2019, through the official website.

Case Brief:
The Registrar General of Bangladesh Supreme Court is hereby directed to issue a “General Circular” to all the Judges/ Magistrates having exercising criminal jurisdiction containing the following directions:
1. The Court below shall not cancel the bail of an accused granted by the High Court Division without any allegation of proven misuse of the privilege of bail by the accused.
2. When an accused is enjoying the privilege of ad-interim bail granted by the High Court Division for a limited period in a pending rule under section 498 of the Cr.P.C or in an appeal against under special law and he/she is regularly appearing before the Court below, his/her bail shall not be cancelled and cannot be taken him/her into jail custody by the Court below only on the ground that he/she could not submit bail extension order from the High Court Division.
3. In the event of unavailability of such extension order, the Courts below must wait for the result of the rule or the appeal, as the case may be, in which the accused was granted ad-interim bail.
4. Learned Judges of the Courts below shall not cancel bail of an accused granted by the High Court Division in pending rule or appeal until and unless the rule is discharged or the appeal is dismissed or in any way the accused violates any condition of bail, if any, imposed by the High Court Division at the time of granting bail”

কোনো মামলায় উচ্চ আদালত থেকে জামিন পাওয়া আসামিদের জামিন বাতিল করা না করা নিয়ে অধস্তন আদালতকে চার দফা নির্দেশনা দিয়েছেন হাইকোর্ট।

বিচারপতি মো. হাবিবুল গণি ও বিচারপতি মো. বদরুজ্জামানের হাইকোর্ট বেঞ্চ এক রায়ে এ নির্দেশনা দিয়েছেন। বৃহস্পতিবার সুপ্রিম কোর্টের ওয়েব সাইটে এ রায় প্রকাশ করা হয়।
চার দফা নির্দেশনা হলো:

১. হাইকোর্ট ডিভিশন থেকে কোনো আসামি যদি নির্দিষ্ট সময়ের জন্য জামিনে মুক্তি পান, তবে অধস্তন আদালত জামিনের সুস্পষ্ট অপব্যবহার ব্যতীত সেই জামিন বাতিল করতে পারবেন না।

২. নির্দিষ্ট সময়ের জন্য জামিনে মুক্তি পাওয়া ব্যক্তি যদি অধস্তন আদালতে নিয়মিত হাজিরা দেয় শুধু হাইকোর্টের জামিনের এক্সেনশন অর্ডার না থাকার কারণে অধস্তন আদালত জামিন বাতিল করে জেলহাজতে পাঠাতে পারবেন না।

৩. নির্দিষ্ট সময়ে জামিন পাওয়ার পর যদি সেই সময় পার হয়ে যায় তবে হাইকোর্টে আসামি যেই রুল বা আপিলে জামিন পেয়েছেন সেই রুল বা আপিল নিষ্পত্তি পর্যন্ত অপেক্ষা করতে হবে।

৪. অধস্তন আদালত হাইকোর্টের দেয়া জামিন কোনো অবস্থাতেই হাইকোর্ট যেই রুলে বা আপিলে জামিন দিয়েছেন তা খারিজ না হওয়া পর্যন্ত বাতিল করতে পারবেন না, তবে যদি হাইকোর্ট কোনো শর্তসাপেক্ষে জামিন দেন সেই শর্ত ভঙ্গ করলে জামিন বাতিল করা যাবে।

Find out the full judgement:

Law / Covid-19 and State’s obligation to safeguard human rights
« on: June 06, 2020, 02:36:08 AM »
With the outbreak of the Covid-19 and the declaration of a global pandemic, nations worldwide have taken unprecedented and unconventional measures with the aim to contain the virus and fortuitously, declared both international and intra-national lockdowns, and asking citizens to self-isolate and to maintain social distancing at all times.

Although this lockdown has proved to be effectual, it has also surfaced the divergence between the upper and lower class of the society. Globally, it has hit hard on the daily wage earners, poor and needy class of the society. Among many other fundamental rights that an individual is entitled to, this pandemic and the incidental lockdown has resulted in such rights being compromised....

Read the full article:

Law / Taking China to the International Court of Justice over COVID-19
« on: April 05, 2020, 12:27:00 PM »
Scholars have claimed that China’s conduct with respect to COVID-19 (and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2) violated the International Health Regulations, in particular the obligations of timely notification and information-sharing in Articles 6 and 7.

Find out the article:

Scholars have claimed that China’s conduct with respect to COVID-19 (and the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2) violated the International Health Regulations, in particular the obligations of timely notification and information-sharing in Articles 6 and 7.

Find out the article:

Law / The necessity of enacting witness protection law
« on: February 13, 2020, 05:01:31 PM »
In the administration of justice system, be that criminal or civil, complainants as well as their witnesses perform a very decisive and significant role, since to a great extent dispensation of justice profoundly relies on evidences put forward by them. However, witnesses are often vulnerable to threats, intimidation, coercion, duress, harassment, etc. by the offenders or their accomplices that prevent them from testifying before the investigating officers (in the stage of investigation) or from giving evidences before the Court or Tribunal during trial, thereby occasioning the probability of miscarriage of justice. Thus, to secure ends of justice, both victim’s testimony and evidences gathered from the witnesses are imperative elements in establishing any guilt or civil claim and also a congenial social atmosphere, which is a condition precedent, to relieve them from fear and pressure in support of administration of justice in the society at large. Hence, it has now-a-days become rudimentary for any State to ensure adequate protection to victims as well as witnesses so that cogent evidences in trials before the Court become available to avoid miscarriage of justice.

Check out the link for details:

Law / Killings on Public Campuses: No punishment in most cases
« on: October 09, 2019, 01:01:40 PM »
Delays in investigations and no punishment of perpetrators of gruesome campus murders have fostered a culture of impunity at public universities.

For details please visit the link:

Law / Legal complications stall narcotics cases
« on: October 03, 2019, 12:39:58 PM »
Several hundred cases under Narcotics Control Act wait for hearing; govt yet to issue a gazette for setting up special tribunals

Check out the link for details:

In 1983, US President Ronald Reagan issued the National Security Decision Directive 84, which authorized all federal agencies to use polygraphs (commonly known as lie detectors) to test if any of their employees had leaked classified information. As of 4 February 2015, the US Intelligence Community is once again authorized to investigate its members’ potential involvement in the leaking of classified information via the use of the polygraph. The US polygraph examinations are to be conducted in adherence to the standards set by the National Center for Credibility Assessment, which means that any such examination will be based on a Comparative Question Test (CQT), as opposed to a Concealed Information Test (CIT). The CQT and CIT represent the two predominant types of polygraph testing procedures, which use the same physical apparatus, but differ in terms of their theoretical underpinning and commercial/academic utilization.

The polygraph machine was invented in 1921 in Berkeley, California. "Berkeley was a town with a very famous police chief, August Vollmer, and he was in charge of police reform and a leader of police professionalisation in the United States," says Ken Alder, professor of history at Northwestern University in Chicago."He actually wanted to use the science to make the cops more law-abiding themselves, to substitute this new scientific interrogation for what was formerly known as the third degree, which was a way of getting information from people by beating them up." Berkeley police officer John Larson created the first machine, basing it on the systolic blood pressure test pioneered by psychologist William Moulton Marston, who would later become a comic book writer and create Wonder Woman. Marston believed blood pressure changes could show whether someone was lying. The modern polygraph measures a range of physical changes such as pulse and breathing as well as blood-pressure. But the credibility of the polygraph was challenged almost as soon as it was invented.

In 1923, in what became a historic Supreme Court judgement, Frye v United States, it was ruled that scientific evidence, like that obtained through the polygraph, should only be admissible if it was "sufficiently established to have gained general acceptance" in the scientific community. The polygraph was backed by Leonarde Keeler, who in 1930 helped set up the scientific crime detection laboratory at Northwestern, the first forensic lab in the US, a year before the FBI.

In 2003, Gary Ridgway admitted he was the Green River Killer, having murdered 49 women in the Seattle area. Ridgway had passed a lie detector test in 1987, while another man - who turned out to be innocent - failed. It has been argued that psychopaths like Ridgway or serial killer Ted Bundy are able to trick the polygraph because they have lower anxiety levels than normal people but the research into this has had mixed results.

It was not until 1965, 41 years after the Frye standard was established, that the first empirical review of the polygraph was conducted. This occurred when a proposal to use the polygraph to screen federal employees prompted the US Committee on Government Operations to evaluate the relevant evidence. It concluded: ‘There is no lie detector, neither man nor machine. People have been deceived by a myth that a metal box in the hands of an investigator can detect truth or falsehood’.

Modern polygraphs no longer use pens attached to tambours to write in ink onto a roll of paper driven by clockwork in the way the original Keeler polygraph models used to work. Modern polygraphs produce digital outputs that go directly from the measuring instruments into a computer with the appropriate polygraph software.

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