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Hinduism / The Story of Radha-Krishna
« on: May 05, 2012, 02:44:29 PM »
The Radha-Krishna amour is a love legend of all times. It's indeed hard to miss the many legends and paintings illustrating Krishna's love affairs, of which the Radha-Krishna affair is the most memorable. Krishna's relationship with Radha, his favorite among the 'gopis' (cow-herding maidens), has served as a model for male and female love in a variety of art forms, and since the sixteenth century appears prominently as a motif in North Indian paintings. The allegorical love of Radha has found expression in some great Bengali poetical works of Govinda Das, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and Jayadeva the author of Geet Govinda.

Krishna's youthful dalliances with the 'gopis' are interpreted as symbolic of the loving interplay between God and the human soul. Radha's utterly rapturous love for Krishna and their relationship is often interpreted as the quest for union with the divine. This kind of love is of the highest form of devotion in Vaishnavism, and is symbolically represented as the bond between the wife and husband or beloved and lover.

Radha, daughter of Vrishabhanu, was the mistress of Krishna during that period of his life when he lived among the cowherds of Vrindavan. Since childhood they were close to each other - they played, they danced, they fought, they grew up together and wanted to be together forever, but the world pulled them apart. He departed to safeguard the virtues of truth, and she waited for him. He vanquished his enemies, became the king, and came to be worshipped as a lord of the universe. She waited for him. He married Rukmini and Satyabhama, raised a family, fought the great war of Ayodhya, and she still waited. So great was Radha's love for Krishna that even today her name is uttered whenever Krishna is refered to, and Krishna worship is though to be incomplete without the deification of Radha.
One day the two most talked about lovers come together for a final single meeting. Suradasa in his Radha-Krishna lyrics relates the various amorous delights of the union of Radha and Krishna in this ceremonious 'Gandharva' form of their wedding in front of five hundred and sixty million people of Vraj and all the gods and goddesses of heaven. The sage Vyasa refers to this as the 'Rasa'. Age after age, this evergreen love theme has engrossed poets, painters, musicians and all Krishna devotees alike.

Hinduism / The Story of Savitri & Satyavan
« on: May 03, 2012, 06:47:33 PM »
Savitri was the beautiful daughter of a wise and powerful king. The fame of Savitri's beauty spread far and wide, but she refused to marry, saying that she would herself go out in the world and find a husband for herself. So the king chose the best warriors to protect her, and the princess wandered throughout the country searching for a prince of her choice.

One day she reached a dense forest, where dwelt a king who had lost his kingdom and fallen into his bad days. Old and blind he lived in a small hut with his wife and son. The son, who was a handsome young prince, was the sole comfort of his parents. He chopped wood and sold it in the countryside, and bought food for his parents, and they lived in love and happiness. Savitri was strongly drawn towards them, and she knew her search had come to an end. Savitri fell in love with the young prince, who was called Satyavan, and was known for his legendary generosity.

Hearing that Savitri has chosen a penniless prince, her father was heavily downcast. But Savitri was hell-bent on marrying Satyavan. The king consented, but a saint informed him that a fatal curse laid upon the young prince: He is doomed to die within a year. The king told her daughter about the curse and asked her to choose someone else. But Savitri refused, and stood firm in her determination to marry the same prince. The king finally agreed with a heavy heart.

The wedding of Savitri and Satyavan took place with a lot of fanfare, and the couple went back to the forest hut. For a whole year they lived happily. On the last day of the year, Savitri rose early and when Satyavan picked up his axe to go into the forest to chop wood she requested him to take her along, and the two went into the jungle.

Under a tall tree, he made a seat of soft green leaves and plucked flowers for her to weave into a garland while he chopped wood. Towards noon Satyavan felt a little tired, and after a while he came and lay down resting his head in Savitri's lap. Suddenly the whole forest grew dark, and soon Savitri saw a tall figure standing before her. It was Yama, the God of Death. "I have come to take your husband," said Yama, and looked down at Satyavan, as his soul left his body.
When Yama was about to leave, Savitri ran after him, and pleaded Yama to take her too along with him to the land of the dead or give back the life of Satyavan. Yama replied, "Your time has not yet come, child. Go back to your home." But Yama was ready to grant her any boon, except Satyavan's life. Savitri asked, "Let me have wonderful sons." "So be it", replied Yama. Then Savitri said, "But how can I have sons without my husband, Satyavan? Therefore I beg of you to give back his life." Yama had to give in! Satyavan's body came back to life. He slowly woke up from the stupor and the two gladly walked back to their hut.

So strong was the single-minded love and determination of Savitri that she chose a noble young man for her husband, knowing that he had only a year to live, married him with all confidence. Even the God of Death had to relent, and bowed to her love and devotion

Hinduism / Shakuntala-Dushyant tale
« on: April 29, 2012, 04:44:56 PM »
The legend of the exquisitely beautiful Shakuntala and the mighty king Dushyant is a thrilling love story from the epic Mahabharata, which the great ancient poet Kalidasa retold in his immortal play Abhijnanashakuntalam.

While on a hunting trip, King Dushyant of the Puru dynasty meets the hermit-girl Shakuntala. They fall in love with each other and, in the absence of her father, Shakuntala weds the king in a ceremony of 'Ghandharva', a form of marriage by mutual consent with mother Nature as the witness. When the time comes for Dushyant to return to his palace, he promises to send an envoy to escort her to his castle. As a symbolic gesture he gives her a signet ring.
One day when the hotheaded hermit Durvasa stops at her hut for hospitality, Shakuntala, lost in her love thoughts, fails to hear the guest's calls. The temperamental sage turns back and curses her: "He whose thoughts have engrossed you would not remember you anymore." On the plea of her companions, the enraged sage relents and adds a condition to his curse-statement: "He can only recall you upon producing some significant souvenir."

Days roll by and nobody from the palace comes to fetch her. Her father sends her to the royal court for their reunion, as she was pregnant with Dushyant's child. En route, Shakuntala's signet-ring accidentally drops into the river and gets lost.

When Shakuntala presents herself before the king, Dushyant, under the spell of the curse, fails to acknowledge her as his wife. Heart-broken, she pleads to the gods to vanquish her from the face of earth. Her wish is granted. The spell is broken when a fisherman finds the signet ring in the guts of a fish - the same ring that Shakuntala had lost on her way to the court. The king suffers from an intense feeling of guilt and injustice. Shakuntala forgives Dushyant and they are reunited happily. She gives birth to a male child. He is called Bharat, after whom India gets her name.

Hinduism / 4 Vedas in Brief
« on: December 13, 2011, 01:21:39 PM »

The Rig Veda: The Book of Mantra
The Rig Veda is a collection of inspired songs or hymns and is a main source of information on the Rig Vedic civilization. It is the oldest book in any Indo-European language and contains the earliest form of all Sanskrit mantras that date back to 1500 B.C. - 1000 B.C. Some scholars date the Rig Veda as early as 12000 BC - 4000 B.C. The Rig-Vedic ‘samhita’ or collection of mantras consists of 1,017 hymns or ‘suktas’, covering about 10,600 stanzas, divided into eight ‘astakas’ each having eight ‘adhayayas’ or chapters, which are sub-divided into various groups. The hymns are the work of many authors or seers called ‘rishis’. There are seven primary seers identified: Atri, Kanwa,Vashistha, Vishwamitra, Jamadagni, Gotama and Bharadwaja. The rig Veda accounts in detail the social, religious, political and economic background of the Rig-Vedic civilization. Even though monotheism characterizes some of the hymns of Rig Veda, naturalistic polytheism and monism can be discerned in the religion of the hymns of Rig Veda.

The Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda were compiled after the age of the Rig Veda and are ascribed to the Vedic period.

The Sama Veda: The Book of Song
The Sama Veda is purely a liturgical collection of melodies (‘saman’). The hymns in the Sama Veda, used as musical notes, were almost completely drawn from the Rig Veda and have no distinctive lessons of their own. Hence, its text is a reduced version of the Rig Veda. As Vedic Scholar David Frawley puts it, if the Rig Veda is the word, Sama Veda is the song or the meaning, if Rig Veda is the knowledge, Sama Veda is its realization, if Rig Veda is the wife, the Sama Veda is her husband.

The Yajur Veda: The Book of Ritual
The Yajur Veda is also a liturgical collection and was made to meet the demands of a ceremonial religion. The Yajur Veda practically served as a guidebook for the priests who execute sacrificial acts muttering simultaneously the prose prayers and the sacrificial formulae (‘yajus’). It is similar to ancient Egypt’s “Book of the Dead”. There are no less than six complete recessions of Yajur Veda - Madyandina, Kanva, Taittiriya, Kathaka, Maitrayani and Kapishthala.

The Atharva Veda: The Book of Spell
The last of the Vedas, this is completely different from the other three Vedas and is next in importance to Rig-Veda with regard to history and sociology. A different spirit pervades this Veda. Its hymns are of a more diverse character than the Rig Veda and are also simpler in language. In fact, many scholars do not consider it part of the Vedas at all. The Atharva Veda consists of spells and charms prevalent at its time, and portrays a clearer picture of the Vedic society.

Hinduism / Veda - The Mother of All Scriptures
« on: November 01, 2011, 12:43:40 PM »
The Vedas are considered the earliest literary record of Indo-Aryan civilization, and the most sacred books of India. They are the original scriptures of Hindu teachings, and contain spiritual knowledge encompassing all aspects of our life. Vedic literature with its philosophical maxims has stood the test of time and is the highest religious authority for all sections of Hindus in particular and for mankind in general.

“Veda” means wisdom, knowledge or vision, and it manifests the language of the gods in human speech. The laws of the Vedas regulate the social, legal, domestic and religious customs of the Hindus to the present day. All the obligatory duties of the Hindus at birth, marriage, death etc. owe their allegiance to the Vedic ritual. They draw forth the thought of successive generation of thinkers, and so contain within it the different strata of thought. Veda in Details here -

Origin of the Vedas
The Vedas are probably the earliest documents of the human mind and is indeed difficult to say when the earliest portions of the Vedas came into existence. As the ancient Hindus seldom kept any historical record of their religious, literary and political realization, it is difficult to determine the period of the Vedas with precision. Historians provide us many guesses but none of them is free from ambiguity.

Who wrote the Vedas?
It is believed that humans did not compose the revered compositions of the Vedas, which were handed down through generations by the word of mouth from time immemorial. The general assumption is that the Vedic hymns were either taught by God to the sages or that they were revealed themselves to the sages who were the seers or “mantradrasta” of the hymns. The Vedas were mainly compiled by Vyasa Krishna Dwaipayana around the time of Lord Krishna (c. 1500 BC)

Structure of the Vedas
Each Veda consists of four parts – the Samhitas (hymns), the Brahmanas (rituals), the Aranyakas (theologies) and the Upanishads (philosophies). The collection of mantras or hymns is called the Samhita. The Brahmanas are ritualistic texts and include precepts and religious duties. Each Veda has several Brahmanas attached to it. The Upanishads form the concluding portions of the Veda and therefore called the “Vedanta” or the end of the Veda and contains the essence of Vedic teachings. The Upanishads and the Aranyakas are the concluding portions of the Brahmanas, which discuss philosophical problems. The Aryanyakas (forest texts) intend to serve as objects of meditation for ascetics who live in forests and deal with mysticism and symbolism.

The Mother of All Scriptures
Although the Vedas are seldom read or understood today, even by the devout, they no doubt form the bedrock of the universal religion or “Sanatana Dharma” that all Hindus follow. The Vedas have guided our religious direction for ages and will continue to do so for generations to come. And they will forever remain the most comprehensive and universal of all ancient scriptures.

Classification of the Vedas
The Vedas are four: The Rig-Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda, the Rig Veda being the main. The four Vedas are collectively known as “Chathurveda, ” of which the first three Vedas viz., Rig Veda, Sama Veda and Yajur Veda agree in form, language and content. Read about each of them in details here -

Hinduism / Details about 13 Principal Upanishads
« on: October 15, 2011, 08:57:28 PM »
In the Upanishads we can study the graceful conflict of thought with thought, the emergence of more satisfactory thought and the rejection of inadequate ideas. Hypotheses were advanced and rejected on the touchstone of experience and not at the dictate of a creed. Thus thought forged ahead to unravel the mystery of the world in which we live. Let's have a deeper look at the 13 principal Upanishads:

Chandogya Upanishad
The Chandogya Upanishad is the Upanishad that belongs to the followers of the Sama Veda. It is actually the last eight chapters of the ten-chapter Chandogya Brahmana, and it emphasizes the importance of chanting the sacred Aum, and recommends a religious life, which constitutes sacrifice, austerity, charity, and the study of the Vedas, while living in the house of a guru. This Upanishad contains the doctrine of reincarnation as an ethical consequence of karma. It also lists and explains the value of human attributes like speech, will, thought, meditation, understanding, strength memory and hope.Read the full text of the Chandogya Upanishad here:

Kena Upanishad
The Kena Upanishad derives its name from the word 'Kena', meaning 'by whom'. It has four sections, the first two in verse and the other two in prose. The metrical portion deals with the Supreme Unqualified Brahman, the absolute principle underlying the world of phenomenon, and the prose part deals with the Supreme as God, 'Isvara'. The Kena Upanishad concludes, as Sandersen Beck puts it, that austerity, restraint, and work are the foundation of the mystical doctrine; the Vedas are its limbs, and truth is its home. The one who knows it strikes off evil and becomes established in the most excellent, infinite, heavenly world. Read the full text of the Kena Upanishad here:

Aitareya Upanishad
The Aitareya Upanishad belongs to the Rig Veda. It is the purpose of this Upanishad to lead the mind of the sacrificer away from the outer ceremonial to its inner meaning. It deals with the genesis of the universe and the creation of life, the senses, the organs and the organisms. It also tries to delve into the identity of the intelligence that allows us to see, speak, smell, hear and know. Read the full text of the Aitareya Upanishad here:

Kaushitaki Upanishad
The Kaushitaki Upanishad explores the question whether there is an end to the cycle of reincarnation, and upholds the supremacy of the soul ('atman'), which is ultimately responsible for everything it experiences. Read the full text of the Kaushitaki Upanishad here:

Katha Upanishad
Katha Upanishad, which belongs to the Yajur Veda, consists of two chapters, each of which has three sections. It employs an ancient story from the Rig Veda about a father who gives his son to death (Yama), while bringing out some of the highest teachings of mystical spirituality. There are some passages common to the Gita and Katha Upanishad. Psychology is explained here by using the analogy of a chariot. The soul is the lord of the chariot, which is the body; the intuition is the chariot-driver, the mind the reins, the senses the horses, and the objects of the senses the paths. Those whose minds are undisciplined never reach their goal, and go on to reincarnate. The wise and the disciplined, it says, obtain their goal and are freed from the cycle of rebirth. Read the full text of the Katha Upanishad here:

Mundaka Upanishad
The Mundaka Upanishad belongs to the Atharva Veda and has three chapters, each of which has two sections. The name is derived from the root 'mund' (to shave) as he that comprehends the teaching of the Upanishad is shaved or liberated from error and ignorance. The Upanishad clearly states the distinction between the higher knowledge of the Supreme Brahman and the lower knowledge of the empirical world — the six 'Vedangas' of phonetics, ritual, grammar, definition, metrics, and astrology. It is by this higher wisdom and not by sacrifices or worship, which are here considered 'unsafe boats', that one can reach the Brahman. Like the Katha, the Mundaka Upanishad warns against "the ignorance of thinking oneself learned and going around deluded like the blind leading the blind". Only an ascetic ('sanyasi') who has given up everything can obtain the highest knowledge. Read the full text of the Mundaka Upanishad here:

Taittiriya Upanishad
The Taittiriya Upanishad is also part of the Yajur Veda. It is divided into three sections: The first deals with the science of phonetics and pronunciation, the second and the third deal with the knowledge of the Supreme Self ('Paramatmajnana'). Once again, here, Aum is emphasized as peace of the soul, and the prayers end with Aum and the chanting of peace ('Shanti') thrice, often preceded by the thought, "May we never hate." There is a debate regarding the relative importance of seeking the truth, going through austerity and studying the Vedas. One teacher says truth is first, another austerity, and a third claims that study and teaching of the Veda is first, because it includes austerity and discipline. Finally, it says that the highest goal is to know the Brahman, for that is truth. Read the full text of the Taittiriya Upanishad here:

Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, which is generally recognized to be the most important of the Upanishads, consists of three sections ('Kandas'), the Madhu Kanda which expounds the teachings of the basic identity of the individual and the Universal Self, the Muni Kanda which provides the philosophical justification of the teaching and the Khila Kanda, which deals with certain modes of worship and meditation, ('upasana'), hearing the 'upadesha' or the teaching ('sravana'), logical reflection ('manana'), and contemplative meditation ('nididhyasana').
TS Eliot's landmark work The Waste Land ends with the reiteration of the three cardinal virtues from this Upanishad: 'Damyata' (restraint), 'Datta' (charity) and 'Dayadhvam' (compassion) followed by the blessing 'Shantih shantih shantih', that Eliot himself translated as "the peace that passeth understanding." Read the full text of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad here:

Svetasvatara Upanishad
The Svetasvatara Upanishad derives its name from the sage who taught it. It is theistic in character and identifies the Supreme Brahman with Rudra (Shiva) who is conceived as the author of the world, its protector and guide. The emphasis is not on Brahman the Absolute, whose complete perfection does not admit of any change or evolution, but on the personal 'Isvara', omniscient and omnipotent who is the manifested Brahma. This Upanishad teaches the unity of the souls and world in the one Supreme Reality. It is an attempt to reconcile the different philosophical and religious views, which prevailed at the time of its composition. Read the full text of the Svetasvatara Upanishad here:

Isavasya Upanishad
The Isavasya Upanishad derives its name from the opening word of the text 'Isavasya' or 'Isa', meaning 'Lord' that encloses all that moves in the world. Greatly revered, this short Upanishad is often put at the beginning of the Upanishads, and marks the trend toward monotheism in the Upanishads. Its main purpose is to teach the essential unity of God and the world, being and becoming. It is interested not so much in the Absolute in itself ('Parabrahman') as in the Absolute in relation to the world ('Paramesvara'). It says that renouncing the world and not coveting the possessions of others can bring joy. The Isha Upanishad concludes with a prayer to Surya (sun) and Agni (fire). Read the full text of the Isavasya Upanishad here:

Prasna Upanishad
The Prashna Upanishad belongs to the Atharva Veda and has six sections dealing with six questions or 'Prashna' put to a sage by his disciples. The questions are: From where are all the creatures born? How many angels support and illumine a creature and which is supreme? What is the relationship between the life-breath and the soul? What are sleep, waking, and dreams? What is the result of meditating on the word Aum? What are the sixteen parts of the Spirit? This Upanishad answers all these six vital questions. Read the full text of the Prasna Upanishad here:

Mandukya Upanishad
The Mandukya Upanishad belongs to the Atharva Veda and is an exposition of the principle of Aum as consisting of three elements, a, u, m, which may be used to experience the soul itself. It contains twelve verses that delineate four levels of consciousness: waking, dreaming, deep sleep, and a fourth mystical state of being one with the soul. This Upanishad by itself, it is said, is enough to lead one to liberation.

Maitri Upanishad
The Maitri Upanishad is the last of what are known as the principal Upanishads. It recommends meditation upon the soul ('atman') and life ('prana'). It says that the body is like a chariot without intelligence but it is driven by an intelligent being, who is pure, tranquil, breathless, selfless, undying, unborn, steadfast, independent and endless. The charioteer is the mind, the reins are the five organs of perception, the horses are the organs of action, and the soul is unmanifest, imperceptible, incomprehensible, selfless, steadfast, stainless and self-abiding. It also tells the story of a king, Brihadratha, who realized that his body is not eternal, and went into the forest to practice austerity, and sought liberation from reincarnating existence. Read the full text of the Maitri Upanishad here:

Hinduism / Upanishad - The Supreme Work of the Indian Mind
« on: October 06, 2011, 12:25:32 AM »
"Upanishad - The Supreme Work of the Indian Mind"

The Upanishads form the core of Indian philosophy. They are an amazing collection of writings from original oral transmissions, which have been aptly described by Shri Aurobindo as "the supreme work of the Indian mind". It is here that we find all the fundamental teachings that are central to Hinduism — the concepts of 'karma' (action), 'samsara' (reincarnation), 'moksha' (nirvana), the 'atman' (soul), and the 'Brahman' (Absolute Almighty). They also set forth the prime Vedic doctrines of self-realization, yoga and meditation. The Upanishads are summits of thought on mankind and the universe, designed to push human ideas to their very limit and beyond. They give us both spiritual vision and philosophical argument, and it is by a strictly personal effort that one can reach the truth.

Meaning of 'Upanishad'
The term 'Upanishad' literally means, "sitting down near" or "sitting close to", and implies listening closely to the mystic doctrines of a guru or a spiritual teacher, who has cognized the fundamental truths of the universe. It points to a period in time when groups of pupils sat near the teacher and learnt from him the secret teachings in the quietude of forest 'ashrams' or hermitages. In another sense of the term, 'Upanishad' means 'brahma-knowledge' by which ignorance is annihilated. Some other possible meanings of the compound word 'Upanishad' are "placing side by side" (equivalence or correlation), a "near approach" (to the Absolute Being), "secret wisdom" or even "sitting near the enlightened".

Time of Composition
Historians and Indologists have put the date of composition of the Upanishads from around 800 - 400 B.C., though many of the verse versions may have been written much later. In fact, they were written over a very long period of time and do not represent a coherent body of information or one particular system of belief. However, there is a commonality of thought and approach.

The Main Books
Although there are more than 200 Upanishads, only thirteen have been identified out as presenting the core teachings. They are the Chandogya, Kena, Aitareya, Kaushitaki, Katha, Mundaka, Taittriyaka, Brihadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, Isa, Prasna, Mandukya and the Maitri Upanishads. One of the oldest and longest of the Upanishads, the Brihadaranyaka says:

"From the unreal lead me to the real!
From darkness lead me to light!
From death lead me to immortality!"

The crux of the Upanishads is that this can be achieved by meditating with the awareness that one's soul ('atman') is one with all things, and that 'one' is 'Brahman', which becomes the 'all'.

Who wrote the Upanishads?
The authors of the Upanishads were many, but they were not solely from the priestly caste. They were poets prone to flashes of spiritual wisdom, and their aim was to guide a few chosen pupils to the point of liberation, which they themselves had attained. According to some scholars, the main figure in the Upanishads is Yajnavalkya, the great sage who propounded the doctrine of 'neti-neti', the view that "truth can be found only through the negation of all thoughts about it". Other important Upanishadic sages are Uddalaka Aruni, Shwetaketu, Shandilya, Aitareya, Pippalada, Sanat Kumara. Many earlier Vedic teachers like Manu, Brihaspati, Ayasya and Narada are also found in the Upanishads.

The Mystery of Mankind
The human being is the central mystery of the universe holding the key to all other mysteries. Indeed, human beings are our own greatest enigma. As the famous physicist Niels Bohr once said, "We are both spectators and actors in the great drama of existence." Hence the importance of developing of what is known as the "science of human possibilities." It was such a science that India sought and found in the Upanishads in an attempt to unravel the mystery of human beings.

Science of the Self
Today, we see a growing urge in everyone to realize the 'true self'. We are keenly feeling the need to make our knowledge flower into wisdom. A strange yearning to know about the infinite and the eternal disturbs us. It is against this background of modern thought and aspirations that the contributions of the Upanishads to the human cultural legacy become significant.

The purpose of the Vedas was to ensure the true welfare of all beings, worldly as well as spiritually. Before such a synthesis could be achieved, there was a need to penetrate the inner worlds to its depth. This is what the Upanishads did with precision and gave us the science of the self, which helps man leave behind the body, the senses, the ego and all other non-self elements, which are perishable. The Upanishads tell us the great saga of this discovery — of the divine in the heart of man.

The Inside Story!
Very early in the development of the Indian civilization, man became aware of a strange new field of human experience — the within of nature as revealed in man, and in his consciousness and his ego. It gathered volume and power as years rolled on until in the Upanishads it became a deluge issuing in a systematic, objective and scientific pursuit of truth in the depth of experience. It conveys to us an impression of the tremendous fascination that this new field of inquiry held for the contemporary mind.
These Indian thinkers were not satisfied with their intellectual speculations. They discovered that the universe remained a mystery and the mystery only deepened with the advance of such knowledge, and one of the important components of that deepening mystery is the mystery of man himself. The Upanishads became aware of this truth, which modern science now emphasizes.

The Crowning Glory of Hindu Literature
In the Upanishads we get a glimpse into the workings of the minds of the great Indian thinkers who were unhampered by the tyranny of religious dogma, political authority, pressure of public opinion, seeking truth with single-minded devotion, rare in the history of thought. As Max Muller has pointed out, "None of our philosophers, not accepting Heraclitus, Plato, Kant, or Hegel has ventured to erect such a spire, never frightened by storm or lightnings."
Bertrand Russell rightly said: "Unless men increase in wisdom as much as in knowledge, increase in knowledge will be increase in sorrow." While the Greeks and the others specialized in the subject of man in society, India specialized in man in depth, man as the individual, as Swami Ranganathananda puts it. This was one ruling passion of the Indo-Aryans in the Upanishads. The great sages of the Upanishads were concerned with man above and beyond his political or social dimensions. It was an inquiry, which challenged not only life but also death and resulted in the discovery of the immortal and the divine self of man.

Shaping the Indian Culture
The Upanishads gave a permanent orientation to Indian culture by their emphasis on inner penetration and their wholehearted advocacy of what the Greeks later formulated in the dictum "man, know thyself." All subsequent developments of Indian culture were powerfully conditioned by this Upanishadic legacy.

The Upanishads reveal an age characterized by a remarkable fervent of thought and inspiration. The physical and mental climate that made it possible is the land of plenty that was India. The entire social milieu of the Indo-Aryans was ripe with great potentialities. They had found leisure to think and ask questions. They had the choice to utilize the leisure either to conquer the outer world or the inner. With their mental gifts, they had turned their mental energies to the conquest of the inner world rather than of the world of matter and life at the sensate level.

Universal & Impersonal
The Upanishads have given us a body of insights that have a universal quality about them and this universality derives from their impersonality. The sages who discovered them had depersonalized themselves in the search for truth. They wanted to go beyond nature and realize the transcendental nature of man. They dared to take up this challenge and the Upanishads are the unique record of the methods they adopted, the struggles they undertook and the victory they achieved in this astonishing adventure of human spirit. And this is conveyed to us in passages of great power and poetic charm. In seeking the immortal, the sages conferred the immortality upon the literature that conveyed it.

Hinduism / 108 Names of Devi Durga with Meaning
« on: October 04, 2011, 11:55:54 AM »
108 Names of Devi Durga:

1.   Durga   The - Inaccessible
2.   Devi - The Diety
3.   Tribhuvaneshwari   - Goddess of The Three Worlds
4.   Yashodagarba Sambhoota - Emerging From Yashoda's Womb
5.   Narayanavarapriya- Fond of Narayana's Boons
6.   Nandagopakulajata   - Daughter Of The Nandagopa Race
7.   Mangalya   - Auspicious
8.   Kulavardhini   - Developer Of The Race
9.   Kamsavidravanakari   - Threatened Kamsa
10.   Asurakshayamkari   - Reducer Of The Number Of Demons
11.   Shilathata Vinikshibda   - At Birth,Slammed By Kamsa
12.   Akashagamini   - Flew In The Sky
13.   Vasudevabhagini   - Sister Of Vasudeva
14.   Divamalya Vibhooshita   - Adorned With Beautiful Garlands
15.   Divyambaradhara   - Beautifully Robed
16.   Khadgaketaka Dharini   - Holder Of Sword And Shield
17.   Shiva   - Auspicious
18.   Papadharini   - Bearer Of Others' Sins
19.   Varada   - Granter Of Boons
20.   Krishna   - Sister Of Krishna
21.   Kumari   - Young Girl
22.   Brahmacharini   - Seeker Of Brahman
23.   Balarkasadrushakara   - Like The Rising Sun
24.   Purnachandra Nibhanana   - Beautiful Like The Full Moon
25.   Chaturbhuja   - Four-Armed
26.   Chaturvakttra   - Four-Faced
27.   Peenashroni Payodhara   - Large Bosomed
28.   Mayoora Pichhavalaya   - Wearer Of Peacock-Feathered Bangles
29.   Keyurangadadharini   - Bejewelled With Armlets And Bracelets
30.   Krishnachhavisama   - Like Krishna's Radiance
31.   Krishna   - Dark-Complexioned
32.   Sankarshanasamanana   - Equal To Sankarshana
33.   Indradhwaja Samabahudharini   - With Shoulders Like Indra's Flag
34.   Patradharini   - Vessel-Holder
35.   Pankajadharini -   Lotus-Holder
36.   Kanttadhara   - Holder of Shiva's Neck
37.   Pashadharini   - Holder Of Rope
38.   Dhanurdharini   - Holder Of Bow
39.   Mahachakradharini   - Holder Of Chakra
40.   Vividayudhadhara   - Bearer Of Various Weapons
41.   Kundalapurnakarna Vibhooshita   - Wearer Of Earrings Covering The Ears
42.   Chandravispardimukha   - Beautiful Like The Moon
43.   Mukutavirajita   - Shining With Crown Adorned
44.   Shikhipichhadwaja Virajita   - Having Peacock-Feathered Flag
45.   Kaumaravratadhara   - Observer Of Fasts Like Young Girls Do
46.   Tridivabhavayirtri   - Goddess Of The Three Worlds
47.   Tridashapujita   - The Goddess Of The Celestials
48.   Trailokyarakshini   - Protector Of The Three Worlds
49.   Mahishasuranashini   - Destroyer Of Mahisha
50.   Prasanna   - Cheerful
51.   Surashreshtta   - Supreme Among The Celestials
52.   Shiva   - Shiva's Half
53.   Jaya   - Victorious
54.   Vijaya   - Conqueror
55.   Sangramajayaprada   - Granter Of Victory In The War
56.   Varada   - Bestower
57.   Vindhyavasini`   - Resident Of The Vindhyas
58.   Kali   - Dark-Complexioned
59.   Kali   - Goddess Of Death
60.   Mahakali   - Wife Of Mahakala
61.   Seedupriya   - Fond Of Drinks
62.   Mamsapriya   -Fond Of Flesh
63.   Pashupriya   - Fond Of All Beings
64.   Bhootanushruta   - Well-Wisher Of Bhootaganas
65.   Varada   - Bestower
66.   Kamacharini   - Acting On One's Own Accord
67.   Papaharini   - Destroyer Of Sins
68.   Kirti   - Famed
69.   Shree   - Auspicious
70.   Dhruti   - Valiant
71.   Siddhi   -Successful
72.   Hri   - Holy Chant Of Hymns
73.   Vidhya   - Wisdom
74.   Santati   - Granter Of Issues
75.   Mati   - Wise
76.   Sandhya   - Twilight
77.   Ratri   - Night
78.   Prabha   - Dawn
79.   Nitya   - Eternal
80.   Jyotsana   - Radiant Like Flames
81.   Kantha   - Radiant
82.   Khama   - Embodiment Of Forgiveness
83.   Daya   - Compassionate
84.   Bandhananashini   - Detacher Of Attachments
85.   Mohanashini   - Destroyer Of Desires
86.   Putrapamrityunashini   - Sustainer Of Son's Untimely Death
87.   Dhanakshayanashini   - Controller Of Wealth Decrease
88.   Vyadhinashini   - Vanquisher Of Ailments
89.   Mruthyunashini   - Destroyer Of Death
90.   Bhayanashini   - Remover Of Fear
91.   Padmapatrakshi   - Eyes Like The Lotus Leaf
92.   Durga   - Remover Of Distress
93.   Sharanya   - Granter Of Refuge
94.   Bhaktavatsala   - Lover Of Devotees
95.   Saukhyada   - Bestower Of Well-Being
96.   Arogyada   - Granter Of Good Health
97.   Rajyada   - Bestower Of Kingdom
98.   Ayurda   - Granter Of Longevity
99.   Vapurda   - Granter Of Beautiful Appearance
100.   Sutada   - Granter Of Issues
101.   Pravasarakshika   - Protector Of Travellers
102.   Nagararakshika   - Protector Of Land
103.   Sangramarakshika -    Protector Of Wars
104.   Shatrusankata Rakshika   - Protector From Distress Caused By Foes
105.   Ataviduhkhandhara Rakshika   - Protector From Ignorance And Distress
106.   Sagaragirirakshika   - Protector Of Seas And Hills
107.   Sarvakaryasiddhi Pradayika -   Granter Of Success In All Attempts
108.   Durga   - Deity Durga

Common Forum / Observing Victory Day at DIU
« on: December 07, 2009, 07:35:42 PM »
We are pleased to inform you all that DIU is going to observe the upcoming Victory Day. In this regard a discussion session will be held on December 17, 2009 at 3:30 PM in the DIU Auditorium. All the students, teachers and officials are invited to attend the session.

Oracle Academy / Join Oracle
« on: August 18, 2009, 10:10:19 AM »
Dear Students of DIU, As you know very well that DIU is offering some of the most demanding and Job oriented vendor certification Course and Oracle is one of the best one there. This Course in available only in few Institutions in Bangladesh with high Course fee. Oracle certified person would have opportunities to get Job in both Local and Global market. If you are interested to build your career in this filed, please do Join DIU Oracle academy. The Course is going to start soon. For more details please visit   

Importance of Ethics and Tolerance in human life

I hope you all will agree with me that the whole world is heading towards economical, political, environmental and other crisis because of practicing things Unethically. To be true we all are very busy with our self benefits and try to achieve our target by any means even we don’t bother whether our benefits causing damage to others or not. It’s time to think twice and dig our history/culture where we will definitely find that our elder generations have always taken their life much more positively where human relation and views were equally respected. Ethics is a fact of continuous practice in every aspects of daily life for self enrichment and to become a real Human in true sense.

Thus, I would request you all to share your personal views and feedback regarding the above, so that when DIU students will be Graduated they will not only be ready to face the 21st century global challenge but also one of the best human being.

Importance of Ethics and Tolerance in human life

I hope you all will agree with me that the whole world is heading towards economical, political, environmental and other crisis because of practicing things Unethically. To be true we all are very busy with our self benefits and try to achieve our target by any means even we don’t bother whether our benefits causing damage to others or not. It’s time to think twice and dig our history/culture where we will definitely find that our elder generations have always taken their life much more positively where human relation and views were equally respected. Ethics is a fact of continuous practice in every aspects of daily life for self enrichment and to become a real Human in true sense.

Thus, I would request you all to share your personal views and feedback regarding the above, so that when DIU students will be Graduated they will not only be ready to face the 21st century global challenge but also one of the best human being.

Importance of Ethics and Tolerance in human life

I hope you all will agree with me that the whole world is heading towards economical, political, environmental and other crisis because of practicing things Unethically. To be true we all are very busy with our self benefits and try to achieve our target by any means even we don’t bother whether our benefits causing damage to others or not. It’s time to think twice and dig our history/culture where we will definitely find that our elder generations have always taken their life much more positively where human relation and views were equally respected. Ethics is a fact of continuous practice in every aspects of daily life for self enrichment and to become a real Human in true sense.

Thus, I would request you all to share your personal views and feedback regarding the above, so that when DIU students will be Graduated they will not only be ready to face the 21st century global challenge but also one of the best human being.

Importance of Ethics and Tolerance in human life

I hope you all will agree with me that the whole world is heading towards economical, political, environmental and other crisis because of practicing things Unethically. To be true we all are very busy with our self benefits and try to achieve our target by any means even we don’t bother whether our benefits causing damage to others or not. It’s time to think twice and dig our history/culture where we will definitely find that our elder generations have always taken their life much more positively where human relation and views were equally respected. Ethics is a fact of continuous practice in every aspects of daily life for self enrichment and to become a real Human in true sense.

Thus, I would request you all to share your personal views and feedback regarding the above, so that when DIU students will be Graduated they will not only be ready to face the 21st century global challenge but also one of the best human being.

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