Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - md

Pages: 1 [2] 3 4 ... 20
Guidance for Job Market / 10 hot IT skills for 2013
« on: September 26, 2012, 11:59:40 PM »
10 hot IT skills for 2013
Want to snag a pay premium? Check out the IT skills that will be in high demand in 2013.
By Mary K. Pratt
September 24, 2012 06:00 AM ET

Computerworld - The number of companies planning to hire tech professionals continues to grow, with 33% of the 334 IT executives who responded to Computerworld's 2013 Forecast survey saying they plan to increase head count in the next 12 months.
This is the third year in a row that the percentage of respondents with hiring plans has risen -- up from 29% last year, 23% in 2010 and 20% in 2009.
"When you look at just about any research or market trend, IT is one of the top two or three always mentioned as a bright spot in the job market, and it's pretty simple why," says John Reed, senior executive director at staffing firm Robert Half Technology. "When you look at technology, it drives so much of what business does, from productivity to communication to improving speed to making better business decisions. So companies are investing in that, and you have to have the people experienced in doing that."
New hiresWhat changes do you expect in your IT employee headcount in the next 12 months?IncreaseDecreaseRemain the same20092010201120122013Year020406080Percent
Data from 2013 Forecast Survey (Base: 334; June 2012), 2012 Survey, 2011 Survey, 2010 Survey and 2009 Survey. Mouse over graph to get data details; click on items in chart key to turn them on and off.
Of course, IT leaders aren't hiring technologists indiscriminately. They're seeking specific skills to deliver what the business needs to compete today. Here's a look at the top 10 skills for 2013.

1. Programming and Application Development
• 60% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Companies put off projects during the recession, but now they're playing catch-up and looking for staff to keep up, according to Reed.
"Technology and software are great ways for companies to improve productivity, lower costs and create better Web presence," he says, adding that companies will need staffers to create new and better technology to do those things.
That's the case at San Francisco-based Wells Fargo, says Jason Griffin, vice president and technology talent acquisition manager. "Our top needs are in programming and application development," he says. "We're just looking for more to meet the business need. The business [units] are investing in new products, they're looking for ways to provide products and services to meet customer needs."
Griffin, like others, says he's specifically looking for people with experience in Java, J2EE and .Net.

2. Project Management

• 40% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
The ongoing need for project management skills tracks with the continuing need for programmers: Both are responses to the demand for new applications that businesses need to compete.
"More projects mean more project managers," Reed says, noting that companies want experience as well as credentials, such as the Project Management Professional designation.
Jamie Hamilton, vice president of software engineering at Detroit-based Quicken Loans, says project manager jobs will be among the 100 new positions his company plans to add to its 800-strong IT team.
Hamilton says demand for project managers is strong in part because projects are growing more complex as the connectivity between applications increases.
Successful candidates need to have proven track records. "Three things are key for us, and they're more around behavior: Are you a leader, and do you operate as a leader? Do you have a history of executing? What's your behavior around detail?" Hamilton says.

3. Help Desk/Technical Support
• 35% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Jack Wolf, vice president and CIO at Montefiore Medical Center in New York, says he has a list of initiatives to pursue, including deployments of new radiology systems and electronic health record applications. To ensure success, he's looking not only for people to build and implement the systems, but also for tech support workers to help employees use them.
"New systems mean you need more help desk people to handle the increase in calls we expect," Wolf says.
He's far from the only one searching for such skills. Tech staffing firm Modis reports that help desk technician is the job title that companies most often seek help filling.

4. Security
• 27% plan hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Security has long been a concern of IT leaders, and demand for specialized security professionals is growing as the task of safeguarding systems and data becomes increasingly complex.
Cynthia Burkhardt, vice president of talent acquisition, says the company is building its IT security department internationally. It hired a chief information security officer, who is based in the Netherlands, and it's adding four more IT security executives -- two of whom will be based in the U.S. She says the company expects to continue building its IT security team from the top down.
Burkhardt says Royal Philips wants experienced IT security professionals who have business acumen in addition to expertise in deploying firewalls, threat detection tools, encryption technology and other security systems.

5. Business Intelligence/Analytics

• 26% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Big data is one of the top priorities for many companies, but getting the right people to analyze all that information is challenging, says Jerry Luftman, managing director at the Global Institute for IT Management and a leader in the Society for Information Management.
The best candidates have technical know-how, business knowledge and strong statistical and mathematical backgrounds -- an uncommon mix of skills, Luftman says. In fact, some companies are hiring statisticians and teaching them about technology and business.
Joe Fuller, CIO at Dominion Enterprises, a marketing services company in Norfolk, Va., says he anticipates hiring data scientists or data analysts in the future but acknowledges that it will be a challenge.
"We're missing that person who thinks outside the box, who understands the link between this behavior now and this behavior later," Fuller says. "I don't know who to look for there, so I think it's [going to be] a team. I can't imagine finding that in one person."

6. Cloud/SaaS

• 25% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Fuller's staffing plan at Dominion Enterprises is also a case study for skill No. 6, which didn't even crack the top 10 in the 2011 survey: He says the company will need cloud computing experts as it moves beyond its two existing data centers.
"We're going to need a cloud architect who knows how to leverage and how to architect without breaking the bank," he says. "We're going to need to know where we should host it, how to configure it, how to negotiate the [service-level agreements], and to make sure we're backed up properly."

7. Virtualization
• 24% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Jon A. Biskner, assistant vice president of IT at Nicolet National Bank in Green Bay, Wis., says he wants to create a virtualization administrator position.
"It's hard to find someone who is fully skilled in virtualization," Biskner says. "They have to understand the storage and clusters behind the virtual server because before the connection was more physical; now it's more logical." IT professionals talk about virtualization, he adds, but often they don't have a breadth of experience with it.

8. Networking
• 19% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Networking expertise remains a perennial top 10 most-wanted skill, although demand has dropped from 38% in the 2010 survey to 19% in the 2013 survey. Despite the decline, however, IT leaders say they still need networking professionals who have solid experience.
In Robert Half Technology's third-quarter IT Hiring Index and Skills Report, network administration was the No. 2 most sought-after skill set, cited by 48% of the 1,400 CIOs surveyed. It was second only to data/database management, which was cited by 55% of the respondents.

9. Mobile Applications and Device Management

• 19% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
As consumer and business use of smartphones and tablets expands, employers are looking for workers who can handle the demands related to the proliferation of such devices, says Motti Fine, managing director of TreeTop Technologies, an IT staffing and consulting firm. Case in point: Kathy Junod, senior director of IT at Auxilium Pharmaceuticals in Malvern, Pa., plans to create a new job with the title mobile manager to add to her existing staff of 22. She says she needs an experienced manager to oversee building the niche mobile apps the business needs.

10. Data Center
• 16% plan to hire for this skill in the next 12 months.
Core technical skills remain in high demand, so it's not surprising that data center skills still make the top 10. In fact, CompTIA reported in its February State of the IT Skills Gap study that server/data center management and storage and data backup remain high on the list of IT skills that employers are seeking. Some 61% of the IT and business executives surveyed by CompTIA rated server/data center management as a very important skill, while 57% rated storage/data backup as such.
However, Robert Half Technology's third-quarter IT Hiring Index and Skills Report found that CIOs listed data/database management as No. 2 among the "functional areas" in which it's most challenging to hire IT professionals.


Banking / Mobile Financial Services in Bangladesh: The Market Begins to Grow
« on: September 12, 2012, 08:46:12 PM »
Mobile Financial Services in Bangladesh: The Market Begins to Grow

CGAP Group, CGAP   
Date Posted: Monday, September 10, 2012

In February 2010 we blogged  about the steps identified for mobile financial services to take off in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has moved partly down this path. A newly released overview report on Mobile Financial Services  by Bangladesh’s Central Bank highlights the progress achieved two years on.

The central bank issued guidelines on “Mobile Financial Services for Banks” in September 2011 clearly stating a choice to make the market bank-led. However, the central bank has advocated for mobile operators and microfinance organizations to be active partners. It has provided 10 licenses to banks to offer the full range of mobile financial services.

This regulatory certainty has allowed the market to move and by late 2011 and into 2012 two early leaders have emerged with the largest customer bases and agent networks. The bKash service is provided by BRAC Bank in cooperation with its subsidiary bKash. And Dutch Bangla Mobile is a new service from Dutch Bangla Bank. Combined these two providers made the largest contribution to the nearly 500,000 new mobile accounts and more than 9,000 new agents.

Overview of Market as of March 2012

The mobile financial services market is at an early stage of development as providers are working to stabilize their technology, build agent networks and acquire new customers. This involves finding and training agents, marketing, helping customers transact and acquiring customers by using know‐your‐customer (KYC) and account opening processes. A survey conducted by Bangladesh’s central bank found that the new services are reaching multiple parts of Bangladesh and that most clients and agents express cautious optimism about mobile financial services being valuable to them.  Three quarters of clients said their main reason to use this service is to send or receive payments, while the remaining one‐quarter highlighted safekeeping as the main reason. Rural users specifically mentioned the benefits of receiving payments.

Initial hopes for international remittances to drive the mobile financial services have not materialized. Similarly, earlier efforts to allow cash-out via mobile phones has not generated much volumes. It seems that Bangladesh is like many other markets where international remittances are more likely to follow rather than lead.

These developments offer promising signs that mobile financial services could develop in time. However, big questions remain to be answered. There is a significant up front investment required to build momentum and none of the providers are yet covering their running costs. The rapid uptake by customers still needs to be proved. Bangladesh has a large population in a small geography. It is also home to one of the most deeply penetrated microfinance markets. Indeed, Bangladesh’s overall access to accounts for adults of nearly 40% is higher than South Asia’s average of 33% and the global low‐income country average of 27% (source).  Nevertheless, most banks, mobile operators and microfinance institutions agree that mobile financial services are likely to focus initially on domestic person-to-person transfers that are very scarce among formal providers.

Bangladesh Bank’s aim is to ensure that the market develops with several providers, and diverse technologies are tested and used, different kinds of agent networks deployed, and a range of products available so that the consumer is empowered with a full range of choices.

It is an exciting time in Bangladesh for mobile financial services and much will be learned in the coming months.

Kazi Azizul Islam Makhon   6:27pm Sep 12
Mobile financial market in Bangladesh begins to grow | Mobile-Financial.com

Software Industry in Bangladesh / Software export growth up 54pc
« on: August 18, 2012, 10:45:46 PM »
Software export growth up 54pc
Abdullah Mamun

Bangladesh's software exports in the first 10 months of fiscal 2011-12 stood at $56.7 million, a 54 percent rise from the same period of the previous fiscal year.

Going by the trend, Bangladesh Association of Software and Information Services (BASIS), the country's IT trade body, expects the exports of IT and IT-enabled services (ITES) to hit the $70 million-mark for fiscal 2011-12, said AKM Fahim Mashroor, president of BASIS.

But the actual amount could be upwards of $100 million, he said, if all the ITES exports and exports by the 15,000-odd freelancers are taken into account.

At present a number of ITES exports remain unrecorded, due to problems with the coding system of the Bangladesh Bank, along with the exports of freelancers who earn around $25 million.

“Freelancers' earnings are recorded as remittance, not software export,” said Mashroor, adding that it is possible to hit the $1 billion mark by 2015 and create employment for 100,000-odd graduates if proper support is given to the sector.

Bangladesh essentially gets small- or mid-level commissions which are not of much interest to the neighbouring countries, said Russell T Ahmed, BASIS's secretary general.

"But we are doing excellently, delivering the best-quality work and on time. Progressively people are relying on us.”

"We are following the 'search engine optimisation' model so that big companies in the west can find our work through web surfing. It is helping us getting more work," said Tamzid Siddiq Spondon, managing director at Zanala Bangladesh.

But the industry is facing a number of challenges, dearth of skilled human resources and project management skill being just two of them, according to Ahmed.

BASIS, however, is working on the problem: the body provides training to IT professionals at the BASIS Institute of Technology Management and has started a campaign to inspire youngsters to become IT professionals.

Although the country's IT sector has made a name for itself in the global stage due to its own merit, he still asked the government to further promote the sector.

“Lack of infrastructure remains another big challenge for the industry. The internet bandwidth price remains very high, the alternative of sub-marine cable is yet to materialize, and there is no software technology park in the country,” Mashroor said.

There are over 800 registered software and ITES companies in Bangladesh, as per BASIS's Software and IT Service Catalogue 2011.

Bangladeshi organisations export a range of software, starting from accounting and finance, content and document management, marketing and sales automation to animation, multimedia and graphics.


Telecom Forum / The Need for Bangla Language Mobile Phone Support
« on: August 03, 2012, 10:42:07 AM »
Bangladesh: The Need for Bangla Language Mobile Phone Support

In Bangladesh, the number of mobile phone users stands at 93.8 million and most subscribers only use their handsets to call others - the use of SMS is very low. According to Bangladesh Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (BTRC) statistics, around 30 million SMS were sent per month in 2011. That means roughly one in every three handsets sent one SMS per month.

The literacy rate in Bangladesh is not low, so it is somewhat surprising that SMS usage is so low. However, it is obvious that many Bangladeshis can only read and write in Bangla, whereas the handsets imported into the country rarely have Bangla scripts enabled. Many cannot send SMS because they do not know English.

According to Faisal Alim, the general secretary of the Mobile Handset Importers Association of Bangladesh, the country imports six million handsets per year and most of them do not have a Bangla keypad.

This year the Bangladesh government hasmade it compulsory to incorporate Bangla keypads into mobile phones. BTRC issued a notice that all (basic) handsets imported after February 2012, have to have Bangla keypads. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina inaugurated Bangla SMS for mobile phones on 21 February, 2012, on the occasion ofInternational Mother Language Day.
80% of Bangladeshi farmers use mobile phones to gather information on markets and contact buyers. Image by Bayazid Akter, copyright Demotix (01/06/12).

80% of Bangladeshi farmers use mobile phones to gather information on markets and contact buyers. Image by Bayazid Akter, copyright Demotix (01/06/12).

Mohammad Moazzem Hossain writes [bn] about Bangla support for mobile phones:

    Have seen in news that every imported handset should have a Bangla keypad according to BTRC. This rule applies from all the imports since February this year. This will enable people to use their handsets with more ease and the use of Bangla with mobile phones will proliferate. Many thanks to BTRC for implementing this decision.

Right now only basic mobile handsets are required to have Bangla keypads. Soon touchscreen and smartphone versions will be brought under this rule.

The use of mobile phones is increasing in Bangladesh and is not confined simply to calls. Since 2008, consumers have been able to pay their utility bills (gas, electricity, telephone) via mobile. Bangladesh Railway provides timetables for trains, ticket prices and availability via mobiles. Secondary and higher secondary school certificate results are also available via mobile phones. Students can even apply to universities online and via mobile.

Disaster early warning information is being broadcast in Sirajganj and Cox'sbazar via SMS. The doctors at Upazilla health complex can be accessed via mobile for 24 hours for emergency service. Mobile basedhealth services can be accessed at market prices. Sugarcane farmers can receive their purchase order “purjee” from sugar mills via SMS, saving time and harassment.

People can also access banking services via mobile: a mobile financial service called BKash has recently started and now people can make transactions via mobile all over the country.
Sugarcane farmers can receive their purchase order 'purjee' quickly via SMS saving time and harassment. Image courtesy Digital Bangladesh Blog.

Sugarcane farmers can receive their purchase order ‘purjee' quickly via SMS saving time and harassment. Image courtesy Digital Bangladesh Blog.

In the recently published World Bank research report ‘Information and Communication For Development 2012: Maximize mobile‘ it was revealed that 80% of Bangladeshi farmers are using mobile phones to gather information on market prices and demand, which they can use to determine at which price to sell by communicating with different wholesalers or retailers. Around 50% of farmers manage to sell their goods directly communicating via mobile phone.

According to BTRC, 98% of Bangladeshisare under the umbrella of mobile networks. To deliver the success of development to the end users, Bangla language support for mobile is essential.

Posted by Rezwan on 2 August 2012.


Quran / The Noble Qur'an
« on: July 29, 2012, 09:42:13 AM »
The Noble Qur'an in many languages in an easy-to-use interface.

If you want to read Quran in online you can go throw this website,,,,,,,,

কুরআনিক ডিকশনারী (আন্ডারস্ট্যান্ডিং কুরআন)
কোরআন এবং সালাত অনুধাবন - সহজ পদ্ধতি। প্রাথমিক স্তরের জন্য শর্ট কোর্স → ৯ ঘণ্টার একটিসহজ অথচ কার্যকর কোর্স, যেখানে কোরআনের দৈনন্দিন তেলাওয়াত ও বেছে নেয়া অন্য কিছু অংশ থেকে আপনি শিখবেন ১০০টি শব্দ - যেগুলো কোরআনে প্রায় ৪০,০০০ বার (সর্বমোট প্রায় ৭৮,০০০ শব্দ থেকে বা মোট শব্দের প্রায় ৫০%) এসেছে। উদ্দেশ্য হলো (১) প্রমাণ করা যে কোরআন শেখা সহজ; (২) মানুষকে কোরআন অধ্যয়নে উৎসাহিত করা; (৩) কীভাবে কোরআনের সঙ্গে সম্পর্ক (interaction) স্থাপন করা যায় তা শেখানো...

Islam / Name of Allah
« on: July 29, 2012, 09:22:05 AM »
মহানবী(স) বলেছেন যে ব্যক্তি আল্লাহপাকের নামগুলি মুখস্থ করবে, তিনি বেহেস্তে প্রবেশ করবেন। মুখস্থ করার সাথে সাথে বোধ করি গবেষণা ও নিজ জীবনে প্রয়োগ করারও ইঙ্গিত থেকে থাকবে। আসলেই দৈনন্দিন যাপিত জীবনের সাথে আল্লাহপাকের নামগুলির সম্পর্ক অনুধাবনে বিস্মিত ও শিহরিত হতে হ্য়।চলিত ভাষা ব্যবহারের প্রয়াস ছিল যাতে সকলের বোধগম্য হয়।

১. আল্লাহ
২. আর রহমান- সবচাইতে দয়ালু
৩. আর রহিম- সবচাইতে ক্ষমাশীল
৪. আল জাব্বার- পরাক্রমশীল, বাধ্যকারী
৫. আল আযিয- পরাক্রমশালী, অপরাজেয়
৬. আল মুহায়মিন- পরিপূর্ন রক্ষণাবেক্ষণকারী
৭. আল মুমিন- নিরাপত্তা ও ঈমান দানকারী
৮. আস সালাম-শান্তি দানকারী
৯. আল কুদ্দুস- নিখুঁত
১০. আল মালিক-সর্বাধিকারী, অধিপতি
১১. আল ওয়াহহাব-সবকিছু দানকারী
১২. আল কাহহার- মহাপরাক্রান্ত,দমনকারী
১৩. আল গাফফার- মহাক্ষমাশীল,পুনঃ পুনঃ ক্ষমাকারী
১৪. আল মুসাওবির- রূপদানকারী, আকৃতি দানকারী
১৫. আল বারী- নির্মাণ কর্তা,সঠিকভাবে সৃষ্টিকারী
১৬. আল খালিক-সৃষ্টিকর্তা,শূন্য থেকে সৃষ্টিকারী
১৭. আল মুতাকাব্বির--অহংকারের ন্যায্য অধিকারী
১৮. আর রাফি-উন্নয়নকারী
১৯. আল খাফিদ-অবনমনকারী, অপমানকারী
২০. আল বাসিত-সম্প্রসারণকারী
২১. আল কাবিদ- সংকোচনকারী,নিয়ন্ত্রণকারী
২২. আল আলীম- মহাজ্ঞানী,সর্বদর্শী
২৩. আল ফাত্তাহ-বিজয়দানকারী
২৪. আর রাজ্জাক-জীবিকা দানকারী
২৫. আল লাতীফ-সূক্ষ্ণ দক্ষতাসম্পন্ন
২৬. আল আদল- ন্যায়নিষ্ঠ,পরিপূর্ণ-ন্যায়বিচারক
২৭. আল হাকাম- মিমাংসাকারী
২৮. আল বাসির-সর্বদ্রষ্টা,সর্ববিষয়-দর্শনকারী
২৯. আস সামী-সর্বশ্রোতা
৩০. আল মুযিল্ল- হতমানকারী,বেইজ্জতকারী
৩১. আল মুইয্য- সম্মানদাতা
৩২. আল কাবীর-বিরাট/ মহৎ
৩৩. আল আলী-অত্যুচ্চ,সর্বশ্রেষ্ঠ
৩৪. আশ শকুর- গুণগ্রাহী,সুবিবেচক
৩৫. আল গাফুর- ক্ষমাশীল
৩৬. আল আজীম- মহিমাময়,সর্বোচ্চ-মর্যাদাশীল
৩৭. আল হালীম- অত্যন্ত ধৈর্যশীল,প্রশ্রয়দাতা
৩৮. আল খাবীর-সর্বজ্ঞ,সকল ব্যাপারে জ্ঞাত
৩৯. আল মুজিব- প্রার্থনা গ্রহণকারী
৪০. আর রাকীব-নিরীক্ষণকারী,সদাজাগ্রত
৪১. আল কারীম-মহামান্য
৪২. আল হাসীব-হিসাব-গ্রহণকারী,মহা পরিক্ষক
৪৩. আল মুকিত-আহার্যদাতা,লালনপালনকারী
৪৪. আল হাফীজ- সংরক্ষণকারী,মহা রক্ষক
৪৫. আল হাক্ক- পরম সত্য
৪৬. আশ শাহীদ-প্রত্যক্ষকারী,সবকিছুর স্বাক্ষী
৪৭. আল বাঈছ-পুনরুথানকারী, পুনুরুজ্জীবিতকারী
৪৮. আল মাজীদ-গৌরবময়
৪৯. আল জালিল-প্রতাপশালী
৫০. আল ওয়াদুদ-প্রেমময়,স্নেহশীল
৫১. আল হাকীম- বিচক্ষণ
৫২. আল মুবদী- আদি স্রষ্টা,প্রথমবার-সৃষ্টিকর্তা
৫৩. আল মুহসী- হিসাব গ্রহণকারী
৫৪. আল হামীদ- প্রশংসিত
৫৫. আল ওয়ালী-অভিভাবক
৫৬. আল মাতীন-দৃঢ়তা সম্পন্ন
৫৭. আল কাবী- মহাশক্তিশালী
৫৮. আল ওয়াকীল-পরম নির্ভরযোগ্য কর্ম-সম্পাদনকারী,তত্ত্বাবধায়ক
৫৯. আল মাজিদ-সুমহান
৬০. আল ওয়াজিদ-অফুরন্ত ভান্ডারের অধিকারী,অবধারক
৬১. আল কায়্যুম-অভিভাবক,সমস্তকিছুর ধারক ও সংরক্ষণকারী
৬২. আল হায়্যু-জীবিত,চিরঞ্জীব
৬৩. আল মুমীত-মরণদাতা
৬৪. আল মুহয়ী- জীবনদাতা
৬৫. আল মুঈদ-পুনঃসৃষ্টিকারী
৬৬. আল আওয়াল- সর্বপ্রথম, যার কোন শুরু নাই
৬৭. আল মুয়াখখির- অবকাশ দানকারী,পশ্চাদবর্ত্তীকারী
৬৮. আল মুকাদ্দিম-অগ্রসরকারী,অগ্রবর্ত্তীকারী
৬৯. আল মুক্তাদির-প্রবল/ পরাক্রম,নিরঙ্কুশ-সিদ্বান্তের-অধিকারী
৭০. আল কাদীর-মহাশক্তিশালী
৭১. আস সামাদ- অভাবমুক্ত
৭২. আল ওয়াসি-সর্বব্যাপী
৭৩. আল ওয়াহিদ- একক, এক ও অদ্বিতীয়
৭৩. আত তাওয়াব-তওবা গ্রহণকারী
৭৫. আল বার্র- কল্যাণকারী,পরম উপকারী
৭৬. আল মুতা’আলী- সুউচ্চ,সৃষ্টির গুনাবলীর উর্দ্ধে
৭৭. আল ওয়ালী- সমস্ত-কিছুর-অভিভাবক,কার্য্য নির্বাহক
৭৮. আল বাতিন- গুপ্ত/লুকান, অপ্রকাশিত
৭৯. আল জাহির- প্রকাশ্য,সম্পূর্নরূপে-প্রকাশিত
৮০. আল আখির-অনন্ত, যার কোন শেষ নাই
৮১. আল মুকসিত-হকদারের হক-আদায়কারী, ন্যায়পরায়ণ
৮২. যুল জালাল ওয়াল ইকরাম- মহিমান্বিত ও দয়াবান
৮৩. মালিকুল মুলক-সমগ্র জগতের বাদশাহ্
৮৪. আর রাউফ-কোমল হৃদয়, পরম-স্নেহশীল
৮৫. আল মুনতাকিম- প্রতিশোধ গ্রহণকারী
৮৬. আল হাদী-পথ প্রদর্শক
৮৭. আন নাফি-কল্যাণকারী,কল্যাণকর্তা
৮৮. আদ দারর- (খারাপের,তাগুতের) অকল্যাণকারী
৮৯. আল মানি- প্রতিরোধকারী,প্রতিহতকারী
৯০. আল মুগনি-অভাব মোচনকারী
৯১. আল গানী-সম্পদশালী
৯২. আল জামি- সমবেতকারী,একত্রীকরণকারী
৯৩. আস সাবুর-অত্যধিক ধৈর্যধারণকারী, ধৈর্য্যশীল
৯৪. আল রাশীদ- সঠিক পথ-প্রদর্শক, সত্যদর্শী
৯৫. আল ওয়ারিছ- উত্তরাধিকারী
৯৬. আল আফউ- ক্ষমাকারী
৯৭. আল বাকী- চিরস্থায়ী
৯৮. আল বাদী- অতুলনীয়,অভিনব সৃষ্টিকারী
৯৯. আন নূর- জ্যোতি, আলো

« on: July 24, 2012, 11:35:43 AM »
How Marketers Are Using Social Media to Grow Their Businesses

Cancer / Flaxseed oil easiest cure for cancer
« on: July 24, 2012, 10:31:11 AM »
তিসির  তেল  ক্যানসারের  সবচেয়ে  সহজ  ঔষধ
(Flaxseed  oil  easiest  cure  for  cancer)!/2012/07/flaxseed-oil-easiest-cure-for-cancer.html
খাবার  পরিবর্তনের  মাধ্যমে  ক্যানসার  থেকে  মুক্তি (Diet  change  cure  cancer) ঃ-  বর্তমানে  ক্যানসার  নির্মূলের  জন্য  বিজ্ঞানীরা  এক  ধরনের  খাবার  মেন্যু (Dr Johanna Budwig protocol)  তৈরী  করেছেন,  যা  অনুসরন  করে  লক্ষ  লক্ষ  মানুষ  ক্যানসার  মুক্ত  হচ্ছেন।  ইন্টারনেটে  খোজাঁখুজি  করে  এগুলো  সংগ্রহ  করে  নিতে  পারেন।  হোমিওপ্যাথির  আবিষ্কারক  মহাত্মা  স্যামুয়েল  হ্যানিম্যানের  পর  জার্মানীর  আরেকজন  মহান  চিকিৎসা  বিজ্ঞানী  হলেন  ডঃ  জোহান্না  বাডওইগ (Dr Johanna Budwig,  Ph.D.) ।  এই  ভদ্রমহিলা  সারাজীবন  অমানুষিক  পরিশ্রম  করে  বিনা  ঔষধে  বিনা  অপারেশানে  বিনা  রেডিয়েশানে  ক্যানসার  মুক্তির  একটি  সহজ  পন্থা  আবিষ্কার  করে  দিয়ে  গেছেন।  তার  এই  অমূল্য  আবিষ্কারের  ফলে  ধনী  থেকে  ভিক্ষুক  সবাই  সহজে  অল্প  খরচে  ক্যানসার  থেকে  মুক্ত  হতে  পারছেন।  হ্যানিম্যান  যেমন  মানবজাতিকে  এলোপ্যাথিক  চিকিৎসার  নামে  বর্বরতার  হাত  থেকে  বাঁচাতে  হোমিওপ্যাথি  আবিষ্কার  করে  দিয়ে  গেছেন  এবং  এই  জন্য  এলোপ্যাথিক  ডাক্তারদের  অত্যাচারে  অতিষ্ট  হয়ে  শেষ  পর্যন্ত  দেশ  ছেড়ে  অন্য  দেশে (ফ্রান্সে)  আশ্রয়  নিতে  বাধ্য  হয়েছিলেন।  তেমনি  ভাবে  জোহান্না  বাডওইগ-কেও  এলোপ্যাথিক  ডাক্তাররা  এবং  রক্তচোষা  এলোপ্যাথিক  ঔষধ  কোম্পানিগুলির  হয়রানিমূলক  মামলার  কারণে  অনেকবার  আদালতের  কাঠগড়ায়  দাঁড়াতে  হয়েছে  এবং  প্রতিবারই  তিনি  তার  দাবীর  পক্ষে  বৈজ্ঞানিক  গবেষণায়  প্রাপ্ত  তথ্য-উপাত্ত  দিয়ে  আদালতকে  সন্তুষ্ট  করে  মিথ্যা  অভিযোগ  থেকে  ছাড়া  পেয়েছেন।  এদের  চক্রান্তের  কারণে  সাতবার  নোবেল  পুরষ্কারের  জন্য  মনোনীত  হয়েও  নোবেল  পুরষ্কার  থেকে  বঞ্চিত  হয়েছেন।  বিপন্ন  মানবতার  অকৃত্রিম  দরদী  এই  মহান  বিজ্ঞানী  ছিলেন  জার্মানীর  স্বাস্থ্যবিভাগের  একজন  সিনিয়র  বিজ্ঞানী  এবং  পিএইচডি  ডিগ্রীধারী  একজন  বায়োক্যামিষ্ট।  তিনি  ছিলেন  এলোপ্যাথিক  ঔষধ  বাজারজাত  করার  অনুমোদন  দানকারী  সরকারী  বিশেষজ্ঞ  কমিটির  প্রধান।  একবার  একটি  ঔষধ  কোম্পানি  ক্যানসারের  একটি  নতুন  ঔষধ  বাজারজাত  করার  অনুমোদনের  জন্য  আবেদন  করে  যা  ছিল  ফ্যাটি  এসিড  দিয়ে  তৈরী।  তিনি  সেই  ঔষধ  কোম্পানীর  কাছে  জানতে  চাইলেন  যে,  ফ্যাটি  এসিড  যে  ক্যানসার  নিরাময়  করতে  সাহায্য  করে  এই  রকম  কোন  প্রমাণিত  তথ্য  তাদের  কাছে  আছে  কিনা ?  তারপর  তিনি  ফ্যাটি  এসিডগুলো  ‍নিয়ে  গবেষণায়  লেগে  যান।  যদিও  বিজ্ঞানীরা  প্রমাণ  পেয়েছিলেন  যে,  ফ্যাটি  এসিড  ক্যানসার  নিরাময়ে  কার্যকরভাবে  সাহায্য  করে  কিন্তু  অগণিত  ফ্যাটি  এসিডের  মধ্যে  ঠিক  কোন  ফ্যাটি  এসিডটি  এই  কাজ  করে  এবং  কিভাবে  সেটি  ক্যানসার  নির্মূল  করে  তা  তারা  জানতেন  না।  প্রায়  দুই  যুগের  প্রাণান্ত  গবেষণার  মাধ্যমে  তিনি  এই  অসাধ্য  সাধন  করে  গেছেন।  ওটো  ওয়াবার্গ  ১৯৩১  সালে  মেডিসিনে  নোবেল  পুরষ্কার  পান।  তিনি  ক্যানসার  কোষের  কার্যপ্রণালী  অর্থাৎ  বিপাক  ক্রিয়া  আবিষ্কার  করে  নোবেল  পুরষ্কার  লাভ  করেন।  তিনি  বর্ণনা  করেন  যে,  একটি  সাধারণ  কোষ  ক্যানসার  কোষে  রূপান্তরিত  হওয়ার  পূর্বে  হঠাৎ  অক্সিজেনশূণ্য (anaerobic)  হয়ে  পড়ে  এবং  তার  প্রচুর  পরিমাণে  গ্লুকোজের  দরকার  পড়তে  থাকে,  যাকে  অনেকটা  গাজন  প্রক্রিয়ার (fermentation) সাথে  তুলনা  করা  যায়।  তাঁর  মতে,  ক্যানসারের  একটি  মূল  কারণ  হলো  আমাদের  দেহ  কোষের  অক্সিজেনযুক্ত  শ্বাস-প্রশ্বাসের (respiration)  বদলে  অক্সিজেনবিহীন  শ্বাস-প্রশ্বাস  চালু  হওয়া।
ক্যানসার  নিয়ে  বাডওইগের   এই  গবেষণার  এক  পর্যায়ে  এভাবেই  তিনি  জানতে  পারেন  যে,  কোষে  অক্সিজেনের  অভাবেই  ক্যানসার  আক্রমণ  করে  অর্থাৎ  যে-সব  কোষে  অক্সিজেন  পৌছেঁ  না,  সে-সব  কোষই  ক্যানসারে  আক্রান্ত  হয়।  কাজেই  ক্যানসারে  আক্রান্ত  কোষে  যে-কোন  প্রকারে  যদি  অক্সিজেন  পৌছাঁনো  যায়,  তবে  সেটি  ক্যানসার  থেকে  মুক্ত  হয়ে  যাবে  এবং  পুণরায়  স্বাভাবিক  কোষে  পরিণত  হবে।  এক  একটি  ফ্যাটি  এসিড  নিয়ে  বছরের  পর  বছর  গবেষণা  করে  বিশ  বছরেরও  বেশী  সময়  ব্যয়  করে  শেষ  পর্যন্ত  তিনি  আবিষ্কার  করেন  যে,  ওমেগা-৩  গ্রুপের  ফ্যাটি  এসিডগুলি (omega-3 fatty acids) কোষে  অক্সিজেন  পৌছাঁতে  সাহায্য  করে  থাকে।  এদের  মধ্যে  লিনোলিক  এসিড (Alpha Linolenic Acid)  নামক  ফ্যাটি  এসিডটি  সবচেয়ে  কার্যকর ,  যা  তিসির  তেলে (Flaxseed  oil)  সবচেয়ে  বেশী  পাওয়া  যায়।  তাছাড়া  মাছের  তেল,  অলিভ  অয়েল  এবং  অন্যান্য  তেলের  মধ্যেও  পাওয়া  যায়।  আমাদের  প্রাত্যাহিক  খাবারে  ফ্যাটি  এসিডের  পরিমাণ  এমনিতেই  কম  থাকে।  তার  মধ্যেও  যে-সব  ফ্যাটি  এসিড  আমরা  খেয়ে  থাকি,  তাদেরকে  হয়  উচ্চ  তাপের  সাহায্যে  তৈরী  করা  হয়,  না  হয়  তাদের  সাথে  কেমিক্যাল  মিশানো  হয়  আর  না  হয়  তাদেরকে  দীর্ঘদিন  গুদামে  ফেলে  রাখা  হয়।  ফলে  এই  ফ্যাটি  এসিডগুলো  প্রকৃতপক্ষে  মৃত ;  এরা  আমাদের  রোগ  প্রতিরোধ  এবং  রোগ  নিরাময়ে  কোন  সাহায্য  করতে  পারে  না।
ডঃ  জোহান্না  বাডওইগ  তার  গবেষণায়  দেখতে  পান  যে,  তাঁর  খাবার  মেনু  অনুযায়ী  চলা  ক্যানসার  রোগীদের  মাত্র  তিন  মাসের  মধ্যে  উন্নতি  শুরু  হয়ে  যায়।  টিউমার  ধীরে  ধীরে  ছোট  হতে  থাকে।  এমন  রোগীরাও  তাঁর  ডায়েট  অনুসরণ  করে  দীর্ঘদিন  সুস্থ  ছিলেন  যাদেরকে  ডাক্তাররা  “বাড়ি  গিয়ে  ভাল-মন্দ  খেয়ে  নিন”  বলে  হাসপাতাল  থেকে  বিদায়  করে  দিয়েছেন।  ডঃ  জোহান্না  বাডওইগ  মাঝে  মাঝে  হাসপাতাল  থেকে  মারাত্মক  মারাত্মক  ক্যানসার  রোগীদেরকে  বের  করে  নিয়ে  আসতেন,  যাদেরকে  ডাক্তাররা  বলতেন  “আর  মাত্র  কয়েকদিন  বাচঁতে  পারে”,  সে  আর  প্রস্রাব  করতে  পারবে  না,  সে  আর  পায়খানা  করতে  পারবে  না।  অনেকে  শুকনা  কাশি  দিতে  থাকতেন  কিন্তু  কফ  বের  করার  মতো  শক্তিও  তাদের  ছিল  না।  সবকিছু  আটকে  গেছে,  ব্লক  হয়ে  গিয়েছিল।  রোগীর  আত্মীয়দের  আনন্দের  সীমা  থাকত  না  যখন  দেখা  যেতো  এমন  রোগীদেরও  শারীরিক  অবস্থা  হঠাৎ  উন্নতির  দিকে  যাওয়া  শুরু  হয়েছে।  বাউওইগ  ডায়েট  কেবল  নির্দিষ্ট  কোন  ক্যানসার  নয়  বরং  সকল  ধরনের  ক্যানসার  নির্মূল  করতে  পারে।  এদের  মধ্যে  আছে  স্তন  ক্যানসার (breast cancer),  ফুসফুসের  ক্যানসার (lung cancer),  ব্রেন  ক্যানসার (brain cancer),  প্রোস্টেট  ক্যানসার (prostate cancer),  হাড়ের  ক্যানসার (Bone cancer),  কারসিনোমা (Carcinoma),  মূত্রথলির  ক্যানসার (bladder cancer),  জরায়ু  ক্যানসার (uterine  cancer),  মুখগহ্বরের  ক্যানসার (esophageal cancer),  পাকস্থলীর  ক্যানসার ( stomach cancer),  ব্লাড  ক্যানসার (Leukemia),  গ্ল্যাণ্ডের  ক্যানসার (Hodgkin's disease),  চামড়ার  ক্যানসার (skin cancer)  ইত্যাদি  ইত্যাদি।  বাডওইগ  ডায়েট  কেবল  ক্যানসার  নয় ;  বরং  বাত-ব্যথা (Arthritis),  হাঁপানি (Asthma),  পেশীর  ব্যথা (Fibromyalgia),  বহুমূত্র (Diabetes),  উচ্চ  রক্তচাপ (Blood Pressure),  মাল্টিপল  স্ক্যালেরোসিস (Multiple sclerosis),  হৃদরোগ (Heart Disease),  সোরিয়াসিস (Psoriasis),  একজিমা (Eczema),  ব্রণ (Acne)  প্রভৃতি  জটিল  রোগেও  কার্যকর  প্রমাণিত  হয়েছে।  ডঃ  বাডওইগ  তার  সারা  জীবনের  গবেষণা  এবং  চিকিৎসা  অভিজ্ঞতার  ওপর  ভিত্তি  করে  কয়েকটি  বই  লিখে  গেছেন  (Flax Oil As a True Aid Against Arthritis, Heart Infarction, Cancer, and Other Diseases)।
তিসির  তেল  এবং  ছানা  দিয়ে  বাডওইগ  ডায়েট (Budwig Diet Flaxseed Oil and Cottage Cheese (FOCC) or quark recipe)  তৈরী  করার  পদ্ধতি ঃ-  চায়ের  চামচে  ৩  চামচ  তিসির  তেলের  সাথে  ৬  চামচ  ছানা / পনির   মিশিয়ে  ব্লেন্ডারে  এক  মিনিট  মিশাতে  হবে।  মিকচারটি  যদি  খুব  আঠালো  হয়,  তবে  তার  সাথে  দুই/তিন  চামচ  দুধ  মিশাতে  পারেন (ছাগলের  দুধ  হলে  বেশী  ভালো) । তারপরও  যদি  খেতে  রুচি  না  হয়,  তবে  সাথে  আম-জাম-কাঠাল-আনারস-আপেল-আঙুর-কমলা-কলা-মুলা-গাজর  ইত্যাদি  যে-কোন  এক  বা  একাধিক  ফল-মূল-শাক-সবজি  ইত্যাদি  মিশিয়ে  আবার  ব্লেন্ডারে  জুস  করে  খেতে  পারেন।  এভাবে  দৈনিক  তিন  থেকে  চারবার  খেতে  হবে।  খাবার-দাবারের  বেলায়  বাডওইগ  ডায়েটের  মূল  শ্লোগান  হলো -  খাবারটি  যদি  আল্লাহ্‌র  সৃষ্টি  হয়  তবে  অবশ্যই  অসাধারণ  এবং  তাকে  বিকৃত  না  করে  আল্লাহ্‌  যেভাবে  সৃষ্টি  করেছেন  ঠিক  সেভাবেই  খান (if God made it then its fine and try to eat it in the same form that God made it) । এই  জন্য  রান্না  করা  খাবার  যতটা  সম্ভব  বাদ  দিতে  হবে।  কেননা  আগুনের  তাপে  এবং  সাথে  বিভিন্ন  ধরনের  ঝাঁঝালো  মশলা  ব্যবহারের  কারণে  সে-সব  খাবারের  ৯৯%  খাদ্যগুণ / ভিটামিন  নষ্ট  হয়ে  যায়।  দোকানের  এবং  কল-কারখানায়  তৈরী  খাবার  একেবারে  বাদ  দিতে  হবে।  কেননা  এদের  সাথে  রং-গন্ধ-প্রিজারবেটিভ  হিসাবে  অনেক  রকমের  কেমিক্যাল  মিশানো  হয়,  যেগুলো  ক্যানসার  সৃষ্টি  করে  থাকে।  এমনকি  কারখানায়  তৈরী  মিনারেল  ওয়াটারও  খাওয়া  নিষিদ্ধ ।  কেননা  তাতে  ক্লোরিনসহ  আরো  অনেক  রকমের  ক্যামিকেল  মিশানো  হয়  এবং  রেডিয়েশান  ব্যবহার  করা  হয়।  বিজ্ঞানীদের  মতে,  ক্লোরিন  এবং  রেডিয়েশান  ক্যানসার  সৃষ্টি  করে।  মনে  করুন  আপনি  পুই  শাক  বা  পটল  খাবেন।  তাহলে  একে  রান্না  করে  না  খেয়ে  বরং  কাচাঁই  ব্লেন্ডারে  জুস  বানিয়ে  খান।  যদি  স্বাদ  না  লাগে  তবে  সাথে  আপেল-কমলা-আঙুর-বেদেনা-তরমুজ-ভাঙ্গি-আম-কাঠাল-জাম্বুরা  ইত্যাদি  কোন  একটি  ফলমূল  মিশিয়ে  নিতে  পারেন।  সরাসরি  চিনি  অথবা  গুড়  খাওয়া  যাবে  না,  একেবারে  নিষিদ্ধ।  কেননা  চিনি/গুড়  শরীরের  বায়োকেমিক্যাল  পরিবেশ  অম্লীয় (Acidic)  করে  ফেলে  এবং  শরীরের  অম্লীয়  অবস্থা  ক্যানসার  সৃষ্টিতে  এবং  ক্যানসার  ছড়াতে  বিরাট  সাহায্য  করে।  কাজেই  মিষ্টি  খাওয়ার  প্রয়োজন  হলে  আম,  কাঠাল,  আপেল,  আঙুর  ইত্যাদি  মিষ্টি  ফলগুলি  দিয়ে  তার  প্রয়োজন  সারতে  হবে (এবং  তাহাও  পরিমাণে  যত  কম  হয়  ততই  মঙ্গল)।  গোশত-ডিম-ঘি  ইত্যাদি  প্রাণীজ  খাবার  বর্জন  করতে  হবে।  কেননা  এগুলো  উপকারের  চাইতে  ক্ষতি  করে  অনেক  অনেক  গুণ  বেশী।  কফি  খাওয়া  বর্জন  করতে  হবে ;  কেননা  কফি  একটি  বিষাক্ত  ক্ষতিকর  পানীয়।  সামুদ্রিক  খাবার  খাওয়া  নিষিদ্ধ।  চিংড়ি  মাছ  এবং  চিংড়ি  মাছের  মতো  শক্ত  খোলস  বিশিষ্ট  সকল  মাছ / প্রাণী  খাওয়া  নিষিদ্ধ।  মশার  ঔষধ,  তেলাপোকার  ঔষধ,  কমদামী  সাবান,  ডিটারজেন্ট,  এমনকি  কসমেটিকস  নামে  যত  কেমিক্যাল  প্রোডাক্টস  আছে,  এগুলোর  স্পর্শ  থেকে  সারা  জীবনের  জন্য  দূরে  থাকতে  হবে।  কেননা  এগুলোর  সবই  ক্যানসার  সৃষ্টি  করে  থাকে।  মাইক্রোওয়েভ  ওভেন  নিষিদ্ধ।  এলুমিনিয়ামের  হাড়ি-পাতিল  নিষিদ্ধ।  তার  বদলে  যতটা  সম্ভব  স্টিলের,  সিরামিকের,  গ্লাসের,  মাটির  বা  লোহার  হাড়ি-পাতিল-থালা-বাসন-কাপ-পিরিজ  ব্যবহার  করতে  হবে।  তিসির  তেলকে  অবশ্যই  ফ্রিজের  ভেতর  অথবা  ঠান্ডা  তাপমাত্রায়  সংরক্ষণ  করতে  হবে।  ভেজাল  থেকে  দূরে  থাকার  জন্য  তিসির  তেল  না  কিনে  বরং  তিসি  কিনে  নিজে  ভাঙিয়ে  তেল  করে  নিতে  পারেন।  আইসক্রিম  এবং  দুগ্ধজাত  খাবার  বাদ  দিতে  হবে।  ডঃ  বাডওইগ  তাঁর  এই  ফরমুলার  সাথে  অন্যকোন  ধরনের  চিকিৎসা  চালাতে  নিষেধ  করে  দিয়েছেন।  প্রতিদিন  নিয়মিতভাবে  ৫  মিনিট  হোক  ১০  মিনিট  হোক  সূর্যরশ্মি / রৌদ্র  শরীরে  নিতে  হবে।  কারণ  সূর্যের  সাথে  মানুষের  এবং  গাছপালার  বেড়ে  ওঠার  এবং  সুস্থ  থাকার  একটি  আবশ্যকীয়  সম্পর্ক  আছে।  চিকিৎসা  বিজ্ঞানীদের  মতে,  চামড়ায়  তেল  দিয়ে  সূর্যরশ্মি  নিলে  শরীরে  ভিটামিন  ডি  তৈরী  হয়,  যা  ক্যানসার  প্রতিরোধে  খুবই  গুরুত্বপূর্ণ  উপাদান।
মানুষের  জীবনটা  আসলে  একটি  বিদ্যুতের  খেলা।  আর  আমাদের  হৃদপিন্ডটি  হলো  প্রধান  বিদ্যুৎ  উৎপাদন  কেন্দ্র (Power  station) । এখন  অবশ্য  এলোপ্যাথির  লোকেরা  বিষয়টি  স্বীকার  করে  নিয়েছে।  হার্টে  লোডশেডিং  হলে  তারা  বৈদ্যুতিক  ব্যাটারী (pacemaker)  লাগিয়ে  দেন।  চীন  দেশের  ডাক্তাররা  চার  হাজার  বছর  আগেই  এই  ব্যাপারে  ঈঙ্গিত  করে  গেছেন।  আর  হ্যানিম্যান  দুইশত  বছর  পূর্বে  বিষয়টি  হাতে-কলমে  প্রমাণ  করে  গেছেন  যে,  মানুষের  রোগ  হওয়ার  মূল  কারণ  হলো  তার  শরীরের  বৈদ্যুতিক  লেবেল  বা  এনার্জি  লেবেলে  গোলমাল  হওয়া।  ডঃ  বাডওইগের  মতে,  আমাদের  কোষ  যখন  তার  বৈদ্যুতিক  চার্জ  হারায়,  তখন  সেটি  অক্সিজেন  গ্রহনে  অক্ষম  হয়ে  পড়ে  এবং  ক্যানসার  আক্রান্ত  হয়।  ডঃ  বাডওইগের  মতে,  কেমোথেরাপী (chemotherapy)  এবং  রেডিয়েশান (radiation)  সুস্থ  কোষের  বৈদুতিক  প্রবাহ (energy flow)  ধ্বংস  করার  মাধ্যমে  তাদেরকে  ক্যানসারে  আক্রান্ত  হওয়া  উপযুক্ত (ripe for cancer)  করে  তোলে।  তিনি  ক্যানসার  ইন্ডাস্ট্রিকে  ক্যানসার  হিলিং (healing)  না  করে  ক্যানসার  কিলিং (killing)  করার  অভিযোগে  অভিযুক্ত  করেন।  তার  মতে,  আমাদেরকে  সুস্থ  কোষগুলির  যত্ম  নিতে  হবে  যাতে  তারা  ক্যানসারে  আক্রান্ত  হওয়ার  দিকে  না  যেতে  পারে।  তাহলে  এই  সুস্থ  কোষগুলিই  ধীরে  ধীরে  ক্যানসার  আক্রান্ত  কোষগুলিকে  নির্মূল  করে  দিতে  সক্ষম  হবে।  আসলে  ক্যানসারের  প্রচলিত  এলোপ্যাথিক  চিকিৎসা  যেহেতু  হাজার  হাজার  কোটি  ডলারের  বিরাট  লাভজনক  ব্যবসা ;  তাই  এর  বিরুদ্ধে  প্রমাণ  ছাড়া  কিছু  বললে  বা  লিখলে  মামলা  এবং  জেল-জরিমানার  ঝুঁকি  আছে।  ডঃ  বাডওইগের  জীবনেও  তেমনি  ঘটনা  ঘটেছিল।  তিনি  তাদেরকে  একবার  এভাবে  আক্রমণ  করেছিলেন  যে,  “টিউমারের / টিউমারের  সমস্যাকে  স্রেফ  মাত্রাতিরিক্ত  মাংস  বৃদ্ধির  সমস্যা  মনে  করা  ঠিক  না  এবং  ফলস্রুতিতে  মাংসবৃদ্ধির  বিরুদ্ধে  সকল  উপায়  এবং  উপকরণ  নিয়ে  ঝাপিয়ে  পড়া........।”  ফলে  জার্÷

Articles and Write up / Guidelines of Higher Education Curriculum
« on: July 14, 2012, 10:03:03 PM »
Overview of Guidelines of Higher Education Curriculum

Professor Dr.-Ing. Saifullah Khandker
Technical University of Berlin, Germany


Throughout the World, universities change the society and remain the center of change and development for a nation. The role of higher education is to prepare competent, knowledgeable and far-sighted people for assuming various higher responsibilities. The growing importance of knowledge in the modern world can hardly be overemphasized, especially in the era of globalization and in a global environment which is fiercely competitive.

In order to contribute to the nation every Higher Educational Institutions including Public and Private Universities must be competitive. Each University will be recognized for its flexible approaches to learning and teaching which will create an attractive, stimulating and modern environment in which students can learn in different ways and in different places to achieve their desired results. To achieve the vision of the University learning experience as providing “Education that Works”, University curriculum should be modern, time-bound, need-based and international standard. The university authority has to monitor properly to add new and innovative courses and ideas in the learning process so that the students can face the challenges of 21st century.

In the face of a changed scenario of Higher Education in Bangladesh, quality improvement in the higher education has to be the main focus. Top priority should be given by the government and the private sector for the development of science and technology based education. There is a need to introduce quality control mechanism both in Public and Private Universities. The state has to form some sort of “accreditation council”, enhanced support for research and development of strategies for retaining and developing quality teaching staff. Universities those satisfy certain critical minimum requirements of inputs, processes and outputs will be given accreditation. The Higher Education Authority & Board of Accreditation can hopes that these guidelines are a useful tool for teachers and that the teachers can also help to prepare the students best for the demands of the labour market.

I am sure, the Higher Education Authorities including University Grants Commission (UGC) and Board of Accreditation knows the University Organization Structures. On the other hand authorities of both the Public and Private Universities are well accustomed with their own institutional organization Structures and their function mechanisms. Let us identify the weak point and start there to rectify. One of main field is Guidelines for Curriculum for Higher Education.

Bangladesh Needs Guidelines for the development of Curriculum:

Particularly, higher education has enormous potential to promote prosperity for Bangladesh. Unfortunately in Bangladesh Universities are very weak and even Academic Senate, Curricula Committee, Faculty Deans and departmental Heads do not change anything. This is now universally recognized for Bangladesh that there is no alternative to education for development of human resources in Bangladesh. There is need to introduce proper policy in order to minimize the problems that are prevailing in the Higher Education System.

I personally think that this is the prime time to setup and upgrade a Standard and control the quality mechanism of Higher Education System in Bangladesh. For that the Higher Education Authorities including UGC and Board of Accreditation must prepare Basic Framework and Guidelines for Curriculum of Courses of Studies in the context of 21st century.

Generally the Guidelines are addressed to all academics involved in the design and quality assurance of study programmes and should cover the following aspects: Need for a programme, degree profile, degree programme, structure and mobility, learning, teaching and assessment methods, admission, Bachelor/Master thesis and degree, management, resources and quality assurance. These guidelines serve as a checklist for the development of study programmes (Bachelor and Master Courses) covering the most recent developments in educational standards and help to implement the methods. They also help to evaluate a degree programme and pave the way to accreditation. The Higher Education Authority & Board of Accreditation can hope that these guidelines are a useful tool for teachers and that the teachers can also help to prepare the students best for the demands of the labour market.

Above mentioned decisive factor’s shows there is a need to develop a Basic “Guidelines” for Curriculum of Courses of Studies as the basis for renewal of Coursework Programs in order to achieve a distinctive vision of students learning in Higher Education of Bangladesh. In my view the renewal of Higher Education Curriculum can be postulated under the consideration of the following core points.

Core Curriculum Areas of Basic Framework or Guidelines:

The vision of students learning and student-centred learning can be based on a set of Core Curriculum Areas and these are:
1.   Career Oriented learning
The education contents must be updated regularly - according to the research state of the field as well as the professional requirement profile-. Besides, in lectures as well as in research project the relations should also be worked out to relevant other disciplines to make clear exemplarily several perceptions on a problem as well as the necessarily interdisciplinary solution attempts. This will improve students’ career skills and employment prospects.
2.   High Technical and Social Competence
It is aimed in the technical area mainly on the mediation by methodical and conceptual abilities. Successful work can be done by Dividing work-loads, cooperation and competition certain occupational world puts beside technical abilities in growing measure social competence like communication and team ability, critical thinking, motivation and responsibility readiness, leadership qualities among other things ahead. The faculties must promote the acquisition of this competence by the offer of suitable lecture forms (based on the division of work-load of the projects, practice projects, independent work in small groups, presentations, seminars etc.).
3.   Pathways into Research
Providing research-coupled concept pathways and experience for undergraduates;
4.   To properly study-able
The possibility for the independent creation of his/her study profile must be given in very high extent to the students. Adequate options must be granted in the specialist one as well as in the beyond specializations part. Besides, is to be made sure that the study profiles put together in each case are measured concerning the contents sensibly and qualitatively. For example, the introduction of modularization of courses and assessments on the basis of achievement points know as credit points contribute to the improvement of the study-ability.
5.   Modularization of modern Teaching and Learning forms
Together with all belonging lectures should be summarized subsequent to contents, qualification aim and study phase into a module. Modules must be formed in such a way that they can be examined as a rule by an examiner. They should not be divided into many small pieces extensively, but also not to summaries of competence sighting. Modules becomes as a rule study-accompanying examined. This will reduce the examination jam etc. Besides, the Modularization of courses of studies and Credit System should open from any Bangladeshi university to abroad.
6.   Widening the Learning Opportunities
Increasing flexibility, choice, acceleration and intersectoral opportunities in Higher Education programs;
7.   Learning for a Changing World
Integration of an entrepreneurship and innovation emphasis together with an awareness of social difference and cultural diversity into students’ learning opportunities;
8.   Internationality in the Curriculum Framework
Three aims should be reached by stronger inclusion of international elements in the study.
a.   student should be able to change easier to foreign universities and graduates should receive a better access to the international job market
b.   The students will be accustomed during his/her study stronger to internationally stamped perceptions.
c.   Special attention should be given to the consultation and care of foreign students.
9.   Quality assurance and high-class improvement
The quality assurance of the courses of studies should hold the professional start chances of the graduates on a continuing basis at high level and contribute to the high-class improvement of the study offer.
Suitable means to the quality assurance and high-class improvement are regular internal and external evaluations. These should expel the strengths of a course of studies and document the good achievements, as well as indicate the weak spots, so that suitable measures can be initiated to the removal. The inclusion of Alumni in the assessment is desirable.


For a developing country like Bangladesh, there is a need to create a breakthrough for enhancing higher education development. It will be harmful for the nation if the Authority handle to conduct higher education programs as a business as usual. The new standard in Higher Education, particularly in the field of life-long learning, open learning, quality maintaining, accountability and equity requires a quite new direction. The impact of globalization causes a shift of the role of higher education institutions from traditional learning institutions to knowledge creators, a change from random planning to strategic planning, and a movement from comparative approach to competitive approach.

Institutional curriculum renewal through “Curriculum Framework” is cross-disciplinary in nature, focused on a Model for Professional Learning which emphasizes real world learning experiences within a supportive environment, integrated with skills development in order to prepare graduates to make the transition to professional practice.

The “Curriculum Framework” will present an opportunity to adopt innovative educational approaches across the Higher Education in Bangladesh capitalizing on our industry connections and research activities. The “Curriculum Framework” approaches will be marketed as a key feature of the unique experience and be designed to be adaptable for use in international contexts.

The “Curriculum Framework” guided courses of studies will ensure the University students of Bangladesh to receive a distinctive learning experience leading to enhanced opportunities. Furthermore, the Curriculum Framework will promote the University as an educational environment which is distinguished from those of competitor universities. This vision will be achieved by adding value to students' learning, to their employment prospects on graduation, and to their options for the future. Besides, the Modularization of courses of studies and Credit System should open from any Bangladeshi university to abroad.


Thousands of fake memory cards and flash drives are flooding in the markets of Bangladesh and other South Asian nations, which are imported and sold by organized rackets of unscrupulous traders, who buy these products mostly from China. While using the fake memory cards or fake flash drive [pen drive], not only the customers are cheated with the shown capacity [for example, 2GB memory card mostly have maximum 256MB or 512MB memory in real], such fake memory cards and flash drives are extremely harmful for computers and PCs, as it always corrupt files and cause serious damage to the PCs. According to software experts, fake memory cards and flash drives are mostly having under performance of class speed. These also cause in losing files and data corruption. These are important signs for fake memory chips altered to lie about their true size.

They said, "A lot of people call it "Hacked Memory". The black market is strong, over 1,000,000 flash memory chips are upgraded and manipulated every month and many brand name manufacturers such as: SanDisk, Transcend, Sony, ADATA, Kingston Technologies, RITEK and Lexar have been impacted."

"Simply for saving few cents while buying memory cards and flash drives, people make a huge blunder by buying fake memory cards and flash drives, thus finally causing maximum damage to their PCs and laptops", they added.

A large number of cheated customers, who were supplied with fake memory cards and flash drives have become extremely vocal on various social sites, giving their own experience and warning people to refrain from buying such cards. It is even learnt that fake memory cards and flash drives are being sold by reputed websites such as eBay, Amazon etc, while thousands of unscrupulous traders of fake memory cards and flash drives are continuing such illegal business from site. It may also be mentioned here that, majority of the sellers on are frauds, including few of their "Gold Member".

Commenting on a fake memory card purchased from eBay, a cheated customer said, "I purchased a "SanDisk" 2GB memory stick on eBay directly from Hong Kong, and ran into the same thing. After putting about 225 pictures on it, the memory stick started to corrupt them. So I called SanDisk to get a replacement, as it gives 1 year warranty. When I told the SanDisk customer care the serial numbers of the memory stick that I purchased, he informed me that the card was a fake. There was no difference in packaging, no difference in the card whatsoever, even my PC showed the full memory capacity. But only after putting this card on special software, I was shocked seeing that the real memory of the 2GB memory stick was less than 100MB."

Jay Subramaniam, an IT expert in Bangalore, India told Weekly Blitz "W are definitely no strangers to counterfeit and fake products. In today's world, it's become commonplace to see an 'Appal' phone, here and a 'Nipe' shoe there. Piracy and cheap fake counterfeits have percolated into each and every segment of the market, so much so that there are extremely high chances that there's a fake to every original product you've seen in the market.

"In the gadget genre as well, we've seen tons and tons of them. From headphones, to chargers - to batteries to even complete phones! Now, we've got MicroSD cards to complete that list. They've been in existence, since quite some time, but only recently did we see a sudden surge when we spotted not one not two, but three 'stalls' strategically placed, selling these fake 'original SanDisk memory cards'.

"This imposter memory card you can see wants you to believe you've just purchased the cheapest memory card in the world. But, we'll warn you, your happiness will be short-lived, if you'll be drawn into its seemingly inconspicuous look. You'd rather not be fooled by its ridiculously low price, because you might not get anything close to what you're hoping for.

Here's how the modus operandi of these impostors works. Two guys - one at the stall, one waiting a little far off from the location. The first one shows off his brand new memory cards at a price tag of approximately Rs.100 [US$ 2.50] for a 4GB memory card and Rs.180 [US$ 3] for an 8GB one. They're all sealed and need a 'format' to start working on your phone. He'll show you an existing card and prove that it is indeed legitimate."

Demand for memory cards and flash drives within countries in South Asia are huge. According to IT experts, the total demand for memory cards alone is above 8 million, while the demands for flash drives are also significantly high. Considering the huge potential market, the large manufacturers, such as SanDisk, Transcend, Sony, ADATA, Kingston Technologies, RITEK and Lexar immediately need to appoint their authorized agents in all of the South Asian nations while put awareness advertisements in the local newspapers in order to educate the prospective buyers from not buying any fake memory card or flash drive, though the price might be slightly cheaper. By doing so, SanDisk, Transcend, Sony, ADATA, Kingston Technologies, RITEK and Lexar would not only save millions of customers, who are regularly cheated by the sellers of fake memory cards and flash drives – it would also help those large companies in having significant volume of business within the South Asian countries.

Software to detect fake memory cards and flash drives:

Humantities / Suspicious Behaviors/ Human Lies
« on: July 13, 2012, 03:13:51 PM »
Become a Human Lie Detector

Here's the top eight list of suspicious behaviors:

1.       A change in the voice's pitch.

2.       A change in the rate of speech.

3.       A sudden increase in the number of "ums" and "ahs."

4.       A change in eye contact. Normally, one makes eye contact one-quarter to one-half of the time. If suddenly, at the convenient moment to lie, he's staring at you or looking away, beware.

5.       Turning his body away from you, even if just slightly.

6.       Suddenly being able to see the white on the top and bottom of a person's eyes, not just the sides.

7.       A hand reaching, even if momentarily, to cover part of the face, especially the mouth.

8.       Nervous movement of feet or legs.

9.       Look for mixed signals. When someone's telling the truth, her words, her face and her body language are all congruent. For example, if a person is honestly saying that she likes you, her face is usually relaxed, offering a gentle smile and warm eyes. Her body is calm and open. But when she's lying, something is usually inconsistent. In the most obvious case, she may be saying she likes you, but she's not smiling. She may even have a clenched fist. Better liars can muster a smile, but it doesn't look natural. Even better liars can put on a convincing smile, but their eyes aren't smiling. Still better liars can control their entire face, but their bodies seem closed or cold. Look for mismatches between words and body language.

10.    When you've gotten a signal -- a change in body language or a mixed signal that the person may be lying -- ask for more information about the same topic. Are those same lying signs apparent? That can confirm your suspicion.

Of course, there's no foolproof way to detect lying. Some people are terrific at covering themselves up, especially if they are naturally emotionally flat or have practiced their lying skills over many years -- certain political leaders come to mind. But if you look for behavior changes and mixed signals at lying-expedient moments, you will improve your BS detector.

Higher Education / A higher education commission needed
« on: July 12, 2012, 11:07:43 PM »
Professor AK Azad Chowdhury, chairman of the University Grants Commission, tells New Age
THE government needs to establish a higher education commission to ensure quality education at the tertiary level, says Professor AK Azad Chowdhury, chairman of the University Grants Commission.Redressing the limitations of the commission in terms of authority, infrastructure, capacity, and human and financial resources is also ‘essential’ to attain the goal set in the constitution and the education policy, Azad, a former vice-chancellor of Dhaka University, said in an exclusive interview with New Age on Monday. Excerpts:

It is the responsibility of the state to create opportunities for education for people. Do you think that the state has been able to discharge this responsibility?I think the state has, more or less, been able to discharge its responsibilities to provide education, from primary to tertiary, including technical and vocational education.Bangladesh is an emerging nation with 94 per cent enrolment in primary education. Dropout has been reduced but yet to be stopped fully. The success rates in different examinations are encouraging. Successes in education are not bad in the context of Bangladesh’s socio-economic condition. The government has started implementation of the 2009 education policy and there were scopes for further improvement in higher education. It is true that education is not the number one priority in terms of allocation in the national budget. Allocation for education is 11.6 per cent of the total national budget, which is two per cent of the GDP. In India, it is 4 per cent, in Nepal 25 per cent, in Maldives 7 per cent and in Malaysia 5 per cent. UNESCO recommendation was for 4.5 per cent allocation.However, it is also true that food, energy and infrastructure are also important sectors for national allocations in our context. I am not saying that everything would be done with the increase of allocation for education alone. Thailand has provided tablet PC to many students recently. But it has not helped much to improve quality of education there. Only a gadget cannot improve the quality of education when sincerity, commitment and teachers-students relations, among many others, are much more important than money. Allocation, especially in higher education, is also very low with only 10 per cent of the total allocation for the education. It is only 0.25 per cent of the GDP and that is very negligible. However, I believe the quality of education could have been improved much if the funds allocated had been properly utilised.It is needless to say that quality higher education is essential for creating a convergence of knowledge, science, technology, innovation and skills in a nation. So it is necessary to increase allocation despite shortage of national resources.Bangladesh is the fourth country in terms of enrolment in the tertiary level educational institutions in Asia and Oceania region. Many countries are envious that about two million persons study at the graduate and post-graduate levels here. However, we are far behind in ensuring quality education at the tertiary level although our youths are much more talented and full of creativity and resilience than their counterparts in many other countries. In the past three and a half years, the UGC has approved establishment of seven new public universities in different districts in different disciplines including maritime, science and technology, agriculture, veterinary science, etc. New universities, public or private, in a good number of cases, provide updated knowledge and new thinking among the students. It is true that there was no provision to evaluate quality of education provided by the universities. The government has made the provision in a law in 2010.Many complain that while private universities have mushroomed over the years, very few of these actually offer quality education.There is a surge of private universities although yet many people believe that many private universities failed to maintain quality in education, let alone excellence. Ten to 12, out of about 60, private universities have been providing quality education and there degrees are accepted by many foreign universities.What about the so-called ‘study centres’ of foreign universities? Several foreign private universities have opened their study centres here. I do not believe that these centres have proper ambiance for tertiary education. However, most of the mother universities abroad do accept the credits. There are also allegations of fake degrees, certificates on sale.A major concern is that several private universities provide fake degrees and sell certificates through their name-only centres. The UGC is trying to rein in such malpractices.I would not claim that we were very much successful in containing fake degrees as there was no legal provision to regulate them. Whenever the UGC tried to shut the name-only campus and centres, they went to the court and got a stay order. The UGC had to wait for two to three years to vacate a stay order.The students have become victim of this situation. I personally believe that the court processes should be completed at a faster pace. Is higher education not getting expensive for students with poor economic background? Higher education at public institutions is almost free with nominal monthly tuition fee and charge for seats at dormitories. In fact, the pay structure benefits, in most of the cases, students from higher and middle income backgrounds.A student needs to spend at least Tk 1,500 for admission tests in several universities. We are working on making the admission tests easier with creating clusters of tertiary educational institutions of same discipline subject to approval of the university authorities. Only 25 per cent students of Dhaka University were from poor economic background. It is, however, true that the stipend that we provide at a rate of Tk 300 per month based on the students’ results are nominal. It would be better if we could provide them Tk 1,000 to 1,500 per month. I think students from higher and middle-income families need to pay more. I do not see anything wrong in charging higher fees for students from this economic background, as they are willing to pay substantially higher fees to private educational institutions. Do public universities get student with good educational backgrounds for higher education?In the past, a good number of students with uniform academic standard, high moral values and tenacity for study used to get admitted to the universities despite their financial hardship. Now we get only 10 per cent students who are really interested in acquiring knowledge. There are huge qualitative differences between the first 10 per cent and the next 40 per cent students. What is your assessment of the quality of teaching staff in tertiary educational institutions as teachers, in most cases, play the role of political activists?It is true that there is a shortage of dedicated teachers who would provide quality-time to students. To run their families, most of the public university teachers are found engaged in classes in private institutions and other activities when they are expected to conduct research and maintain student contacts. It deprives meritorious students. It is unfortunate. I think the government should provide a separate pay scale for the public university teachers. The teachers should also maintain certain values, high morality and ideals. The other point is there is hardly any programme for faculty development. There was a programme in the past to send about 100 young bright lecturers abroad for higher study and research. But there is no such project right now. We, from the UGC, provide 15-20 scholarships every year for teachers. What is the state of public university libraries?The libraries of public universities are becoming virtual libraries with high-speed wi-fi connections across the campuses.We are establishing the Bangladesh Research and Education Network to link universities with reputed universities and libraries abroad through a dedicated high-speed fibre optic network. About 10 universities have already got connected.How about the laboratories?It is true that laboratories in several public universities are not up to the mark. However, the UGC, with support from the government, has taken a project to improve the libraries.Often there are complaints of a dearth of basic research.There is a shortage of basic research, which is expensive, let alone other reasons including lack of commitment and dedication. Lights of the Curzon Hall (which houses the science faculty of Dhaka University) were never fully switched off in the past. But, now hardly any people can be found there after 5:00pm. The arts Building of the university becomes barren after 2:00pm! Bangladesh spends only 0.2 per cent of the GDP in research when a good number of countries spend about 2.5 per cent. I believe we need to keep campus lively and busy with cultural activities round the year. I would be happy if students give attention in more research.The government is implementing a Tk 700 crore project with finance from the World Bank to provide grants for research with innovative ideas in any discipline in social, agricultural, energy, medical sectors.We are expecting that this project would help improve the quality of teaching in the universities.Residency for students… Residency of students in general, girl students in particular, in public universities is a huge problem. We have initiated the process for construction of a 11-storied building with four towers for girl students of Dhaka University. Private universities, in most of the cases, do not provide students residency.The number of foreign students in public universities has decreased over the years. Why?Why foreign students would come here if we fail to demonstrate excellence in higher education, when they have alternatives to go in the region. How do you look at the involvement of teachers in partisan activities on campuses? As individuals, university teachers may have certain political views. We see think tanks leaning to certain political parties in different countries.But partisan attitude should not be reflected in the appointments of the teachers and the way they teach students as well. How about student politics in universities? A small number of students are involved in students’ organisations nowadays. Many of them are involved in creating instability in the campus. When I was the vice-chancellor of Dhaka University, we expelled about 50 workers of the [Bangladesh] Chhatra League, an associate body of the then ruling party Awami League for students, and 17 workers of [Jatiyatabadi] Chhatra Dal, associate body of then opposition Bangladesh Nationalist Party for students. Many people criticised me for this saying that I was out to destroy the BCL. But, the then prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, did not say anything.The DUCSU election was last held 22 years ago. Do you not think that elections to university students unions should be held regularly?With whom a vice-chancellor would discuss the problems of the students if there is no elected body for students. I dissolved DUCSU in 1997 as election was overdue. I tried to conduct a vote. But Chhatra Dal did not agree to join the election at that time.The seats designated for students’ representatives on the DU senate are vacant as there is no elected body. It has become a common phenomenon that the students’ organisation backed by the ruling party wants to participate in election when the organisation leaning to the opposition parties asks for level playing field. In this situation, no vice-chancellor wants to take the risk to jeopardise academic atmosphere for extra-academic activities.However, I believe holding elections to university students unions would add value to our political culture. What problems does the UGC face in discharging its duties?The UGC also suffers from inherent weaknesses. It plays the role of post office between the education ministry and the universities.The public universities were made autonomous through enactment of a law in 1973 on operations of the universities. The UGC was expected to be a buffer institution between the universities and the government.There were six public universities at that time. But, there are about 100 public and private universities including study centres of foreign universities. The UGC has had to work with the same infrastructure, human resource and mental make-up of 1973. When the 1973 law was made, there was no private university.It is needless to say that the concept of localised universities has no use in meeting contemporary demands, local and international, in different disciplines keeping global perspectives in consideration. Cross-border higher education is a new issue as many reputed (foreign) universities have started establishing campus and study centres in other countries. Malaysia is an example where several Australian universities, e.g. Monash, opened their campus. After a new law on private universities was enacted in 2010, the UGC has now started facilitating and supervising the universities. I believe the government should form a higher education commission cater to local and foreign needs. Now local students need to build themselves to compete for international responsibilities. An accreditation council would be formed to assess, with independent panel of experts, universities. Although there would be UGC representatives in it, the council would work independently for credible and acceptable accreditation of universities. It would be a assessment on faculty, student, research, publication, not only publication, how many times a publication was sited. The council, I believe, would help to ensure quality education in universities.

Islam / Know the reality of Islam; Holy Qur'an
« on: July 12, 2012, 12:22:10 PM »
We should know the reality of Islam direct from the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah of our Prophet (s). You are welcome to have a glimpse of the book where Mr. Sayed Javed Ahmed is currently writing -

বাংলাদেশের হ য ব র ল মুসলিম সমাজ -

Pages: 1 [2] 3 4 ... 20