Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.


Messages - momin.ce

Pages: 1 [2]
16
Transportation Engineering / The common traffic offenses in Dhaka
« on: February 25, 2020, 01:22:43 PM »
Ridwan Quaium

VIOLATING traffic rules has become a common practice for many in Dhaka due to lax of traffic law enforcement. This is not making the roads unsafe and also worsening the traffic congestion. An online survey was conducted where people were asked about what they felt were the most common traffic rules that were violated and the common traffic offenses that were committed for which the roads in the city are becoming unsafe.

Traveling in the wrong-way or opposite direction was identified as the main traffic offense committed in Dhaka by the respondents. A report on this was also published in The Daily Star on September 2nd. Research shows that head-on collisions due to wrong-way accidents are more likely to result in fatal or serious injuries than other types of road accidents. This is why in many countries driving or riding in the wrong-way is considered as a serious traffic violation and offenders are penalized heavily to. Other than posing a serious safety threat, wrong-way traveling also results in serious traffic congestion.

To prevent vehicles from traveling in the wrong direction a few months ago the traffic police department installed a device near Kakrail. During the installation the traffic police department informed the public that gradually the device would be installed in other parts of the city as well but the device became dysfunctional within a few days after installation. Now nothing is known about the status of this traffic device such as whether the device would be repaired, modified and then installed again or whether the police have abandoned the idea of using the device.

The second most common traffic offense that is committed in Dhaka according to the respondents was illegal on street parking. Illegal on street parking reduces the capacity of a roadway. During peak hours illegal on street parking may not only create bottle-neck but also grid lock in the nearby area resulting in serious traffic congestion.

According to the demand of roadways, the capacity of the road network in Dhaka is insufficient. Hence, during most of the day the roads in most part of the city remains clogged. The illegal on street parking worsens the situation even more.

To prevent illegal parking traffic police in cities around the world generally provide parking tickets, tow vehicles and put clamps on wheels. To prevent illegal parking traffic police in Dhaka do provide parking tickets and tow vehicles but compared to the number of violations the number of offenders that are penalized are too little.

The third most common traffic offense identified by the respondents was violating traffic signal. Violating a traffic signal or running a red light is also considered as a serious traffic offense in many countries as the consequences of this offense may result in fatal collisions. Offenders are penalized heavily in many countries. To catch motorists running red light many cities around the world have installed red light cameras.

Most often motorists violating the traffic signal get away with it in Dhaka. This results in collisions and also traffic congestion. Lack of manpower, lack of proper vehicle, tools and technology are a prime reason why the traffic police are not able to catch traffic signal violators.

Speeding and driving recklessly is the fourth traffic offense that is committed in Dhaka identified by the respondents. Speeding and reckless driving is an issue in many countries as it is the main reason for traffic fatalities. Tools such as speed guns and cameras are used in many countries to catch motorists speeding and driving recklessly.

Speeding and driving recklessly can be blamed for many of the road accidents in the capital but the traffic police department here lacks the necessary tools and technology to prevent this traffic offense.

The other traffic offenses that are committed very often according to the respondents are public transports loading and unloading passengers in the middle of the road, driving unfit vehicles, driving without a valid license and minors driving illegally. From various news reports it is apparent that these traffic offenses are also a major reason for road accident in Dhaka. These traffic violations can be very easily prevented if the traffic police department becomes stricter in enforcing the traffic laws.

The traffic police department has always cited that lack of manpower is the main reason why they are not able to penalize traffic offenders. The unemployment rate among the youth is increasing in the country. The traffic police department may consider increasing their manpower by hiring more youths into their force. This will make it easier for them to enforce the traffic rules which will make the roads safer and reduce congestion. In addition, it may also help to lower the unemployment rate. The government may also consider providing more financial support to the traffic police department to acquire tools and technology to catch traffic offenders.

The writer is Transportation Engineer working in Thailand.

17


Bangladesh Bank will launch a regular currency note of Tk 200 denomination alongside commemorative gold and silver coins worth Tk 100 on March 17.

"We've taken this initiative as part of the commemoration of the birth centenary of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman," Sirajul Islam, Executive Director and spokesman of Bangladesh Bank, told UNB.

He said 1,050 gold coins of Tk 100 and 5,000 silver coins of similar value will be released to mark the occasion. The first ever Tk 200 note will also come into circulation, but it  is yet to be decided how many of these notes will be released, he added.

However, he did not provide any other details on the new commemorative notes.

At present, there are regular currency notes of Tk 1, Tk 2, Tk 5, Tk 10, Tk 20, Tk 50, Tk 100, Tk 500 and Tk 1,000 in the market, which were released on different occasions in the past.

See more: https://www.thedailystar.net/online/news/tk-200-note-be-launched-bangabandhus-birth-centenary-1871578

18
Md Al-Hasan
According to the latest Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2016-17 of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), about 44 percent of workers are self-employed—individuals working for their own household farm or non-farm enterprises. They subsist on their earnings and do not receive any (formal) wages or salary for the work performed.

Self-employment has attracted considerable attention because of the argument that earnings from self-employment are too small to escape from poverty, so the self-employed are "working hard but working poor". This contrasts with an earlier view of self-employment as untapped entrepreneurial energy. The policy implications of the old and new views are sharply different. If self-employment is mainly repressed entrepreneurial energy, then by reducing entry regulations and improving property rights, self-employment can fuel economic growth and development; if, on the other hand, self-employment means hard, poor labour, then structural changes and intervention may be called for.

Moreover, there should be maximum focus on the self-employed, since the Seventh Five Year Plan undertook strategies to make rural people self-dependent through generating non-farm self-employment. The targeted groups are socially excluded backward groups and marginalised people, and the goal is to alleviate poverty and strengthen the rural economy. Currently, under the headings of social empowerment and social protection, about 30 employment generation programmes such as "Micro-credit for Women Self-employment", "Rehabilitation and Creation of Alternative Employment for Beggars Profession", and "Women's Skill-Based Training for Livelihood" are operational, aiming to eradicate poverty, establish social justice, and provide a fair income stream. Furthermore, a World Bank Report in 2019 found a positive correlation between GDP growth and self-employment growth in Bangladesh. In other words, self-employment in the Bangladesh economy is not only higher than other economies, but it will also become more so as Bangladesh achieves higher GDP growth.


Whether or not self-employment generation programmes will work depends on the earnings of the self-employed; do they earn enough to pull themselves out of poverty?

Labour force survey data for Bangladesh shows that between 2005 and 2017, the average weekly real wage for paid employees increased by 43.7 percent and for the self-employed, it increased by 105 percent. However, this increase in real wages is not distributed evenly across different skills groups. As we move from the least skilled to the most skilled, it has a U-shape for employees but an inverted U, or hump shape, for the self-employed. Measured by the 5th, the 50th, and the 95th percentiles of wage distribution, the increases are 109 percent, 27 percent and 36 percent respectively for paid employees, and by 84 percent, 124 percent, and 19 percent for the self-employed respectively. Thus, the wage gap between the most skilled and least skilled workers of the two groups is widening, while the wage gap between moderately skilled workers is narrowing.

The scant earnings from self-employment, combined with sluggish and disproportional real wage growth, poses a fundamental threat to the future reduction of poverty and vulnerability. Overall, we find a mixed pattern of real wage growth, both for the paid employees and the self-employed, that disfavour the least skilled self-employed.

In 2005, the average weekly wage earned by paid employees was BDT 1241, whereas the self-employed earned only BDT 431 per week. In 2017, the average weekly real wage rose to BDT 1778 and BDT 884 for the paid employees and the self-employed respectively. Paid employees earned about 101 percent more real wages in 2017 and about 187 percent more real wages in 2005 then the self-employed. However, the averages cannot describe the tail of the wage distribution.

Focusing on the percentile distribution of the weekly wages, we found that for a good range, the self-employed wage is below the minimum wage of paid employees—about 33 percent of the self-employed earn less than BDT 647. This level of earning is lower than the wage of the paid employees at the first percentile. Similarly, about 11 percent of paid employees earn a higher wage than the ninety-fifth percentile self-employed. Moreover, the wage differentials between the least skilled paid employees and self-employed are rising, while average wage differentials are falling. This data demonstrates that the poor self-employed are getting poorer.

Given the shrinking of manufacturing employment, the stagnation of private sector employment and the vastness of the unemployed population, the demand for self-employment is currently very high. The Government of Bangladesh is also using self-employment as an instrument to generate employment opportunities for women and excluded individuals. By contrast, most women's and excluded individuals' human capital is below the moderately skilled threshold level, which means that although they will work, they will be "working hard but working poor". Unfortunately, this means that the strong assumption that providing self-employment opportunities will pull the poor out of poverty is not supported by the data. Generating self-employment without a sufficient minimum income will have an insignificant impact on reducing poverty and inequality. A guaranteed income scheme and the improvement of human capital are necessary for the least skilled workers to be equipped with a fighting chance to battle the curse of poverty.

Md Al-Hasan is Senior Research Associate, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD). He can be reached at al.hasan@cpd.org.bd.

19
Common Forum/Request/Suggestions / Can we overcome our academic inertia?
« on: February 25, 2020, 01:17:43 PM »

The first academic journal, Le Journal des Sçavans, was published on January 5, 1665 from Paris. Over the past three centuries—according to the latest STM Report 2018 by the International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical (STM) Publishers—the number of peer-reviewed journal grew by about 3.5 percent a year. In recent years, however, this growth could be as high as 6 percent. Global databases like Web of Science and CrossRef indicate—with an annual addition of 3 million journal articles—by the end of 2020, the total number of published research papers would be more than 80 million. It means, by the time you finish reading this opinion piece, 40 new journal articles will be published!

In this huge volume of global research, Bangladesh's research is quite small. The world's largest journal publisher Elsevier manages Scopus, one of the biggest online platforms that catalogues academic journals. Out of more than 70 million research articles it holds, about 48,500; 0.07 percent are from Bangladesh. Scopus currently maintains 22,000 active journals, including 16 from Bangladesh. To put this into the South Asian context, 526 journals on this database are from India, 97 from Pakistan, 7 from Sri Lanka, and 6 journals are from Nepal.

Journal Impact Factor is a globally-recognised scoring system that indicates the impact, as well as the reputation, of an academic journal. The more a journal's papers are cited, the larger its score gets and the greater its impact on the academic discipline it belongs to. Every year, Philadelphia-based Clarivate Analytics publishes Journal Citation Reports where Impact Factors of journals are declared. In the latest report published in June 2019, about 12,000 peer-reviewed journals received "Impact Factor 2018", and only four of them are from Bangladesh. I have been involved with the Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy since 2006. My journal received its first Impact Factor in 2010. Since then, no new Bangladeshi journal received an Impact Factor.

Given a very small number of Bangladeshi journals are in the above two databases, one may wonder how many academic journals are actually published from Bangladesh. In the absence of an exhaustive list, this is very difficult to answer. In 2007, INASP (International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications), an Oxford-based charity, established an online platform called BanglaJOL or Bangladesh Journals Online. This platform currently has 143 Bangladeshi journals. Given the huge increase in universities in the last decade—from 82 in 2009 to 151 in 2019—we can estimate Bangladeshi academic institutions and academic societies are publishing another one hundred journals outside the BanglaJOL.

Being included in the Scopus or receiving an Impact Factor means that a journal has maintained the basic publishing standards. But, most of our journals do not do that. The BanglaJOL, for example, has classified 48 percent of its 143 journals as "inactive", as they are not published online regularly, and on time—one of the major practices to measure a journal's standard. As per the Journal Publishing Practices and Standards (JPPS), about 40 percent BanglaJOL journals are yet to attain minimum publishing standards; many of which are published by old, prestigious learned societies.

Although almost all Bangladeshi journals are struggling to get international recognition, there is in fact no motivation or incentive for improving their standards. A recent analysis has identified several reasons for, let us call it, "academic inertia". First, the cost of publishing a journal in Bangladesh is very small, on average around USD 1,000 per issue. It is mostly paid by the concerned society, research institution, or often by the government ministries. So, funding is not an issue to publish a journal in Bangladesh. Second, the manuscripts journals receive from Bangladeshi authors are sufficient to publish normally two issues per year. So, these journals do not need international authors as a source of manuscripts. Third, despite being internationally-unrecognised, authors of Bangladeshi journals are largely okay with the quality of these journals, since publishing papers in these journals are helping them to get recognition, and also promotion, to be specific.

This inertia is harming Bangladesh's research ecosystem and reputation. A large amount of Bangladesh's research published in Bangladeshi journals remain unrecognised by the global academic community. Our public research spending—for example, during 2009-2018, the Ministry of Science and Technology funded around USD 45 million in research—that supports those researches also remain unappreciated.

In addition, most of our non-indexed journals are vehicles to advance our career by taking advantage of the limitations of the current recruitment and promotion rules, for example, of the universities. The University Grants Commission (UGC) of Bangladesh has proposed a unified guideline for recruitment and promotion of public university teachers, which demands publishing in journals with Impact Factor or indexed in Scopus. But this may not help to improve the poor standards of many Bangladeshi journals.

To break this academic inertia and to make Bangladesh's journals better, as a first step, we need to organise dialogues and conversations among Bangladeshi researchers, journal editors, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (which coordinates 10 national agricultural research institutes), UGC, and the concerned ministries. Such discussions will fill in the knowledge gaps on academic publishing standards, remove our misunderstandings, help us to understand where globally Bangladesh's research and research communication stand, and update us about the global scholarly publishing system.

These should also build trust among the stakeholders for taking collective actions to improve Bangladesh's academic publishing ecosystem. The final outcome of these discussions should be a clear framework outlining the road to improve.

The framework will highlight how to establish a national system to oversee and guide our journals' quality and standards. And how Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, UGC, Directorates of Archives and Library, and BARC can work together and formulate "National Journal Publishing Rules". These rules will gradually be echoed in the recruitment and promotion rules of the universities and research institutes of Bangladesh, updating which is direly needed. The proposed rules should also establish a "Bangladesh Journal Watch" to monitor the quality of Bangladeshi journals in light of the global academic publishing system.

Now the question is, can we soon start the conversation under the leadership of the UGC, prepare a framework to improve Bangladesh's academic publishing system in 2021—the Golden Jubilee of our independence, and aim at making drastic improvements to our academic journal system by 2024—the year Bangladesh graduates to middle-income country? Are we ready for it?

 
Source:
Dr Haseeb Md Irfanullah is a biologist-turned-development-practitioner with a keen interest in research and its communication. He is an independent consultant working on environment, climate change, and research systems.

His Twitter handle is @hmirfanullah

20
Transportation Engineering / Traffic Engineering & Civil Engineering
« on: February 24, 2020, 01:17:48 PM »
For those who are unfamiliar with this branch of engineering, traffic engineering is a method of civil engineering that helps to optimize the performance and efficiency of the movement of people, goods, and transportation. In the field of traffic engineering, engineers must look at the whole picture in order to maximize traffic flow and reduce instanced of congestion: the movement of vehicles on roads and highways; the movement of pedestrians. Through data collection of road construction, land development, and traffic signals, and build traffic studies from them–allowing them to come up with new and inventive ways to optimize the construction of roads, freeways, and other forms of ground transportation.

 

Common objectives of traffic engineering included the following:
Providing high efficient traffic flow through ample research and innovative design efforts.
To produce free flow of traffic.
Use research to design roadways and highways that increase traffic safety (strategic implementation of stop signs, traffic signs, and traffic lights)
 

Usually, to successfully implement the above-mentioned objectives, traffic engineers will be required to study an abundance of data, research, and literature on the characteristics of the traffic, the operations of traffic, traffic administration, traffic planning, and the geometrical design of traffic, amongst other things. In addition to studying data, many traffic engineers will execute a number of studies that will give them the appropriate data for traffic optimization. Some (of the many) studies include:

Accident studies
Traffic capacity studies
Speed studies
Traffic volume studies
Parking studies
Origin and destination studies
Traffic flow characteristics studies
 

In addition to the enhancement of traffic flow, construction of roadways, and installation of road signs and lights, traffic engineers also work hard to improve traffic calming in residential areas. This includes neighbourhood traffic control, traffic mitigation, neighbourhood traffic safety plans, traffic abatement, roadway pavement marking, and signing plans. Believe it or not, these are efforts taken to ensure that residents are safe in their neighbourhood–including children and the elderly.

From the safety of the roadway to the safety of a residential area, traffic engineering is a category of civil engineering that serves a great purpose in Nashville, TN. Without traffic engineers, our roadways would be underdeveloped and unsafe, while yielding high congestion accidents. Our traffic engineers provide use with roadways and traffic signs that allow us to get from point A to point B with ease and safety.

21
Transportation Engineering / What is the future of transportation on earth?
« on: February 24, 2020, 01:11:59 PM »
There are two different technologies I’d like to mention that I think may quite possibly be at least part of the answer to what future transportation on earth looks like.


The idea is to combine some of the best features of private cars and collective tracked transit into one package.

The concept here is to make electric cars, but with a slit down the middle that allows the cars to ride on, and charge from a triangular cross-section elevated rail for longer hauls. This would give you many of the best features of trains combined with many of the best features of private cars:

The vehicle would start at your doorstep, and go directly to your destination with no need to change vehicle.
You’d still be able to own your own private vehicle and would not have to share space with strangers.
You’d not be limited by the schedules of public transport.
The limited range and relatively slow recharge of electric vehicles would no longer be a problem.
While on the rail the vehicle would be self-driving, you’d be able to check the news, read a book or watch a movie.
On the rail the vehicles could form “trains” where they drive with zero distance, this reduces air-resistance and increase the capacity of the rail. It’s been estimated that a single rail would have capacity comparable to 4-5 lanes of ordinary traffic.
You’d not need a very fine-masked network of rails for the technology to be useful, because the vehicles are still capable of driving like ordinary electric cars for the last bit of the travel from the last rail-onramp and to your home or whatever.
Accident-risk would be low on an elevated rail.
Fully electric vehicles WITHOUT needing gigantic battery-packs would be good for the environment.
Rubber-wheels on smooth steel- or alu track powered by electric motors are a lot more silent than IC-powered cars cutting down on traffic-noise in cities while at the same time giving street-level space back to pedestrians, bikers and other soft traffic-participants.



For longer hauls the currently dominating technology is airplanes. They are very noisy and burn a lot of fossil fuels which is a problem for the environment. They’re also not all that fast, especially not for medium hauls.

The problem is that airports are huge and noisy, and therefore need to be located way outside cities. Oslo and Bergen are 305km (190 miles) apart, but if you want to go from downtown Oslo to downtown Bergen you need to:

Travel 50km by car or train to get to the airport.
Arrive at least 45 minutes prior to departure to leave time for checking in, going through security and reaching the gate prior to boarding.
Board, taxi and prepare for takeoff - 15 minutes.
Actually fly for 25 minutes. (this is the fast part)
Travel by car or bus for 18km to get into Bergen.
By the time you’ve done all of that, you’ve spent at least 2 hours, despite the actual flying-thing taking only 25 minutes.

The most well-known evacuated tube plans at the moment are Hyperloop, they imagine capsules moving through very thin air inside of a steel pipe at velocities of up to 1200km/h (760mph). Being underground there’s no reason the hyperloop station can’t be downtown, so with a direct hyperloop-line, you could conceivably travel Oslo-Bergen in less than 20 minutes.

NYC-SF would still take 3.5 hours though. And although this is better than planes, it’s still pretty slow. Luckily there’s no fundamental reason we’re limited to “only” 1200km/h with evacuated tubes.

The theoretical maximum is given by the curve of the earth's surface. At a velocity of 7.9km/s (or 17000mph!) you’d be in orbit and the passengers would experience weightlessness. At that velocity, you’d cover NYC-SF in about 10 minutes.

(If that’s not good enough for you, then I’d like to point out that if you REALLY want to get somewhere like right now, you could at this point simply rotate the capsule 180 degrees and then continue acceleration only now you’re driving not on the “floor” of the tube, but instead on the “roof” of the tube.)

Being in near-vacuum also helps with reducing drag, so such trains can have quite modest energy-requirements while at the same time being fast as greased lightning.

More Reading regarding this: https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-future-of-transportation-on-earth

22
The data has been gathering for years that show the GRE doesn’t do what it claims to: predict success in grad school. (E.g., Miller, C. and Stassun, K. 2014. A test that fails. Nature 510: 303-304.)

Inertia is hard to overcome. Institutions often don’t want to be the first to move. It’s hard to underestimate how strong the, “Our program has lots of students, so why change it? It’s the industry standard” mentality is among faculty. (I say this as one of them.)

But once some universities started not requiring the GRE, others that do require it are now at a competitive disadvantage. If students don’t want to invest the time and money in writing the GRE, and there are universities that they want to go to that don’t require it, why even apply to institutions that do require the GRE? So dropping the GRE starts to snowball. The more institutions drop it, the more will drop it in the future.

Reference: https://www.quora.com/Why-are-many-universities-quitting-the-GRE-now

23
Programming Language / Why can't C++ replace C in embedded systems?
« on: February 24, 2020, 01:04:03 PM »
C++ can be used in embedded systems. If it can replace C - that would be a longer discussion (I mean moving an existing project from C to C++).

There is a lot of myths about C++, that mostly untrue. However, very experienced C programmers from Embedded World are rarely good C++ programmers without proper training and time to exercise new language. Mainly, because one myth is that C is a subset of C++ or that C++ is a superset of C. It’s true historically, but today both languages differ a lot and you cannot apply the way of solving problems know from C into your C++ programs as otherwise, results are disastrous. And that’s what very experienced C programmers are trying to do starting with C++ language - the project ends up with code written in C with classes style.

Actually C++ has multiple features that make code on the embedded system smaller and faster than it would be written in C. Massive optimisations offered by compilers help a lot as well. It’s much easier to write correct code in C++ and it’s much easier to unit test C++ code before you use it on your target system.

But preparation to run C++ code on the target can be pretty painful and you need people who really know what they’re doing. All your toolchain need to be configured accordingly and widely available defaults are fine only to target Linux based systems, but not bare metal, standard libraries have their quirks that need to be sorted, otherwise, you face equivocal problems during execution. But once that’s done, you’re good to go.

One another problem is that support for C++ from well recognized Real-Time Operating Systems is close to zero - it requires some time to get is sorted and create a proper layer between the OS written in C and project abstractions for the RTOS. None of the attempts to make fully-fledged RTOS in C++ really went into mainstream. And today multithreading support of C++14 and even extended in C++17 makes it even more complex. Somebody well addressing this problem today may finally patch the hole in the growing IoT market that is more and more often implemented using C++.

I forgot to mention in the original answer, that the obstacle for many who would like to start their adventure with C++ in embedded systems are compilers. If you can afford to use GCC, then you’re mostly fine or ARM (not all) and MIPS, but other architectures are supported only by commercial products. And for example, IAR added support for C++14 quite recently in their Workbench compilers, while the current approved standard is C++17 and all-new GCC and CLANG support it.

I’m currently in the project, where we use C++14 on target platform having 2MB of code space (built-in Flash) and 364 kB of RAM. The processor core in ARM Cortex-M7. We’re using FreeRTOS (in fact licensed OpenRTOS). It has HTTP Server with REST API and AMQP for cloud communication. Networking over WiFi.

Source: Michał Fita
Programmer, electronics hobbyst,

25
Programming Language / Armstrong numbers and a Python program to find it
« on: February 20, 2020, 07:52:02 PM »
What is an Armstrong number?

An Armstrong number is a number that is the sum of its own digits each raised to the power of the number of digits.

for example:
1. 153 is an Armstrong number because it is a three-digit number and
 (1^3) + (5^3) + (3^3)= 153.

2. Again 407 is an Armstrong number because it is a three-digit number and
(4^3) + (0^3) + (7^3) = 407.

3. 1634 is also an Armstrong number. It is a four-digit number and
(1^4)+(6^4)+(3^4)+(4^4)=1634

Hopefully, now you get what is an Armstrong number.
Now it is very tough to check large numbers whether it is an Armstrong number or not. But it 2020 and we have programming languages. I have written a Python code to determine all the Armstong numbers from 0 to 15,0000000
and these numbers are:

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 153, 370, 371, 407, 1634, 8208, 9474, 54748, 92727, 93084, 548834, 1741725, 4210818, 9800817, 9926315, 24678050, 24678051, 88593477, 146511208.

By the way, you can set the upper limit as much you want but if you set a very large number as upper limit, it might take a longer time to determine.

You can copy the codes and paste in any text file and save as .py

upper_limit=int(input("Input the upper limit "))
for i in range (upper_limit):
    number =int(i)
    summation = 0
    temp = number
    length = len(str(number))
    while number != 0:
        number_mod = number % 10
        summation = summation + number_mod ** length
        number = number // 10
    if summation == temp:
        print(temp,end=", ")



26


করোনাভাইরাসের কারণে দেশে ভ্যাটের মেশিন বসানোয় দেরি হচ্ছে। ১৬ ফেব্রুয়ারি থেকে পরীক্ষামূলকভাবে ঢাকা ও চট্টগ্রামে এই যন্ত্র বসানোর কথা ছিল। যন্ত্রটি ইতিমধ্যে দেশে চলেও এসেছে। কিন্তু নির্দিষ্ট সফটওয়্যার সন্নিবেশিত করার জন্য চীনা প্রকৌশলীরা করোনাভাইরাসের কারণে আসতে না পারায় ভ্যাট মেশিন চালুর বিষয়টি আপাতত থেমে গেছে। কবে নাগাদ তা চালু হবে, সেটিও নিশ্চিত নন ভ্যাট কর্মকর্তারা।

এই অবস্থায় জাতীয় রাজস্ব বোর্ড (এনবিআর) নতুন করণীয় নির্ধারণে আজ বুধবার বৈঠকে বসছে। এতে ভ্যাটের মেশিন সরবরাহকারী প্রতিষ্ঠান এসজেডজেডটি-কেএমএমটি-ইএটিএল জেভি এডিএ ট্রেডিং বাংলাদেশ কোম্পানিসহ সংশ্লিষ্ট সব পক্ষের প্রতিনিধিদের ডাকা হয়েছে। বৈঠকে এনবিআরের চেয়ারম্যান আবু হেনা মো. রহমাতুল মুনিম সভাপতিত্ব করবেন। এনবিআর সূত্রে এসব তথ্য জানা গেছে।

নতুন ভ্যাট আইন চালুর পর কেনা দামেই ব্যবসায়ীদের মধ্যে ইলেকট্রনিক ফিসক্যাল ডিভাইস (ইএফডি) মেশিন (ইসিআর মেশিনের মতো) প্রদানের ঘোষণা দেয় এনবিআর। ব্যবসায়ীরা যাতে স্বয়ংক্রিয়ভাবে ভ্যাটের হিসাব রাখতে পারেন, সে জন্য এনবিআর উদ্যোগটি নেয়। এ জন্য ওই চীনা কোম্পানিকে প্রাথমিকভাবে ১০ হাজার ইএফডি মেশিন আমদানির কার্যাদেশ দেওয়া হয়।

এদিকে ঢাকা ও চট্টগ্রাম মহানগরে পরীক্ষামূলকভাবে চালু করে দেখার জন্য গত জানুয়ারি মাসে চীন থেকে ১০০টি ইএফডি মেশিন দেশে আনা হয়। ১৬ ফেব্রুয়ারি থেকে দুই সপ্তাহের জন্য ঢাকা উত্তর ও দক্ষিণ কমিশনারেটে ৪০টি করে এবং চট্টগ্রামের বিভিন্ন এলাকার ২০টি দোকানে যন্ত্রটি বসানোর কথা ছিল। কিন্তু চীনা প্রকৌশলীরা আসতে না পারায় কাজটি করা যাচ্ছে না। চীনা প্রকৌশলীদের এই মেশিনে নির্দিষ্ট সফটওয়্যার বসানো এবং এনবিআরের ডেটা সেন্টারে তা সংযুক্ত করার কথা ছিল। ইএফডি মেশিন সরবরাহকারী প্রতিষ্ঠানে কর্মরত চীনা প্রকৌশলীরা গত জানুয়ারি মাসে নিজ দেশে ছুটিতে যান।

Source: https://www.prothomalo.com/economy/article/1640592

27
Kids usually solve this a lot faster than adults.

So, what’s the next line of numbers?

Maybe you want to take a few minutes to figure it out…

At first, try to solve this as your own.
Then if you want to see the solution, please click here

https://www.quora.com/What-is-a-brain-teaser-that-is-very-short-and-extremely-hard-for-adults

Pages: 1 [2]