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Topics - Shamim Ansary

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1426
Nutrition and Food Engineering / PREVENT FOOD-CONTAMINATION
« on: May 18, 2010, 05:30:16 PM »
Prevent Cross-Contamination
Cross-contamination is the physical movement or transfer of harmful bacteria from one person, object or place to another. Preventing cross-contamination is a key factor in preventing foodborne illness.

Minnesota Department of Health Consumer Fact Sheet, Revised April, 2007  

When shopping:
>Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods in your grocery-shopping cart.
>Place these foods in plastic bags to prevent their juices from dripping onto other foods.
>It is also best to separate these foods from other foods at check out and in your grocery bags.

When refrigerating food:
>Place raw meat, poultry, and seafood in containers or sealed plastic bags to prevent their juices from dripping onto >other >foods. Raw juices often contain harmful bacteria.
>Store eggs in their original carton and refrigerate as soon as possible.

When preparing food:
Keep it clean:
>Wash hands and surfaces often. Harmful bacteria can spread throughout the kitchen and get onto cutting boards, utensils, and counter tops. To prevent this:
>Wash hands with soap and hot water before and after handling food, and after using the bathroom, changing diapers; or handling pets.
>Use hot, soapy water and paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine.
>Wash cutting boards, dishes, and counter tops with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item and before you go on to the next item.

Cutting boards:
>Always use a clean cutting board.
>If possible, use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry, and seafood.
>Once cutting boards become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves, you should replace them.

Marinating food:
>Always marinate food in the refrigerator, not on the counter.
>Sauce that is used to marinate raw meat, poultry, or seafood should not be used on cooked foods, unless it is boiled just before using.

Fruits and vegetables:
>Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables in running tap water to remove visible dirt and grime.
>Remove and discard the outermost leaves of a head of lettuce or cabbage.
>Because bacteria can grow well on the cut surface of fruit or vegetables, be careful not to contaminate these foods while slicing them up on the cutting board, and avoid leaving cut produce at room temperature for many hours.

When serving food:
>Always use a clean plate.
>Never place cooked food back on the same plate or cutting board that previously held raw food.

1427
Pharmacy / Career Prospects of the Department of Pharmacy
« on: May 16, 2010, 05:00:18 PM »
It is likely you will have visited a pharmacy in the past month and if you have, you’re not the only one. In England alone, 1.6 million people visit a pharmacy each day and over the course of a year an average person visits a pharmacy 14 times.

The main reasons for visiting the pharmacy are to collect medicine prescribed by a doctor, buy medicine over the counter or to get health advice from the pharmacist.

Because of their accessibility and what they do pharmacists are one of the most trusted professions in the UK, but they do a lot more than prescribe your medicine in your local pharmacy.

Pharmacy makes a vital contribution to society – over the years medicines and access to medicines have revolutionised the health of the nation.


Scope in the USA:

The pharmacist is one of the most accessible members of today's health care team. More than 200 million people-nearly the equivalent of its entire population-pass through America's pharmacies each week. At more than 50,000 locations, for most hours of the day, pharmacists are ready to serve the public providing their complete pharmaceutical care needs. The pharmacist traditionally has been the first source of advice and assistance for many health concerns. Today pharmacists are assuming more responsibility in attempting to better meet the health care needs of society.



Pharmacists are the country's main experts in medicines and pharmacy is one of the fastest growing areas of healthcare. They share a common commitment to improving people's lives through medicines and care and making a real contribution to the nation's health. Career opportunities are developing fast and pharmacists today can be found in many different settings including high street pharmacies, hospital wards, GPs' surgeries, walk-in centres, industry and universities.

A career in pharmacy offers you:

• The pursuit of an interest in science
• The opportunity to join the NHS healthcare team
• A choice of working environments
Pharmacists are the experts in medicine. Many are part of the NHS family, providing high quality healthcare to patients, ensuring they make the best use of their medicines.

Pharmacists also work across industry and academia playing a vital role in the discovery, development and delivery of medicines.

Pharmacy is essential to modern society helping relieve suffering, manage long term conditions and cure disease.

1428
In an article posted on REIclub.com, the first thing a starter who has indicated interest in the real estate investment needs to do is to acquire as much knowledge as necessary.

It says, ”The secret is to learn from others and avoid the pain of learning the hard way. Here is the secret, you can jump-start your investing success by getting a good mentor and constantly reading and listening to successful real estate investors.

Another thing, which is equally important is to consistently make a lot of quality offers. In order to become a successful real estate investor, it is absolutely necessary to place many offers that, if accepted, will result in great deals. Without offers, there can be no good deals and good deals are the basis of success in real estate investing.

For Mr. Steve Ogbonna, a player in the real estate industry in Nigeria, it is important for a beginner to set investment goals and ensure that he follows them to the letter.

”In order to make your investments in real estate a success, you need to know how and when you should use the help of professionals in order to meet your goals. Some of the professionals who are of value to your business include mortgage brokers, real estate agents, and real estate lawyers. Getting the help of a professional at the right time can give you insights while choosing a property to acquire and they also help you save time since you won‘t have to do your own time consuming research.”

”Setting these goals is preferably before one even starts investing. Anyone who drafts a realistic plan and sticks to it can achieve a whole lot. Accurate goal setting is actually very difficult, but to set realistic goals, speak with experienced investors in the chosen field- wholesaling, renovating and lease-options and get their honest opinions regarding profits per deal and the average time required to complete a deal.

”Based on this and her current resources of cash and credit, the investor can set his long-term cash, cash flow and equity goals for one year, three years and five years. Once these long-term goals have been set, he can fill in his short-term goals of three, six and nine months by outlining the steps he needs to take to accomplish his long-term goals. This will really help the investor in making the right decisions.”

A real estate consultant, Mr. Joseph Adeola, says that for anyone who is interested in going into real estate business, it is important that he focusses on making little profit in the beginning.

He says, ”When you purchase a property, do not feel you have to pass all of the savings on to your buyer. My advice to you is to take what you can get. Do not try to inflate your prices above the market and gouge people. Give them a good value.

”However, do not think it is necessary to limit your profits just so a buyer can benefit. After all, this is business. Let the market set your price. There will be plenty of times when your profit is not as large as you expected. Take advantage of the big hits when they come.”

Adeola adds that there are also many methods used for real estate investing and each one is dependent on what the investor is set to achieve.

According to him, these methods can be summarised into two: ‘Buy to Sell‘, which is geared for profit and is usually short term, and ‘Buy to Rent‘, which is beneficial for long term income, adding that leasing the property, while accumulating equity, is usually done for mid to long-term.

”In the real estate investment industry you have to be sure to stay on top of things, and knowing what approach you want to take can help in planning for the right goals and which properties are much suitable. Aside from this, you can also make a plan based on your goals, and you can customise the methods so you can meet your goal much faster and in a more effective way,‘ he explains.


1429
Please see the attached file....


Thanking...

Shamim Ansary
Admin.
BRE & B. Com (Hon's) programs

1430
English / HISTORY OF BANGLA LITERATURE
« on: May 11, 2010, 06:03:12 PM »
Bangla Literature dates back to at least the 7th century with three development periods are:ancient, medieval, and modern— Ancient period from 650-1200, medieval period from 1200-1800, and the modern period from 1800 to the present.

While the history of Bangladeshi and Bengali literature goes back hundreds of years. It is impossible (and undesirable) to separate the literary trends of the two Bengals during the pre-independence period. Post independent Bangladesh has given birth to it's own distinct set of literateurs and literature.

The earliest available specimen of Bengali literature is about a thousand years old. During the mediaeval period Bengali literature developed considerably with the patronage of Muslim rulers, particularly Sultan Alauddin Hussein Shah, his son Nasrat Shah and commander-in-chief, paragal khan , in promoting Bangla literature is specially noteworthy. The 45-year rule of the Hussein Shah dynasty (1493-1538) in Bengal not only led to political, social and cultural prosperity, but also nurtured bangla language and literature.

Several Muslim poets were Chand Kazi (15th century), and Afzal Ali (17th century). Chand Kazi was the Kazi of Nabadwip under Sultan Hussein Shah (1493-1519). Syed Sultan (c 1550-1648, Nabi Bangsha , Shab-i-Miraj , Rasulbijay , Ofat-i-Rasul , Jaykum Rajar Ladai , Iblisnama , Jnanachautisha , Jnanapradip , marfati gan , padavali), Sheikh Paran (c 1550-1615, Nurnama , Nasihatnama ), Haji Muhammad (c 1550-1620, Nur Jamal , Suratnama ), Nasrullah Khan (c 1560-1625, janganama , Musar Sawwal , Shariatnama , Hidayitul Islam ), Muhammad Khan (c 1580-1650, Satya-Kali-Vivad-Sangbad , Hanifar Ladai , Maktul Husein ), Syed Martuza (c 1590-1662, Yog-Kalandar , padavali), Sheikh Muttalib (c 1595-1660, Kifayitul-Musallin ), Mir Muhammad Shafi (c 1559-1630, Nurnama , Nurkandil , Sayatnama ), Abdul Hakim (c 1620-1690, Lalmati-Sayfulmulk , Nurnama ). Poets who composed between 1600 and 1757 include nawajis khan , Qamar Ali, Mangal (Chand), Abdul Nabi, Muhammad Fasih, Fakir Garibullah, Muhammad Yakub, Sheikh Mansur, Muhammad Uzir Ali, Sheikh Sadi and Heyat Mamud. Syed Sultan's Nabibamsa , Muhammad Khan's Maktul Husein and sheikh chand 's Rasulbijay are known as Islamic Puranas.

Shah Muhammad Sagir (c 1400) was one of the earliest of the Bengali Muslim poets. Though his romance Yusuf-Zulekha contains no signature piece identifying him, he is generally regarded as being from East Bengal as copies of his poems have been found in the Chittagong-Comilla-Tripura region. Other epic poets include Jainuddin, Muzammil, Sheikh Faizullah, Daulat Uzir Bahram Khan. Jainuddin became famous with Rasulbijay , his only epic. Muzammil became famous mainly for his three poetic works: Nitishastravarta, Sayatnama and Khanjancharita.

In the period of 1700-1800 the main literary productions of the period include padavali and mangalkavya. Padavali Padavali writers in the 18th century include Narahari Chakravarti, Natavar Das, Dinabandhu Das, Chandrashekhar-Shashishekhar and Jagadananda. Their poems were, however, more full of ornamentation than meaning. Mangalkavya Versions of Chandimangal continued to be composed, an important version being that by Ramchandra Yati written 1766-67.

Bharatchandra , perhaps the greatest poet of the 18th century, wrote Nagastak and Gangastak in Sanskrit and, in Bangla, Satyanarayaner panchali , Rasamanjari as well as Annadamangal. Some other poets of this genre were Radhakanta Mishra (perhaps the first poet of Kolkata), Kavindra Chakravarti and Nidhiram Acharya of chittagong. The first Bangla books were those by Christian missionaries. Dom Antonio's Brahmin-Roman-Catholic-Sangbad , for example, was the first Bangla book to be printed towards the end of the 17th century.

Raja Rammohan Roy (1772/4-1833) also contributed to the further development of Bangla prose. Some of his well-known books are translations: Vedanta Grantha (1815), Vedantasar (1815), Kenopanisad (1816) and Ishopanisad (1816). His original books include Bhattacharyer Sahit Vichar (1817), Gosvamir Sahit Vichar (1817), Sahamaran Virodhi Pustika , Sahamaran Visay (1828) , Gaudiya Vyakaran ( 1833) etc. The main themes of these books are religious and didactic. The first modern Bangla novelist was Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay (1838-1894) whose fourteen novels include Durgeshnandini , Kapalkundala , Krishnakanter Will , Bisbrksa and Ananadamath.

In the 19th century, Prominent among them were Mir Mosharraf Hossain (1847-1912), Moulvi Mohammad Naimuddin (1832-1907), Dad Ali (1852-1936), Kaikobad (1857-1951), Sheikh Abdur Rahim, Reazuddin Ahmad Mashadi, Mozammel Huq, Munshi Muhammad Reazuddin Ahmad (1862-1933), Moulvi Mearajuddin Ahmad (1852-1929), Munshi Muhammad Zamiruddin (1870-1930), Abdul Hamid khan Yusufzai (1864-1924) and Maulana Mohammad Moniruzzaman Islamabadi (1875-1950). Mir Mosharraf Hossain wrote nearly 30 books including novels, plays, Satire , poetry, musical plays, and essays. His best known writing is, however, Bisad-Sindhu , based on the incidents at Karbala.

The first Bangla biography of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was written by Sheikh Abdur Rahim. Michael Madhusudan Dutt Michael Madhusudan dutt (1824-1873) began writing in English but soon moved to writing in Bangla by his English readings.

In 1890-1930, Rabindranath Tagore was an extraordinary man who made major contributions to all genres of Bangla literature. He wrote an immense range of rich and varied forms of poetry, plays, dance dramas, novels, short stories, essays and over two thousand songs. Although he was known as 'Vishvakavi' (world poet) and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1913 for his book of poems Gitanjali, The most popular novelists of this period was Sharat chandra chattopadhyay (1876-1938), Pramatha Chowdhury (1868-1946), Probhat Kumar Mukhopadhyay (1873-1932).

The pioneering role in introducing ultra-modernism in Bangla poetry was played by Achinta Kumar Sengupta, Buddhadev Bose, Premendra Mitra, Jibanananda das (1899-1954), Sudhindranath dutta (1901-1960), Bishnu de (1909-1982).

In the period of 1947-1971 well known writers were Mohammad Najibar Rahman (1860-1923), Ekramuddin ahmad (1872-1940), Roquiah Sakhawat Hossain (1880-1932), Kazi Imdadul Huq (1882-1926), Shahadat hossain (1893-1953), Golam Mostafa (1897-1964), Abul Hussain (1896-1938), Kazi Abdul Wadud (1894-1970), Mohammad Akram Khan, Dr Muhammad Shahidullah (1885-1969), Dr Muhammad Lutfar Rahman (1889-1936), S Wazed Ali (1890-1951), Ibrahim Khan (1894-1978), Nurunessa Khatun Vidyavinodini (1894-1975), Sheikh Muhammad Idris Ali (1895-1945), Akbaruddin (1895-1979), Mohammad Barkatullah (1898-1974), Abul Kalam Shamsuddin (1897-1978), Qazi Motahar Hossain, Abul Mansur Ahmed (1898-1979), Benajir Ahmed (1903-1983), abul fazal (1903-1983), Motaher Hossain Chowdhury (1903-1956), Muhammad Mansuruddin (1904-1987), Abdul Quadir (1906-1984), Bande Ali Miah (1906-1979), Mahmuda Khatun Siddiqua (1906-1977), Habibullah Bahar Choudhury (1906-1966), Mahbub-ul Alam (1906-1982), Dr Muhammad Enamul Huq, Sufi Motahar Hosen (1907-1975), Begum Sufia Kamal (1911-1999) and Raushan Yazdani (1917-1967).

The liberation war of 1971 and the independence of Bangladesh marks the third phase of the literature of this region. Fiction The fiction of this phase records the saga of the liberation war, the hellish face of the war, the dream of a free and egalitarian Bangladesh and thereafter the realization of independence.

1431
Local handloom sector is declining gradually. Present state of our renouned ''Banarashi Palli'' is not satisfactory. Due to the price hike of the raw materials & the dominance of foreign (especially India) product, the local products are at moribund stage. Sale has drastically come down. For the better survival, some businessmen/labourers are switching to other fields. Government, entreprenours as well as the conscious citizens like us have to ponder over the remedy of this formidable situation.

1432
English / NOBEL LAUREATES IN LITERATURE (1901-2009)
« on: May 08, 2010, 05:23:56 PM »
2009
HERTA MÃœLLER who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed.

2008
JEAN-MARIE GUSTAVE LE CLÉZIO author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization.

2007
DORIS LESSING that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny.

2006
ORHAN PAMUK who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures.

2005
HAROLD PINTER who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms.

2004
ELFRIEDE JELINEK for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clich s and their subjugating power

2003
JOHN MAXWELL COETZEE who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider

2002
IMRE KERTÉSZ for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history

2001
V. S. NAIPAUL for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories.

2000
GAO XINGJIAN for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama.

1999
GUNTER GRASS whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history.

1998
JOSE SARAMAGO who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality.

1997
DARIO FO who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden.

1996
WISLAWA SZYMBORSKA for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality.

1995
SEAMUS HEANEY for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past.

1994
KENZABURO OE who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today.

1993
TONI MORRISON who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality.

1992
DEREK WALCOTT for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment.

1991
NADINE GORDIMER who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity.

1990
OCTAVIO PAZ for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity.

1989
CAMILO JOSÉ CELA for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability.

1988
NAGUIB MAHFOUZ who, through works rich in nuance-now clearsightedly realistic, now evocatively ambigous-has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind.

1987
JOSEPH BRODSKY for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity.

1986
WOLE SOYINKA who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence.

1985
CLAUDE SIMON who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition.

1984
JAROSLAV SEIFERT for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man.

1983
SIR WILLIAM GOLDING for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today.

1982
GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts.

1981
ELIAS CANETTI for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power.

1980
CZESLAW MILOSZ who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts.

1979
ODYSSEUS ELYTIS (pen-name of ODYSSEUS ALEPOUDHELIS ), for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness.

1978
ISAAC BASHEVIS SINGER for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life.

1977
VICENTE ALEIXANDRE for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry beween the wars.

1976
SAUL BELLOW for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work.

1975
EUGENIO MONTALE for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions.

1974
The prize was divided equally between:
EYVIND JOHNSON for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom.
HARRY MARTINSON for writings that catch the dew drop and reflect the cosmos.

1973
PATRICK WHITE for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature.

1972
HEINRICH BÖLL for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature.

1971
PABLO NERUDA for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams.

1970
ALEKSANDR ISAEVICH SOLZHENITSYN for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature.

1969
SAMUEL BECKETT for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation.

1968
YASUNARI KAWABATA for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind.

1967
MIGUEL ANGEL ASTURIAS for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America.

1966
The prize was divided equally between:
SHMUEL YOSEF AGNON for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people.
NELLY SACHS for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength.

1965
MICHAIL ALEKSANDROVICH SHOLOKHOV for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people.

1964
JEAN-PAUL SARTRE for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a farreaching influence on our age. (Declined the prize.)

1963
GIORGOS SEFERIS (pen-name of GIORGOS SEFERIADIS ), for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture.

1962
JOHN STEINBECK for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception.

1961
IVO ANDRI´C for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country.

1960
SAINT-JOHN PERSE (pen-name of ALEXIS LÉGER ), for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time.

1959
SALVATORE QUASIMODO for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times.

1958
BORIS LEONIDOVICH PASTERNAK for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition. (Accepted first, later caused by the authorities of his country to decline the prize.)

1957
ALBERT CAMUS for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times.

1956
JUAN RAMÓN JIMÉNEZ for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity.

1955
HALLDÓR KILJAN LAXNESS for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland.

1954
ERNEST MILLER HEMINGWAY for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea ,and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style.

1953
SIR WINSTON LEONARD SPENCER CHURCHILL for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values.

1952
FRANÇOIS MAURIAC for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life.

1951
PÄR FABIAN LAGERKVIST for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind.

1950
EARL BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.

1949
WILLIAM FAULKNER for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel.

1948
THOMAS STEARNS ELIOT for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry.

1947
ANDRÉ PAUL GUILLAUME GIDE for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight.

1946
HERMANN HESSE for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humaitarian ideals and high qualities of style.

1945
GABRIELA MISTRAL (pen-name of LUCILA GODOY Y ALCA-YAGA ), for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world.

1944
JOHANNES VILHELM JENSEN for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style.

1943-1940
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1939
FRANS EEMIL SILLANPÄÄ for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature.

1938
PEARL BUCK (pen-name of PEARL WALSH née SYDENSTRICKER ), for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces.

1937
ROGER MARTIN DU GARD for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novelcycle Les Thibault.

1936
EUGENE GLADSTONE O'NEILL for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy.

1935
The prize money was allocated to the Main Fund (1/3) and to the Special Fund (2/3) of this prize section.

1934
LUIGI PIRANDELLO for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art.

1933
IVAN ALEKSEYEVICH BUNIN for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing.

1932
JOHN GALSWORTHY for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsythe Saga.

1931
ERIK AXEL KARLFELDT The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt.

1930
SINCLAIR LEWIS for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters.

1929
THOMAS MANN principially for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature.

1928
SIGRID UNDSET principially for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages.

1927
HENRI BERGSON in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brillant skill with which they have been presented.

1926
GRAZIA DELEDDA (pen-name of GRAZIA MADESANI née DELEDDA) , for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general.

1925
GEORGE BERNARD SHAW for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty.

1924
WLADYSLAW STANISLAW REYMONT (pen-name of REYMENT ), for his great national epic, The Peasants.

1923
WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation.

1922
JACINTO BENAVENTE for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama.

1921
ANATOLE FRANCE (pen-name of JACQUES ANATOLE THIBAULT ), in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament.

1920
KNUT PEDERSEN HAMSUN for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil.

1919
CARL FRIEDRICH GEORG SPITTELER in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring.

1918
The prize money for 1918 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1917
The prize was divided equally between:
KARL ADOLPH GJELLERUP for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals.
HENRIK PONTOPPIDAN for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark.

1916
CARL GUSTAF VERNER VON HEIDENSTAM in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature.

1915
ROMAIN ROLLAND as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings.

1914
The prize money for 1914 was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

1913
RABINDRANATH TAGORE because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with comsummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West.

1912
GERHART JOHANN ROBERT HAUPTMANN primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art.

1911
COUNT MAURICE (MOORIS) POLIDORE MARIE BERNHARD MAETERLINCK , in appreciation of his manysided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations.

1910
PAUL JOHANN LUDWIG HEYSE as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories.

1909
SELMA OTTILIA LOVISA LAGERLÖF in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings.

1908
RUDOLF CHRISTOPH EUCKEN in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life.

1907
RUDYARD KIPLING in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author.

1906
GIOSUÈ CARDUCCI not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces.

1905
HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer.

1904
The prize was divided equally between:
FRÉDÉRIC MISTRAL in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist.
JOSÉ ECHEGARAY Y EIZAGUIRRE in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama.

1903
BJØRNSTJERNE MARTINUS BJØRNSON as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit.

1902
CHRISTIAN MATTHIAS THEODOR MOMMSEN the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome.

1901
SULLY PRUDHOMME (pen-name of RENÉ FRANÇOIS ARMAND ), in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualitites of both heart and intellect.

1433
English / HERCULES AND HIS TWELVE LABORS
« on: May 08, 2010, 04:42:03 PM »
HERCULES AND HIS TWELVE LABORS

Not born a god, Hercules achieved godhood at the time of his death because he devoted his life to the service of his fellowmen. Some authorities link Hercules with the sun, as each labor took him farther from his home and one of his tasks carried him around the world and back.
 
Principal Characters

Hercules, the son of Jupiter and Alcmena. He is a mortal. As a child, he is the object of Juno's jealousy. Through her influence he is commanded to carry out twelve labors, in hopes that he will be killed in accomplishing one of them:

(1) he must strangle the Nemean lion;
(2) he must kill the nine-headed hydra;
(3) he must capture the dread Erymanthian boar;
(4) he must capture a stag with golden antlers and brazen feet;
(5) he must get rid of the carnivorous Stymphalian birds;
(6) he must cleanse the stables of Augeas;
(7) he must capture the sacred bull of Minos;
(8) he must drive away the carnivorous mares of Diomedes;
(9) he must secure the girdle of Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons;
(10) he must bring back the oxen belonging to the monster Geryoneus;
(11) he must bring back the golden apples of the Hesperides; and
(12) he must bring back Cerberus, the three-headed dog of the Underworld.

Jupiter, king of the gods, Hercules' father.
Alcmena, a mortal woman, Hercules' mother.
Juno, Jupiter's wife. Jealous of mortal Alcmena, she hopes to cause Hercules' death and thus be avenged.
Eurystheus, Hercules' cousin. Acting for Juno, he assigns the twelve labors.
Rhadamanthus, Hercules' tutor, killed by Hercules when he punishes the boy.
Amphitryon, Hercules' foster father. He rears the boy as a shepherd, high in the mountains.

1434
Library of DIU / SILENCE IN THE LIBRARY
« on: May 06, 2010, 01:21:11 PM »
Library is a kind of religious place where the studious students pass their time in pensive study. So the environment of the library must be up to that mark. One has no right to dusturb other in his holy work of study. "Keep Silence" or "Put off your Mobile" is tagged here and there in the library. Most of the students follow the decorum of keeping themselves mum in the library. But some students are found to defy the regulation by talking in high voice and talking over mobile phone. All these are prohibited. It annoy the other kind of serious reader. Library is not a place for counselling/ gossiping/talking over phone.

I beseech to each and everybody to follow the order. Let others to read.

Shamim Ansary
Admin.
BRE & B. Com (Hon's) prgms.

1435
Library of DIU / Submission of Library Books
« on: May 06, 2010, 01:00:59 PM »
A library is the representation of a civilization. DIU Library is an up-do-date & enriched one. Both the students and faculties are getting benefits from it.

I thank all the subscribers of the library for seeking books/materials from the library.

I urge to those members (both the faculties & the students) who withdraw books/materials from our library for their study purpose, to submit those in time. It will help runnig the library smoothly. Drawing books/ materials from the library and not submitting those throughout the semester never helps a library to perform properly. Others might not be benefited in this way.

1436
Departments / "One can buy many things with few savings..."
« on: May 05, 2010, 03:06:29 PM »
"One can buy many things with few savings..."

I am citing from Warren Buffet, the second richest man of the world. He is a vibrant example of success. He has tought us how SAVINGS can direct a person to the pinnacle of achievement.

It should be a motivating factor for all of us. We all need to cultivate the habit of Savings more or less according to our capabilities. Drops of water can make a huge ocean. Extravagance can be denoted as the seed of doom.

I believe all of us are calculative enough in using our official stuffs, such as, pen, papers, printers, ACs, Lights, furniture, or even a pin. This sort of tiny savings will certainly uplift the position of our beloved DIU.

Thanking,

Shamim Ansary
Administrative Officer

1437
Islam & Science / FOTOWA--- a religious & social curse.
« on: May 05, 2010, 10:26:46 AM »
It is a great pity that, the Muslim sect has been decentralized from the core belief im Islam. Some of the Muslims are involved in a series of unethical thinkings & actions, in the name of holy Islam & Allah. Mal-practices of Islam in the remote areas are at the mushrooming growth. Some vile people take the chances upon the poor, ignorant people to exploit them. We come to know the awe-evoking news of diiferent FOTOWAs governed by the unscrupulous fake religious leaders. They inflicts their 'so called retribution' upon the innocent victims.

Fotowa is a curse indeed. Authentic knowledge on Islam can help everybody to remain safe from being victimized of such heinous fotowas. Government, social elite class & the educated sects will have to come in action to make the ignorant people aware of the facts out of their personal interests.

With thanks,

Shamim Ansary
Administrative OfiicerF

1438
Convocation / The Flamboyance of the Third Convocation of DIU
« on: May 04, 2010, 05:25:23 PM »
Our beloved DIU is approaching to celebrate its Convocation for the Third time. Around 1500 students are expected to be conferred their degrees. Interestingly, I am one of the proud students among them....! So, I am very thrilled about the matter & dreaming to enjoy the occasion up to my maximum. I can sense the passion of other students who are going to attend that gorgeous party on September 19th. We all are awating the Convocation.

I am thrilled to attend the lustrous program as an employee also!

Shamim Ansary
Administrative Officer
BRE & B. Com (Hon's) prgms., DIU
&
Ex-student of the Department of English, DIU

1439
A couple of years back, we, a couple of enthusiastic students of the department had initiated a little mag named THE MUSE. Our motto was to reveal the latent creativity of the students who are from English department. It was a bimonthly product & we could publish as many as seven issues of it. As we were about to finish our studentship in DIU at taht time, it was impossible for us to carry on the work. I lavishly invite the current students of English to come forward to resume the work. Who has the spirit to revitalize THE MUSE?

1440
English / How Literature Influences Life
« on: April 27, 2010, 01:20:40 PM »
Ahemed Shamim Ansary

In ancient Greece, Plato wanted to oust the poets (in great sense, people involved in literature) from his Ideal State for their imaginative thinking instead of practical. However, it could not be possible as it surmounted all the barriers with its emphatic force of diversification, amplitude and depth of impact. So, after the sequential elapse of time, it is proved that, literature definitely has profound sway upon life to a large extent.
 
Moral values are the élan vital or the driving force of a life. These moral or ethical senses are sometimes largely grown or nourished or sometimes rectified in the literature of that very time. Thus, literature has a powerful impact upon life of any society. Lord of the Flies provides us the implied morale that— good and evil are not here and there, they lie in our souls. Shakespeare also believed that there is nothing good and bad in the earth; our thinking makes a thing so.

Philosophical thoughts are considered as the most ancient pensive creativity. Literature has also emerged from creativity. Literature enhances creativity. Literature and life of a society reflect upon each other: Life moulds literature of a society and literature reflects the life pattern of any society. In most cases, literature doesn’t render economical benefit. Yet, it is closely related to the heritage, culture and social-political-religious aspects of life. We come to know about the intimate relationship between the regal king and kinsmen, their festivals, gorgeous feasts, pompous castle, agony for the departed close ones in poems like The Seafarer” or “The Wanderer”. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales chalks out the society of the medieval period.

Religion leads life of a human being in a rectified way. Literature deals with ethics of various religions and thus possesses a grave influence upon individuals. Pilgrim’s Progress Allegorically states the journey to the life hereafter. “The Dream of the Roods”, a poem of the ancient time, deals with the religious Christian vigour while “The Seafarer” and “The Wanderer” articulate pagan and Christian belief simultaneously alongside other description of social aspects. In Milton’s Paradise Lost, we come to know the cause behind the fall of human from the Heaven following the wrath of the God upon man’s sin. It tells us that, Satan instigates us to undermine our religious belief. Later, In Paradise Regained, we are taught that, through the earnest repentance, we can regain the grace of the merciful God. In this way, literature can work to alert human sect against Gods’ wrath or self unscrupulousness and vehemence.

Men can commit a sin when the devilish part of his soul dominates upon him. Sometimes, unintentional sin generates prick of conscience. The Omnipotent is very kind. The sinners can seek pardon to get rid of his retribution. According to the speech of Scriptures or belief of morality and society, it is deemed that the sinners would taste redemption through condign penalty. S. T. Coleridge’s The Ancient Mariner can be the best example of it. Sometimes, man has to be submissive to the Almighty if the solemn plea of a humble human being is pictured in literature; George Herbert’s “Pulley” is an example.

It is a gospel truth that— time spares nobody. Literature helps us to remind that fact. Beowulf pictures the life of a valiant warrior protagonist who triumphs the consecutive fierce battles but eventually defeated to the elapse of time. We realize the cruelest philosophy of life— time spares nobody. This epic of the ancient time also deals with triumphant of the protagonist who faces all reality with courage, patience and according to the situation. Thus, literature teaches us some encouraging lessons. Lord Tennyson’s “Tithonus” deals with human limitation and the powerful influence of time. “Ulysses’’ teaches us not to leave anything until the goal is achieved. Thus, literature influences people to enhance their endurance, spirit and aspiration.

Irrational activities of human sects are proved to be devastative. Homer’s epic Iliad narrates the mythological story where gods and human fight side by side and thus a huge city collapses and a huge bloodshed occurs. Lord of the Flies also depicts almost the same story where we see how devastating a civilization can be for their self doom.

Trait varies from human to human. Shakespeare envisaged this fact a long time ago and showed us universal aspects of human psychology like love, hatred, passion, jealousy, anger, ambition, greed, lust, indecision, patriotism, conspiracy, hot-headedness, revengefulness, humour, unscrupulousness— which can force any human to face a tragic doom from regal status. Thus, by showing psychological affinity, a common man is similar to a man from blue blood. Ambition is an awesome aspect of humanity. Considerate people are never proud of his achievement. Christopher Marlowe shows the deadly fate of a person who transgress his limit in Doctor Faustus.

Love vibrates human mind significantly. None can live without live. Theme of love is lavishly depicted in the literatures of different ages. Seventeenth century poet A. Marvell in his remarkable “The Definition of Love” reveals the passion of a lover’s heart. Marlow’s “The Passionate Shepherd to His Beloved” can be another example of the commitments of a lover. Thus, the theme of love is nurtured and pinpointed in literature.

Mourning for the departed consanguine is an instinct trait of human being. Some literatures largely deal with the expression of personal agony for the nearest and dearest ones. Masterpiece Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard is a revelation for those candid, rustic departed souls who left the world before proving their potent. In Memoriam is a sorrowful narration of a dead friend.

As an educative source, literature plays a significant role upon human. Literature works with direct or implied moral in its regard. A great deal of examples can be drawn from different genres. Thus, literature is an emphatic force of education. For example, The Old Man and the Sea teaches the reader what should be a man’s activity under the clutch of danger and how a man should struggle to reset his fortune. Return of the Native of Thomas Hardy deals with the morale how a man should confront with reality as it is.

Appreciation of art is a part of intellect. Literature evokes the dormant sense of beauty through its artistic representation. Aestheticism is far away from coarse sensuality or poignant vulgarity. Thus, one’s soul can be rectified by the enkindling of beautification. James Joyce’s novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a good example of distinguishing the art of soul and corporeal desire of lust. It reveals that art is sublime, spiritual and above all vulgarity. ‘A thing of beauty is joy forever’— believed sensuous poet of nature John Keats.

War-ridden modern era has been witnessing un-stability of every kind. T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land is an exemplary reflection of this suffocating time. It yells on sexual perversion, spiritual hollowness and ethical bankruptcy after the devastated World Wars. At the same time, this masterpiece draws solution from Eastern Upanishad to surrender, control thyself and be compassionate to make an upheaval from chaotic abyss of every kinds. It avows that, the betterment of human civilization is in our hand—through our individual and reciprocal endeavour and will. Right at this apocalyptic moment, it can be our prime and universal motto to save our darling world from the ultimate doom.

There are lots of incongruities here and there in society. Satiric literature like, Animal Farm or Gulliver’s Travels is a kind of protest against the absurdity of society. This kind of literature thrashes the vice or folly of human race. Indirectly, satiric literature is pointed to rectify the incongruities in human characters through repartee and banter. Socio-economic, cultural, political and individual life is under intense scrutiny of these literatures.

Probably, one of the most influential aspects of literature is to broaden vision of the readers. It helps to make a person better. It motivates people towards tolerance and inculcates the sense of justice in Human soul. In ancient Greek literature like Oedipus Rex, sense of justice evokes in fate-bound protagonist Oedipus, and he punishes himself following his sense of guilt by self-blinding and prolonged self-banishment.

Literature is a means of reading-- reading for pleasure. A general reader can attain delight from some light literature as well as from thought provoking one. Sherlock Holms, The Mysterious Island, Harry Potter or the Mythological writings is a good example that fulfills the appetite of readers of all kinds. Aesop’s Fable is full with advice for the readers.

Through literature, life of the individual as well as the whole civilization can be enlightened. Alexander Pope’s magnum opus The Rape of the Lock believed in the education of social morality, classic culture; it denounces and satirizes the feminine sham egoism; it fights against social corruption and debasement. T. Hardy’s Tess of the d’Urbervilles, H. Ibsen’s A Doll’s House or Dostoyevsky’s Crime and Punishment can be the announcement of feminine suppression and liberation simultaneously.

Patriotism is one of the inevitable, prerequisite traits of human. A great deal of examples on patriotic issue can be drawn from different literatures— National anthem written by Tagore or poem ‘Biddrohi’ by Nazrul can be a few examples of patriotism.

So, it is transparent that, literature shows versatile dimension & deals with every aspect of life more or less. One point is to be mentioned, the viewpoint of grasping and the degree of infusing in the conscience of the same literary work can be different in case of different people from different social, political, economical or intellectual background. There is a lot of stimulating ingredients in literature that can influence life. One has to grab that accordingly.

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