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Topics - Anisur Rahman

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Faculty Sections / Android Apps
« on: August 01, 2013, 04:18:16 PM »
free mobile apps can be downloaded from the link given below

Faculty Forum / Quotes from the Scholars
« on: January 11, 2012, 04:27:54 PM »
Education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity.......Aristotle

IT Forum / e-tips
« on: December 22, 2011, 01:07:12 AM »
watch free tv!!!!!!!!!!!!just visit and you will be watching lots of tv progrmmes.

Allah: My belief / Keep your PC-Laptop Healthy
« on: December 21, 2011, 04:58:23 PM »
We can keep our laptop battery in good conditions using the following software.....the link is

Hinduism / Saraswati : Wisdom Goddess
« on: October 27, 2011, 01:50:19 PM »
Saraswati is the Goddess of leaming, knowledge, and wisdom. The Sanskrit word sara means "essence" and swa means "self." Thus Saraswati means "the essence of the self." Saraswati is represented in Hindu mythology as the divine consort of Lord Brahma, the Creator of the universe. Since knowledge is necessary for creation, Saraswati symbolizes the creative power of Brahma. Goddess Saraswati is worshipped by all persons interested in knowledge, especially students, teachers, scholars, and scientists.
In Her popular images and pictures, Goddess Saraswati is generally depicted with four arms (some pictures may show only two arms), wearing a white sari and seated on a white lotus. She holds a book and a rosary in Her rear two hands, while the front two hands are engaged in the playing of a lute (veena). Her right leg is shown slightly pushing against Her left leg. She uses a swan as Her vehicle. There is a peacock by Her side gazing at Her. This symbolism illustrates the following spiritual ideas:

The lotus is a symbol of the Supreme Reality, and a white lotus also denotes supreme knowledge. By sitting on a lotus, Saraswati signifies that She is Herself rooted in the Supreme Reality, and symbolizes supreme knowledge. The white color symbolizes purity and knowledge. The white sari that the Goddess is wearing denotes that She is the embodiment of pure knowledge.
The four amms denote Her omnipresence and omnipotence. The two front amms indicate Her activity in the physical world and the two back arms signify Her presence in the spiritual world. The four hands represent the four elements of the inner personality. The mind (manas) is represented by the front right hand, the intellect (buddhi) by the front left hand, the conditioned consciousness (chitta) by the rear left hand, and the ego (ahankara) by the rear right hand.
The left side of the body symbolizes the qualities of the heart and the right side symbolizes activities of the mind and intellect. A book in the rear left hand signifies that knowledge acquired must be used with love and kindness to promote prosperity of mankind.
The rosary signifies concentration, meditation, and contemplation, leading to samadhi, or union with God. A rosary in the rear right hand representing ego conveys that true knowledge acquired with love and devotion melts the ego and results in liberation (moksha) of the seeker from the bondage to the physical world.
The Goddess is shown playing a musical instrument that is held in Her front hands, which denote mind and intellect. This symbol conveys that the seeker must tune his mind and intellect in order to live in perfect harmony with the world. Such harmonious living enables the individual to utilize acquired knowledge for the welfare of all mankind.
Two swans are depicted on the left side of the Goddess. A swan is said to have a sensitive beak that enables it to distinguish pure milk from a mixture of milk and water. A swan, therefore, symbolizes the power of discrimination, or the ability to discriminate between right and wrong or good and bad. Saraswati uses the swan as Her carrier. This indicates that one must acquire and apply knowledge with discrimination for the good of mankind. Knowledge that is dominated by ego can destroy the world.
A peacock is sitting next to Saraswati and is anxiously waiting to serve as Her vehicle. A peacock depicts unpredictable behavior as its moods can be influenced by the changes in the weather. Saraswati is using a swan as a vehicle and not the peacock. This signifies that one should overcome fear, indecision, and fickleness in order to acquire true knowledge.

Hinduism / Ganesha: Lord of Success
« on: October 27, 2011, 01:47:48 PM »
Ganesha: Lord of Success
All About the Hindu Elephant-Deity
By Subhamoy Das, Guide

Ganesha — the elephant-deity riding a mouse — has become one of the commonest mnemonics for anything associated with Hinduism. This not only suggests the importance of Ganesha, but also shows how popular and pervasive this deity is in the minds of the masses.

The Lord of Success
The son of Shiva and Parvati, Ganesha has an elephantine countenance with a curved trunk and big ears, and a huge pot-bellied body of a human being. He is the Lord of success and destroyer of evils and obstacles. He is also worshipped as the god of education, knowledge, wisdom and wealth. In fact, Ganesha is one of the five prime Hindu deities (Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva and Durga being the other four) whose idolatry is glorified as the panchayatana puja.

Significance of the Ganesha Form
Ganesha's head symbolizes the Atman or the soul, which is the ultimate supreme reality of human existence, and his human body signifies Maya or the earthly existence of human beings. The elephant head denotes wisdom and its trunk represents Om, the sound symbol of cosmic reality. In his upper right hand Ganesha holds a goad, which helps him propel mankind forward on the eternal path and remove obstacles from the way. The noose in Ganesha's left hand is a gentle implement to capture all difficulties.

The broken tusk that Ganesha holds like a pen in his lower right hand is a symbol of sacrifice, which he broke for writing the Mahabharata. The rosary in his other hand suggests that the pursuit of knowledge should be continuous. The laddoo (sweet) he holds in his trunk indicates that one must discover the sweetness of the Atman. His fan-like ears convey that he is all ears to our petition. The snake that runs round his waist represents energy in all forms. And he is humble enough to ride the lowest of creatures, a mouse.

How Ganesha Got His Head
The story of the birth of this zoomorphic deity, as depicted in the Shiva Purana, goes like this: Once goddess Parvati, while bathing, created a boy out of the dirt of her body and assigned him the task of guarding the entrance to her bathroom. When Shiva, her husband returned, he was surprised to find a stranger denying him access, and struck off the boy's head in rage. Parvati broke down in utter grief and to soothe her, Shiva sent out his squad (gana) to fetch the head of any sleeping being who was facing the north. The company found a sleeping elephant and brought back its severed head, which was then attached to the body of the boy. Shiva restored its life and made him the leader (pati) of his troops. Hence his name 'Ganapati'. Shiva also bestowed a boon that people would worship him and invoke his name before undertaking any venture.

However, there's another less popular story of his origin, found in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana: Shiva asked Parvati to observe the punyaka vrata for a year to appease Vishnu in order to have a son. When a son was born to her, all the gods and goddesses assembled to rejoice on its birth. Lord Shani, the son of Surya (Sun-God), was also present but he refused to look at the infant. Perturbed at this behaviour, Parvati asked him the reason, and Shani replied that his looking at baby would harm the newborn. However, on Parvati's insistence when Shani eyed the baby, the child's head was severed instantly. All the gods started to bemoan, whereupon Vishnu hurried to the bank of river Pushpabhadra and brought back the head of a young elephant, and joined it to the baby's body, thus reviving it.

Ganesha, the Destroyer of Pride
Ganesha is also the destroyer of vanity, selfishness and pride. He is the personification of material universe in all its various magnificent manifestations. "All Hindus worship Ganesha regardless of their sectarian belief," says D N Singh in A Study of Hinduism. "He is both the beginning of the religion and the meeting ground for all Hindus."

Ganesh Chaturthi
The devotees of Ganesha are known as 'Ganapatyas', and the festival to celebrate and glorify him is called Ganesh Chaturthi.

Hinduism / Goddess Kali
« on: October 27, 2011, 01:42:08 PM »
Kali Puja (Bengali: কালীপূজা) or Shyama Puja (Bengali: শ্যামাপূজা) is a festival dedicated to the Hindu goddess Kali, celebrated on the new moon day of the Hindu month Ashwin in Bengal.It coincides with the pan-Indian Lakshmi Puja day of Diwali. While the Bengalis, Oriyas and Assamese adore goddess Kali on this day the rest of India worships goddess Lakshmi.

 HistoryThe festival of Kali Puja is not an ancient one. Kali Puja was practically unknown before the 18th century, however a late 17th century devotional text Kalika mangalkavya –by Balram mentions an annual festival dedicated to Kali.It was introduced in Bengal during the 18th century, by King (Raja) Krishnachandra of Navadvipa. Kali Puja gained popularity in the 19th century, with Krishanachandra’s grandson Ishvarchandra and the Bengali elite; wealthy landowners began patronizing the festival on a grand scale. Along with Durga Puja, now - Kali Puja is the biggest goddess festival in Bengal.

WorshipKali puja (like Durga Puja) worshipers honor goddess Kali in their homes in the form of clay idols and in pandals (temporary shrines or open pavilions). She is worshipped at night with Tantric rites and mantras. She is prescribed offerings of red hibiscus flowers, animal blood in a skull, sweets, rice and lentils, fish and meat. It is prescribed that a worshipper should meditate throughout the night until dawn. Homes may also practice rites in the Brahmanical (mainstream Hindu-style, non-Tantric) tradition with ritual dressing of Kali in her form as Adya Shakti Kali.Animals are ritually sacrificed on Kali Puja day and offered to the goddess. A celebration of Kali Puja in Kolkata is also held in a large cremation ground where she is believed to dwell.

Replica of the Kalighat Temple central image in a Kali Puja pandal.The pandals also house images of god Shiva - the consort of Kali, Ramakrishna and Bamakhepa- two famous Bengali Kali devotees along with scenes from mythology of Kali and her various forms along with Mahavidyas, sometimes considered as the "ten Kalis". The Mahavidyas is a group of ten Tantric goddesses headed by Kali.People visit these pandals throughout the night. Kali Puja is also the time for magic shows and theatre, fireworks.Recent custom involves drinking wine.

In the Kalighat Temple in Kolkata, Kali is worshipped as Lakshmi on this day so as to reflect an essence of Vaishnava Haldars on Kali worship. The temple is visited by thousands of devotees who offer animal sacrifices to the goddess.Another famous temple dedicated to Kali in Kolkata is Dakshineswar Kali Temple. The famous Kali devotee Ramakrishna was a priest at this temple. The celebrations have changed little from his time.

Other celebrationsAlthough the widely popular annual Kali Puja celebration, also known as the Dipanwita Kali Puja, is celebrated on the new moon day of Aswin, Kali is also worshipped in other new moon days too. Two other major Kali Puja observations are Ratanti Kali Puja and Phalaharini Kali Puja, respectively celebrated on the new moon days of the Hindu months of Margashirsha and Jyeshta. In many Bengali households, Kali is worshipped daily.

Hinduism / Mahalaxmi - The Goddess of Wealth and Fortune
« on: October 27, 2011, 01:36:03 PM »
Lakshmi puja is performed during Diwali, the festival of lights. According to tradition people would put small oil lamps outside their homes on Diwali and hope Lakshmi will come to bless them.

Goddess Lakshmi is worshipped by those who wish to acquire or to preserve wealth. It is believed that Lakshmi (wealth) goes only to those houses which are clean and where the people are hardworking. She does not visit the places which are unclean/dirty or where the people are lazy.

In the Sri Vaishnava philosophy however, Sri (Lakshmi) is honoured as the "Iswarigm sarva bhootanam" i.e. the Supreme goddess and not just the goddess of wealth. This is an important distinction between Sri Vaishnavism and other materialistic philosophies.
The third day of the festival of Diwali is the most important day of Lakshmi-puja and is entirely devoted to the propitiation of Goddess Lakshmi. On this very day sun enters his second course and passes Libra which is represented by the balance or scale. Hence, this design of Libra is believed to have suggested the balancing of account books and their closing. Despite the fact that this day falls on an amavasya day it is regarded as the most auspicious.

The day of Lakshmi-Puja falls on the dark night of Amavasya. The strains of joyous sounds of bells and drums float from the temples as man is invoking Goddess Laxmi in a wondrous holy "pouring-in" of his heart. All of a sudden that impenetrable darkness is pierced by innumerable rays of light for just a moment and the next moment a blaze of light descends down to earth from heaven as golden-footed Deep-Lakshmi alights on earth in all her celestial glory amidst chantings of Vedic hymns.

A sublime light of knowledge dawns upon humanity and this self enlightenment is expressed through the twinkling lamps that illuminate the palaces of thewealthy as well as the lowly abodes of the poor. It is believed that on this day Lakshmi walks through the green fields and loiters through the bye-lanes and showers her blessings on man for plenty and prosperity.

After Lakshmi Puja, lamps are lit all over the houseLakshmi Pooja, or the worship of the goddess of wealth, is the main event on Diwali in North and West India. It is extremely important to keep the house spotlessly clean and pure on Diwali. Goddess Lakshmi likes cleanliness, and she will visit the cleanest house first. This is also the reason why the broom is worshiped on this day with offerings of haldi and kumkum (turmeric and vermilion). Lamps are lit in the evening to welcome the goddess. They are believed to light up Her path.

Lakshmi Puja consists of a combined puja of five deities: Ganesha is worshiped at the beginning of every auspicious act as Vighneshvara; Goddess Lakshmi is worshiped in her three forms - Mahalakshmi (the goddess of wealth and money), Mahasaraswati (the goddess of books and learning), and Mahakali; Kuber (the treasurer of the gods) is also worshiped.
Rite of a Diwali PujaInitially the house must be cleaned, and a Rangoli is drawn at the doorstep in order to welcome Goddess Lakshmi.

The Puja requires the following elements:

The Ritual ElementsSilver and Gold coins
Ten Betel Nuts (Supari)
Uncooked Rice
Five Paan or Mango leaves
A Coconut
Water in a small pot (a "Lota")
Red vermillon ("Kumkum") for applying the tilak
Oil Lamps ("Diyas")
Holi-type colored powders
Indian sweets (Mithai)
Incense sticks (Agarbatti)
Dry fruits (almonds, cashews)
 A Thali
Rose or other flower petals
Raksha Sutra* A new notebook
A piece of red cloth for putting the puja items
Ghee to light the lamps
Rose water
Icons of:

Source: Wikipedia

Buddhism / Buddhist Hymns and Prayers
« on: October 27, 2011, 01:22:04 PM »
On Opening the Sutra

The Dharma incomparably profound and exquisite
Is rarely met with, even in hundreds of thousands of millions of kalpas;
We are now permitted to see it, to listen to it, to accept and hold it;
May we truly understand the meaning of the Tathagata’s words!


All the evil karma ever committed by me since of old,
On account of greed, anger, and folly, which have no beginning,
Born of my body, mouth, and thought --
I now make full open confession of it.

The Threefold Refuge

I take refuge in the Buddha;
I take refuge in the Dharma;
I take refuge in the Sangha.

I take refuge in the Buddha, the incomparably honoured one;
I take refuge in the Dharma, honourable for its purity;
I take refuge in the Sangha, honourable for its harmonious life.

I have finished taking refuge in the Buddha;
I have finished taking refuge in the Dharma;
I have finished taking refuge in the Sangha.

The Four Great Vows

However innumerable beings are, I vow to save them;
However inexhaustible the passions are, I vow to extinguish them;
However immeasurable the Dharmas are, I vow to master them;
However incomparable the Buddha-truth is, I vow to attain it.

The Teaching of the Seven Buddhas

Not to commit evils,
But to do all that is good,
And to keep one’s thought pure --
This is the teaching of all the Buddhas

The Gatha of Impermanence

All composite things are impermanent,
They are subject to birth and death;
Put an end to birth and death,
And there is blissful tranquility.

[The preceding quoted in D. T. Suzuki, Manual of Zen Buddhism.  N.Y.:  Grove, 1960.]

Mahamangala Sutta

[Discourse of Supreme Happiness]

Pali English
Bahu deva manussa ca
Mangalani acintayum
Akankha-mana sotthanam
Bruhi mangala muttamam Many deities and humans,
yearning after good,
have pondered on Blessings.
Pray, tell me the Supreme Blessings.
Asevana ca balanam
Panditanan ca sevana
Puja ca puja-niyanam
Etam mangala muttamam Not to follow or associate with the foolish,
to associate with the wise,
and honor those who are worthy of honor.
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Patirupa-desa vaso ca
Pubbe ca kata-punnata
Atta samma panidhi ca
Etam mangala muttamam To reside in a suitable locality,
to have done meritorious actions in the past, 
and to have set oneself on the right course 
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Bahu saccanca sippanca
Vinayo ca susikkhito
Subhasita ca ya vaca
Etam mangala muttamam Vast-learning, perfect handicraft,
a highly trained discipline
and pleasant speech.
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Mata pitu upatthanam
Putta darassa sangaho
Anakula ca kammanta
Etam mangala muttamam The support of mother and father,
the cherishing of spouse and children
and peaceful occupations.
This is the Supreme Blessings.
Danam ca dhamma-cariya ca
Natakananca sangaho
Anavajjani kammani
Etam mangala muttamam Liberality, righteous conduct,
the helping of relatives
and blameless action.
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Arati virati papa
Majja-pana ca sannamo
Appa-mado ca dhammesu
Etam mangala muttamam To cease and abstain from evil,
forbearance with respect to intoxicants
and steadfastness in virtue.
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Garavo ca Sovacassata,
Samana nanca dassanam
Kalena dhamma sakaccha
Etam mangala muttamam Patience, obedience,
sight of the holy ones
and religious discussions at due season. 
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Tapo ca brahma cariyaca
Ariya sacana dassanam
Nibbana sacchi kiriyaca
Etam mangal muttamam Self-control, pure life,
perception of the Noble Truths
and the realization of Nibbana.
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Putthassa loka dhammehi
Cittam yassa na kampati
Asokam virajam khemam
Etam mangala muttamam He whose mind does not flutter,
by contact with worldly contingencies,
sorrowless, stainless and secure.
This is the Supreme Blessing.
Eta-disani katvana
Sabbattha maparajita
Sabbattha sotthim gacchanti
Tam tesam mangala-muttamamti To them, fulfilling matters such as these,
everywhere invincible,
in every way moving happily.
These are the Supreme Blessings.

Buddhism / Some features on Buddhism
« on: October 27, 2011, 01:07:14 PM »
The Life of Siddhartha Gautama
Dr. C. George Boeree
Shippensburg University



There was a small country in what is now southern Nepal that was ruled by a clan called the Shakyas.  The head of this clan, and the king of this country, was named Shuddodana Gautama, and his wife was the beautiful Mahamaya.  Mahamaya was expecting her first born.  She had had a strange dream in which a baby elephant had blessed her with his trunk, which was understood to be a very auspicious sign to say the least.

As was the custom of the day, when the time came near for Queen Mahamaya to have her child, she traveled to her father's kingdom for the birth.  But during the long journey, her birth pains began.  In the small town of Lumbini, she asked her handmaidens to assist her to a nearby grove of trees for privacy.  One large tree lowered a branch to her to serve as a support for her delivery.  They say the  birth was nearly painless, even though the child had to be delivered from her side.  After, a gentle rain fell on the mother and the child to cleanse them.

It is said that the child was born fully awake.  He could speak, and told his mother he had come to free all mankind from suffering.  He could stand, and he walked a short distance in each of the four directions.  Lotus blossoms rose in his footsteps.  They named him Siddhartha, which means "he who has attained his goals."  Sadly, Mahamaya died only seven days after the birth.  After that Siddhartha was raised by his mother’s kind sister,  Mahaprajapati.

King Shuddodana consulted Asita, a well-known sooth-sayer, concerning the future of his son.  Asita proclaimed that he would be one of two things:  He could become a great king, even an emperor.  Or he could become a great sage and savior of humanity.  The king, eager that his son should become a king like himself, was determined to shield the child from anything that might result in him taking up the religious life.  And so Siddhartha was kept in one or another of their three palaces, and was prevented from experiencing much of what ordinary folk might consider quite commonplace.  He was not permitted to see the elderly, the sickly, the dead, or anyone who had dedicated themselves to spiritual practices.  Only beauty and health surrounded Siddhartha.

Siddhartha grew up to be a strong and handsome young man.  As a prince of the warrior caste, he trained in the arts of war.  When it came time for him to marry, he won the hand of a beautiful princess of a neighboring kingdom by besting all competitors at a variety of sports. Yashodhara was her name, and they married when both were 16 years old.

As Siddhartha continued living in the luxury of his palaces, he grew increasing restless and curious about the world beyond the palace walls.  He finally demanded that he be permitted to see his people and his lands.  The king carefully arranged that Siddhartha should still not see the kind of suffering that he feared would lead him to a religious life, and decried that only young and healthy people should greet the prince.

As he was lead through Kapilavatthu, the capital, he chanced to see a couple of old men who had accidentally wandered near the parade route.  Amazed and confused, he chased after them to find out what they were.  Then he came across some people who were severely ill.  And finally, he came across a funeral ceremony by the side of a river, and for the first time in his life saw death.  He asked his friend and squire Chandaka the meaning of all these things, and Chandaka informed him of the simple truths that Siddhartha should have known all along:  That all of us get old, sick, and eventually die.

Siddhartha also saw an ascetic, a monk who had renounced all the pleasures of the flesh.  The peaceful look on the monks face would stay with Siddhartha for a long time to come.  Later, he would say this about that time:

When ignorant people see someone who is old, they are disgusted and horrified, even though they too will be old some day.  I thought to myself:  I don’t want to be like the ignorant people.  After that, I couldn’t feel the usual intoxication with youth anymore.
When ignorant people see someone who is sick, they are disgusted and horrified, even though they too will be sick some day.  I thought to myself:  I don’t want to be like the ignorant people.  After that, I couldn’t feel the usual intoxication with health anymore.

When ignorant people see someone who is dead, they are disgusted and horrified, even though they too will be dead some day.  I thought to myself:  I don’t want to be like the ignorant people.  After than, I couldn’t feel the usual intoxication with life anymore. (AN III.39, interpreted)

At the age of 29, Siddhartha came to realize that he could not be happy living as he had been.  He had discovered suffering, and wanted more than anything to discover how one might overcome suffering.  After kissing his sleeping wife and newborn son Rahula goodbye, he snuck out of the palace with his squire Chandara and his favorite horse Kanthaka.  He gave away his rich clothing, cut his long hair, and gave the horse to Chandara and told him to return to the palace.    He studied for a while with two famous gurus of the day, but found their practices lacking.

He then began to practice the austerities and self-mortifications practiced by a group of five ascetics. For six years, he practiced. The sincerity and intensity of his practice were so astounding that, before long, the five ascetics became followers of Siddhartha.  But the answers to his questions were not forthcoming.  He redoubled his efforts, refusing food and water, until he was in a state of near death.
One day, a peasant girl named Sujata saw this starving monk and took pity on him.  She begged him to eat some of her milk-rice.  Siddhartha then realized that these extreme practices were leading him nowhere, that in fact it might be better to find some middle way between the extremes of the life of luxury and the life of self-mortification.  So he ate, and drank, and bathed in the river.  The five ascetics saw him and concluded that Siddhartha had given up the ascetic life and taken to the ways of the flesh, and left him.

In the town of Bodh Gaya, Siddhartha decided that he would sit under a certain fig tree as long as it would take for the answers to the problem of suffering to come.  He sat there for many days, first in deep concentration to clear his mind of all distractions, then in mindfulness meditation, opening himself up to the truth.  He began, they say, to recall all his previous lives, and to see everything that was going on in the entire universe.  On the full moon of May, with the rising of the morning star, Siddhartha finally understood the answer to the question of suffering and became the Buddha, which means “he who is awake.”

It is said that Mara, the evil one, tried to prevent this great occurrence.  He first tried to frighten Siddhartha with storms and armies of demons.  Siddhartha remained completely calm.  Then he sent his three beautiful daughters to tempt him, again to no avail.  Finally, he tried to ensnare Siddhartha in his own ego by appealing to his pride.  That, too, failed.  Siddhartha, having conquered all temptations, touched the ground with one hand and asked the earth to be his witness.

Siddhartha, now the Buddha, remained seated under the tree -- which we call the bodhi tree -- for many days longer. It seemed to him that this knowledge he had gained was far too difficult to communicate to others.  Legend has it that Brahma, king of the gods, convinced Buddha to teach, saying that some of us perhaps have only a little dirt in our eyes and could awaken if we only heard his story.  Buddha agreed to teach.

At Sarnath near Benares, about one hundred miles from Bodh Gaya, he came across the five ascetics he had practiced with for so long.  There, in a deer park, he preached his first sermon, which is called “setting the wheel of the teaching in motion.”  He explained to them the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.  They became his very first disciples and the beginnings of the Sangha or community of monks.

King Bimbisara of Magadha, having heard Buddha’s words, granted him a monastery near Rahagriha, his capital, for use during the rainy season.  This and other generous donations permitted the community of converts to continue their practice throughout the years, and gave many more people an opportunity to hear the teachings of the Buddha.

Over time, he was approached by members of his family, including his wife, son, father, and aunt.  His son became a monk and is particularly remembered in a sutra based on a conversation between father and son on the dangers of lying.  His father became a lay follower.  Because he was saddened by the departures of his son and grandson into the monastic life, he asked Buddha to make it a rule that a man must have the permission of his parents to become a monk.  Buddha obliged him.

His aunt and wife asked to be permitted into the Sangha, which was originally composed only of men.  The culture of the time ranked women far below men in importance, and at first it seemed that permitting women to enter the community would weaken it.  But the Buddha relented, and his aunt and wife became the first Buddhist nuns.

The Buddha said that it didn’t matter what a person’s status in the world was, or what their background or wealth or nationality might be.  All were capable of enlightenment, and all were welcome into the Sangha.  The first ordained Buddhist monk, Upali, had been a barber, yet he was ranked higher than monks who had been kings, only because he had taken his vows earlier than they!

Buddha’s life wasn’t without disappointments.  His cousin, Devadatta, was an ambitious man.  As a convert and monk, he felt that he should have greater power in the Sangha.   He managed to influence quite a few monks with a call to a return to extreme asceticism. Eventually, he conspired with a local king to have the Buddha killed and to take over the Buddhist community.  Of course, he failed.
Buddha had achieved his enlightenment at the age of 35.  He would teach throughout northeast India for another 45 years.  When the Buddha was 80 years old, he told his friend and cousin Ananda that he would be leaving them soon.  And so it came to be that in Kushinagara, not a hundred miles from his homeland, he ate some spoiled food and became very ill.  He went into a deep meditation under a grove of sala trees and died.  His last words were...

Impermanent are all created things;
Strive on with awareness.

English Language Lab / Important Verb Phrases
« on: October 27, 2011, 12:25:30 PM »
1. Bring about : cause
2. Carry on : continue
3. Carry out: complete
4. Clear up: clarify
5. Come about: happen
6. Come across: find
7. Come by: find accidentally
8. Come out with: publish
9. Come up with: create
10. Cut down on: reduce

Islam & Science / The Qur'an & Modern Science
« on: October 26, 2011, 01:39:23 PM »
Many more miracles appear when Basmalah is investigated. According to us, one of the points of the 30th verse of the sura “The Hidden” (Over it is 19) attracts attention, is the Basmalah. It consists 19 letters. Basmalah is written at the top of the suras and it shows that the Quran has not changed and it has a mathematical code and mathematical miracles.

Now, let us examine the miracles of the Basmalah depending on the code 19. Basmalah, a group of words, which is repeated every other minute in the world and in the Quran is a miraculous group of words. Let us examine the words forming Basmalah and the numerical value of them.

Number Letters of the words Number of Letters Mathematical Value Total
1 Ba,Seen,Meem 3 2, 60, 40 102
2 Alif,Lam,Lam,He 4 1, 30, 30, 5 66
3 Alif,Lam,Ra,Ha,Meem,Noon 6 1, 30, 200, 8, 40, 50 329
4 Alif,Lam,Ra,Ha,Ya,Meem 6 1, 30, 200, 8, 10, 40 289
total 19 - 786

The numerical value of the words “God”, “Al-Gracious”, “Al-Merciful” which form the names of God in Basmalah is a multiple of 19.

The numerical value of God’s names which form Basmalah
God Al-Gracious Al-Merciful Total
66 329 289 684

There are many miracles which depend on the code 19 in Basmalah. Some of these miracles are as follows:

1) If we write the number of the letters of the words in Basmalah after their serial numbers, we get an eight-digit number and this number is a multiple of 19:
13243646 = 19× 19×36686

2) Now, let us replace the number of the letters of these words with their total numerical value. Now, the number we get is a fifteen-digit number and this number is a multiple 19: 110226633294289 = 19 × 5801401752331

3) Now, let us replace the total numerical value of the words with the numerical value of each letter. For example, in the place of 102 which is the total numerical value of the first word, let’s write 2, 60, 40 which are the numerical values of each letter in that word. We get a thirtyseven digit number and this number is a multiple of 19 (You can control these divisions in a computer. We wonder whether some disbelievers will claim that the Prophet Muhammad discovered a computer 1400 years ago) : 1260402130305313020084050413020081040 = 19 x 6633695422…

4) Let us write the total of the letters in that word instead of the number of letters of each word we have used in the first example. For instance, let us write 7(4+3) which is the total number of letters of the first and second words in the place of 4 which is the number of the letters of the second word. This ten digit number is also a multiple of 19: 1327313419 = 19 × 69848601

5) Now, let us replace the numerical value of each word used in the second example with the total numerical value of these words. We get an nineteen digit number and this number is a multiple of 19. Now, we use the total numerical value as we have used the total number of the letters in the fourth example: 1102216834974786 = 19 x 58011412367094

6) In the third example we wrote the numerical value of each word after the serial numbers of each word. Now, let’s write in front of these numerical values, letter number of that numerical value. The number we have is an exact multiple of 19: 11226034021123033045311230320048540650411230320048510640 = 19 x 590843895848581…

7) Now, add the number of the letters and the numerical value of the letters in the first two examples. And then write this total number after the serial number of the words. For example, get 3 which is the total of the letters of the first word and 102 which is the numerical value of these three letters. And add 3 and 102. You get 105. Write this number (105) after the first word. This number is also an exact multiple of 19: 110527033354295 = 19 x 5817212281805

’8) If you write the serial numbers of each letter in Basmalah from 1 to 19 after the numerical value of each letter of the Basmalah, you get a 62 digit number and this number is also a multiple of 19: 21602403143053065718309200108114012501311430152001681710184019 = 19 x 113696858647648…

9) If you write the serial numbers of the words (1, 2, 3, 4) after the parts pointing out each word in the number above, you get a sixtysix digit number and this number is an exact multiple of 19: 216024031143053065721830920010811401250133114301520016817101810194 = 19 x 113696858496344…

10) In the eighth example, we wrote the serial numbers of the words (1, 2, 3, 4) after the numerical values and the number of the letters. Now, let us replace the serial numbers of the words with the numerical value of each word (102, 66, 329, 289). The number we get is an exact multiple of 19 again: 2160240310214305306576618309200108114012501332911430152001681710184019289 = 19 x 113696858432332

Abdullah Arık deals with the mathematical structure of Basmalah in detail in his book “Beyond Probability”. We have dealed with the subject in detail as well, but we are going to cut it here since too much detail may be boring for some people.

It is exceptional that there are a lot of peculiarities of this word consisting of 19 letters and 4 words. These peculiarities of this word depend on the code 19. As we remember the mercy of God when we always say “Bismillahirrahmanirrahim” (with the name God, Gracious, Merciful), we should remember that God shows His incredible miracles He has composed and He displays his mercy. The Basmalah, which shines very brightly with its 19 letters on every sura, is a significiant part of the code 19 protecting the Quran.

English / Roman Mythology
« on: October 26, 2011, 01:12:45 PM »

 Roman Gods 
Jupiter - King of the Gods
Juno - Queen of the Gods
Neptune - God of the Sea
Pluto - God of Death
Apollo - God of the Sun
Diana - Goddess of the Moon
Mars - God of War
Venus - Goddess of Love
Cupid - God of Love
Mercury - Messenger of the Gods
Minerva - Goddess of Wisdom
Ceres - The Earth Goddess
Proserpine - Goddess of the Underworld
Vulcan - The Smith God
Bacchus - God of Wine
Saturn - God of Time
Vesta - Goddess of the Home
Janus - God of Doors
Uranus and Gaia - Parents of Saturn
Maia - Goddess of Growth
Flora - Goddess of Flowers
Plutus - God of Wealth

Common Forum / Developing a Reading Habit
« on: February 02, 2011, 05:27:20 PM »
This is my gut feeling that if somehow we can develop a reading habit then we can excel our knowledge and later on apply the acquired knowledge in our every day's working arena.

The moot question is "How Can We Develop this Habit" or " What Motivations Required towards this"

Open Source Forum / Khan Academy.......A Knowledge Bank
« on: January 27, 2011, 12:28:50 AM »
The following link is given for the Knowledge seeking people

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