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Hackers have broken into the systems of more than a dozen global telecoms companies and taken large amounts of personal and corporate data, researchers from a cyber security company said on Tuesday, identifying links to previous Chinese cyber-espionage campaigns.

Investigators at US-Israeli cyber security firm Cybereason said the attackers compromised companies in more than 30 countries and aimed to gather information on individuals in government, law-enforcement and politics.

The hackers also used tools linked to other attacks attributed to Beijing by the United States and its Western allies, said Lior Div, chief executive of Cybereason.

“For this level of sophistication it’s not a criminal group. It is a government that has capabilities that can do this kind of attack,” he told Reuters.

Science and Information / 5G puts the spotlight on network security
« on: June 24, 2019, 03:47:57 PM »
The upcoming 5G technology has put the spotlight on the importance of securing the networks and preventing data leaks. Unlike the previous cellular technologies, 5G is not just about faster broadband speeds or richer functions for an individual user but promises a `hyperconnected’ society with billions of connected devices or Internet of Things (IoT), as it is generally referred to.

Analysts believe that 50 billion devices will be connected to mobile networks by 2020. Every one of these devices, from your home automation devices to your connected car, can potentially be the weak link and attract hackers.

On one end, 5G use cases place the highest demands on the reliability and availability of the network, but at the same time it opens up the network to unprecedented security threats. Besides a large part of 5G networks will be cloud-based, which inherently increases the security risk. Further, multiple software and equipment vendors in a typical cloud environment make it more susceptible to security issues.

Besides, the integration of the industrial internet and the 5G network will have an impact on the security assurance system. To begin with, the security regulations are diversified. In comparison with traditional telecommunications networks, other business verticals, like financial, energy, and industrial networks, have different security regulations and standards, data protection norms, and security evaluation standards.

Besides, the assets are diversified. The equipment, platforms and applications in Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) have different owners and users, and may also require an operation and maintenance system across multiple organizations. It is then essential that 5G adapts to a diversified security assurance system.

The Network Slice Security

Network slicing is a key concept being introduced in a 5G network. With this the service providers can orchestrate a separate 5G network slice for multiple industry applications on shared network infrastructure. It will also help in bringing down the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) and also enables in building an open network ecosystem.

The network slicing approach brings fundamental changes in a telecom network, which lays a solid foundation for the deep integration of telecommunications networks and industrial applications.

However, security is the key precondition for vertical industries when using network slicing. In addition to providing the traditional mobile network security mechanisms (such as access authentication and encryption), 5G also needs to provide end-to-end isolation between network slices.

The MEC Security

MEC is one of the core technologies for the diversification of 5G services. With a distributed network architecture, MEC pushes the service capability and application to the edge of the network and changes the separation of network and services. The inherent advantage of MEC is that it greatly reduces the latency, which is a key requirement of 5G, especially for the use cases like Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. It will play a key role in improving content distribution efficiency and user experience.

The deep integration of 5G and vertical industries demands that new services requiring more bandwidth and ultra-low latency will gradually emerge. It is then imperative to study the security issues faced by MEC to protect network functions and data assets and to provide more secure and reliable services. Further, what is of concern is that the 5G network capabilities can be exposed to vertical industries through APIs, which enables customization of network services.

5G Security Capability Exposure Model

The 5G security capability exposure model can be divided into three layers: resource layer, capability layer, and application layer.

The resource layer abstracts and encapsulates basic resources. Resources can be of many types and forms, provided by resource pools, including the security function pool, security algorithm pool, security information pool and trusted computing pool.

The capability layer provides many security capability sets that can be invoked by the application layer, such as the digital identity system, trusted computing system, and channel encryption system. These capability sets are integrated and maintained by operators in combination with the advantages of the 5G network, and provide highly available and flexible capability APIs.

On the other hand, the application layer organizes security capabilities to construct the security defense system to cope with the application security requirements.

5G network security issue is not just a technical issue. With 5G, security cannot be an afterthought. It needs to be an integral part of the deployment. The integration of 5G and several vertical industries, such as manufacturing, energy, and transportation, break the barriers of infrastructure and exposes the network to more risks. It is for this reason that the traditional security measures might not be enough for 5G.
The operators need to work on providing sustainable, credible and secure network services for the users. For this, 5G networks need to involve the customers, especially the different vertical industries, in implementing the security assurance system to provide customers with an overall stronger and more robust security assurance capabilities.

Science and Information / No call to rush into 5G telecom
« on: June 24, 2019, 03:46:45 PM »
Even as the government makes big plans for raising revenues from auctioning spectrum for fifth generation (5G) telecom services, there is good reason for Indian telecom service providers to not rush into the 5G space. They would be better off spending their money and energy in making the 4G services they have already rolled out work to the limits of technologically feasible efficiency and graduate all subscribers from older, spectrum-inefficient, voice-only 2G services. The simple reality is that there is little material advantage to be had by embracing 5G at the moment.

Most people treat 5G as if it were the latest generation smartphone — must-have, for those who like to be at the cutting edge of things. They also think it would mean faster data, although they are not clear what faster data would be useful for — when 4G works well, data speeds are as good as you need them to be. What sets 5G apart is a combination of low latency and consistently low latency, and it is important to realise this. Latency is the gap between when you initiate a signal and the desired effect takes place. This is crucial if you are doing remote surgery over a mobile network: the robotic arm doing the incision must move precisely and in total coordination with the image relayed to the surgeon performing the operation and the instructions he reciprocates. It is also useful if you are playing a fast videogame off a server rather than on your console. Driverless cars are another use-case that is touted, as are self-directing robots on the shop floor. Is the Indian ecosystem ready for such uses? Robots could possibly make do with a combination of low latency Wi-Fi and edge computing, in any case.

A byproduct of 5G is a spurt in data of all kinds, including the machine-to-machine kind. India still does not have a regulatory system in place for an upsurge in data or the capacity to analyse it. All told, Indian telecom, as well as the broader economy, would probably gain from not rushing to be an early mover in 5G deployment and, instead, using its resources to optimise and universalise 4G.

Seoul: After recently launching Galaxy A10e, South Korean tech giant Samsung is now working on a new budget smartphone for the Indian market - Galaxy A10s.

In a recent development, a smartphone purported to be the A10s was listed on the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) website, the GSM Arena reported late on Saturday.

According to the listing, the device has a 3,900 mAh battery. The phone measures 157 mm in length, 75.8 mm in width and 174.3 mm (roughly 6.86 inches) diagonally.

It has a dual camera setup accompanied by a flash. There is also a fingerprint sensor at the back of the smartphone.
The device is expected to be an upgraded variant of the already launched Galaxy A10.

The phone would be powered by a MediaTek Helio P22 octa-core processor under the hood along with 2GB RAM.

In terms of software, the phone will have Android 9 Pie-based One UI out of the box.

U.S. President Donald Trump is looking to require next-generation 5G cellular equipment used in the United States to be designed and manufactured outside China, the Wall Street Journal reported on Sunday, citing people familiar with the matter.

As part of a 150-day review that started after cybersecurity concerns in the United States, officials are asking telecom equipment makers if they can develop U.S.-bound hardware including cellular-tower electronics as well as routers and switches, and software outside of China, the WSJ reported.
In May, the Trump administration took aim at China's Huawei Technologies Co Ltd, banning the firm from buying vital U.S. technology without special approval and effectively barring its equipment from U.S. telecom networks on national security grounds.

The talks are still in informal stages, the WSJ said, and any executive order calls for only a list of proposed rules and regulations by the 150-day deadline, in October, so any decision could take years to adopt.

San Francisco: Apple is all set to launch its 16-inch MacBook Pro in September this year, media reported on Monday.

"We foresee that Apple will release a new product in September 2019 Apple event if there's no unexpected development issue," said Jeff Lin, Associate Director of Consumer Electronics at IHS Markit, reported The Verge.

The upcoming MacBook Pro is said to feature an LCD panel from LG display with a resolution of 3072 x 1920, which is better then the current high-end model's 15.4-inch 2880x1800 display.

In an earlier report, famed Apple analyst Ming-Chi Kuo spoke about the launch of new Apple devices.
Kuo stated that the company might launch a new iPad with 10 or 12-inch screen in late 2020 or early 2021 and a MacBook with 15 to 17-inch screen size in the first half of 2021 equipped with mini-LED panels.

Kuo has also previously claimed that two new iPad Pro models will enter mass production between the fourth quarter of 2019 and the first quarter of 2020.

Professor Dr. A.K.M. Fazlul Haque, Director, Institutional Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) and Associate Dean, Faculty of Engineering of Daffodil International University has been appointed as the Editor of Journal of Ecology & Natural Resources (JENR). JENR is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes articles in all areas of ecology and natural resources. The journal aims to provide a comprehensive representation and results of cutting-edge research in the fields of natural resources and ecology.

The scope of this journal includes cultural, psychological, economic and political perspectives relating to forests, oceans, fisheries, soils, and water; and a variety of topics such as people and protected areas or biodiversity conservation, globalization and capitalism, environmental justice, community-based conservation, adaptive and collaborative management, sustainability, climate change, environmental attitudes and concerns, environmental hazards and risks, and human-nature relationships.

To mark the ‘World Telecommunication & Information Society Day-2018’ students of the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering (ETE) of Daffodil International University (DIU) brought out a rally at Dhanmondi area in the capital.
To mark the ‘World Telecommunication & Information Society Day-2018’ Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering (ETE) of Daffodil International University (DIU) chalked out elaborate program including rally and seminar today on 17 May, 2018. Based on the theme of this year’s ‘Enabling the positive use of Artificial Intelligence for all’ a rally comprised with teachers and students were brought out from main campus of the university and surrounded the main streets of Dhanmondi area and ended at Daffodil Tower. After the rally, all participants joined the seminar at 71 Milonayoton of the university. Professor Dr. Md. Golam Mowla Choudhury, Controller of Examinations of DIU was present at the seminar as the chief guest while Professor Dr. M. Shamim Kaiser, Associate Professor of Institute of Information Technology (IIT) of Jahangirnagar University was present as the guest of honor. Professor Dr. A. K. M. Fazlul Haque, Associate Dean, Faculty of Engineering was present at the program as special guest and the program was presided over by Md. Taslim Arefin, Associate Professor and Head, Department of ETE.
Addressing as chief guest Professor Dr. Md. Golam Mowla Choudhury said, we have to build ourselves as per the demand of new age in this fourth industrial revolution. No doubt that now we are living in the age of Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence is depend on big data, information technology etc. So student should be skilled on these topics, he added.
 Distinguished guests at the seminar on  ‘World Telecommunication & Information Society Day-2018’ organized by Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering (ETE) of Daffodil International University (DIU). held today on 17 May, 2018 at 71 Milonayoton of the University.
Professor Golam Mowla also said that Daffodil International University is always concerned to build their students as per the demand of new age. That’s why the university always updates it’s course curriculums as international standard not only the ETE department but also all departments.
Professor Dr. M. Shamim Kaiser presented a paper on the seminar titled ‘SDN, NFV & Road to 5G’. While presenting the paper he said that now we are use 4G network but we will enter the area of 5G network by 2020. Facing to 5G networks we have to prepare ourselves. For this we have to learn technological knowledge besides the development of infrastructure.
Professor Dr. M. Shamim Kaiser also said, the job market of information technology is open not only in Bangladesh but also all around the world. For this it is necessary to make ourselves as skilled. We should make ourselves as per our interest. If we can do this then job will follow us.
It may be mentioned here that Institute of Telecommunication Union (ITU), a sub organization of United Nation celebrates the World Telecommunication & Information Society Day on 17 May in every year in it’s 193 member countries.

Go to Scopus preview - Scopus - Welcome to Scopus and select the option “ Sources” on the top right portion. You will be directed to a search link. Type in your subject name or any keyword related to your topic. eg: Finance, Economics, Management etc. Choose the option “Title” (it will be selected by default). A list of journal will appear. You can choose the journal which is suitable for your study. Now you can google search the journal that you have chosen and enter their webpage. There you will have guidelines for writing the article and submission links. You might need to create a username and password once to enter the publishers website (it depends on the publisher). When you google search for the journal website please be careful with the ISSN number. Verify it with the number given in the scopus search list. Because, there will be journal with the same name which are non scopus.

Winter weather is not fun for skin. Cold weather and low humidity levels result in dry air, which then steals moisture away from the skin every second of every day. Without immediate care, dry skin can lead to cracking and bleeding, and harsh winter wind makes the problem worse. Indoor heat further robs the air of moisture, as do hot showers or baths and harsh cleansers.

Additional moisture helps, but you need to do more to actually counteract these effects and keep skin looking youthful and smooth. To reduce chapping, redness, itching, and keep skin more healthy and comfortable this season, try these tips.
1. Wash in Lukewarm Water

Hot showers and baths always feel good in the winter, but when you can, particularly when just washing your face or hands, choose lukewarm water to avoid stripping as many oils away from the skin.
2. Moisturize Immediately Afterwards

Your skin not only needs more moisture, but moisture right after you wash. Applying moisture to damp skin helps seal that dampness into the skin. Keep a bottle near the bathtub, shower stall, and at every sink and use liberally every time you wash.
3. Choose Moisturizer Carefully

Some over-the-counter moisturizers have petroleum-based ingredients that can actually further dry your skin in the winter months. Be sure to choose a smart formula that has natural, nourishing ingredients. Go for an oil-based rather than a water-based solution, as it’s more likely to help your skin retain moisture in the winter. Try Indie Lee’s natural moisturizing oils, as they’re made with natural, hydrating ingredients like lavender, chamomile, jojoba, and more, which help soothe dry, itchy skin.
4. Protect

Get used to wearing gloves and scarves to protect skin from cold winds, rain, and snow. Also, don’t forget the sunscreen. Winter sun can be just as damaging as summer sun, so apply a safe option like zinc oxide or titanium dioxide to any exposed areas.
5. Humidify

Heating systems dry out the air, so consider installing a humidifier in your home, particularly in your bedroom, to put moisture back into the air and help prevent your skin from drying out.
6. Drink

We tend to drink less water in the winter because we turn to hot drinks like cocoa and tea, but don’t forget that your skin needs hydration from the inside, out. A little warm water with lemon can be very refreshing and hydrating at the same time.
7. Overnight Moisturize

Dryer areas like hands, feet, elbows, and knees have thin skin and tend to lose moisture faster than other areas on the body. Consider slathering on a deep moisturizing balm Skin Food by Weleda at night, then wear cotton gloves and socks to seal in the moisture until morning.
8. Exfoliate

We often forget to help the skin slough off dead cells in the winter, particularly on our hands. Yet moisture can’t get in if the dead cells are too plentiful. Find an exfoliating mask and use it on your face and your hands, as well as gently on your lips, then follow immediately with moisture to truly see a smoother difference. Exfoliating body washes are also helpful in the winter months.
9. Avoid Toxins, Specifically Allergens and Irritants

Particularly if you have eczema, dermatitis, or psoriasis, you have to avoid allergens and irritants that may trigger a flare up. Winter skin is more fragile, so avoid irritating fabrics (like wool) and chemical-laden detergents, and use mild cleansers and moisturizers designed for sensitive skin. In addition, glutathione is considered the “master anti-oxidant” and helps your body detox.
10. Hydrate From the Inside Out

Eating foods high in water content can help hydrate your skin from the inside out. Try watermelon, cantaloupe, apples, oranges, kiwi, and watery veggies like celery, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, and carrots. Make sure you’re getting enough vitamin C and zinc to support the healthy production of collagen and elastin. Also consider Be Well’s omega-3 supplement, or consume more fatty fish and flaxseed to give your skin the building blocks it needs to appear supple and smooth.
11. Change Your Cleanser

Cleansers can be extremely drying to the skin. If you’re used to using options that contain glycolic or salicylic acid, rotate with a more hydrating version that contains moisturizing ingredients. Try like Suki Naturals Moisture-Rich Cleansing Lotion, or for really dry skin, try a cleansing balm like Ren No. 1 Purity Cleansing Balm. After cleansing, don’t leave the skin naked for more than 30 seconds, as this can dehydrate it, leading to increased dryness. Apply a hydrating toner and moisturizer to seal in moisture.
12. Use DIY Masks

Homemade hydrating masks can provide needed moisture in the winter months. Use natural moisturizing ingredients like honey, avocado, yogurt, olive and jojoba oils, almond oil, bananas, and aloe. Mix what you like together to create a cream or paste, and leave on skin for 10-30 minutes for lasting hydration.

Faculty Sections / Evaluation of mobile communication from 1G to 7G...
« on: December 18, 2017, 02:49:51 PM »
The cellular wireless Generation (G) generally refers to a change in the nature of the system, speed, technology and frequency. Each generation have some standards, capacities, techniques and new features which differentiate it from the previous one.

First Generation (1G) :The 1st commercial automated cellular network was launched by NTT in Japan in 1979, followed by the launch of Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, in 1981.

    Year – 1970 - 1980s
    Standard - AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System).
    Services – Only Voice
    Technology – Analog
    Speed - 1kbps to 2.4 kbps
    Multiplexing – FDMA
    Switching – circuit switching
    Core Network – PSTN only
    Frequency – 800- 900 MHz
    RF Bandwidth - 30 kHz. The band can accommodate 832 duplex channels, among which 21 are reserved for call setup, and the rest for voice communication
    Network Components of 1(G)

Poor voice links & no security at all since voice calls were played back in radio towers.


Second Generation (2G):-

GSM technology was the first one to facilitate digital voice & data and international roaming and allowing customer to roam from place to another. GSM maintains end-to-end security by retaining the confidentiality of calls using Signalling and Data Confidentiality and Mobile station Authentication.

    Year – 1980 -1990
    Technology – Digital
    Speed – 14kbps to 64Kbps
    Frequency Band – 850 - 1900 MHZ (GSM) and 825 – 849 MHz (CDMA)
    Bandwidth/Channel - GSM divides each 200 kHz channel into eight 25 kHz time-slots. CDMA channel is nominally 1.23 MHzwide
    Multiplexing /Access Technology – TDMA & CDMA.
    Switching – Circuit switching
    Standard – GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), IS-95(CDMA) - used in the Americas and parts of Asia), JDC (Japanese Digital Cellular) (TDMA-based), used in Japan, iDEN (TDMA-based), proprietary network used by Nextel in the United States.

Network Components of 2(G)Services –  Digital Voice, SMS,  International Roaming , Conferencing, Call Waiting, Call Hold, Call Forwarding, Call Barring, Caller Number Identification,  Closed User Groups (CUGs) , USSD Services, Authentication , billing based on the services provided to their customers e.g. charges based on local calls, long distance calls,  discounted calls, real time billing.

Temporary identification numbers are assigned to the subscriber’s number to maintain the privacy of the user. The privacy of the communication is maintained by applying encryption algorithms and frequency hopping that can be enabled using digital systems and signalling
2.5 Generation: Introduction of packet network to provide high speed data transfer & internet.

    Year – 2000- 2003
    Standards - General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) & EDGE (Enhanced Data rates in GSM)
    Frequency: 850 -1900 MHz
    Speed – 115kpbs (GPRS)/384kbps(EDGE)
    Switching – packet switching for data transfer
    Multiplexing – Gaussian minimum shift keying-GMSK(GPRS) & EDGE (8-PSK)
    Services – push to talk, multimedia, web based info entertainment, support WAP, MMS, SMS mobile games, and search and directory, email access, video conferencing. Network Components of 2.5(G)

GPRS provides packet switching protocols, short setup time for ISP connections and the possibility to charge the subscriber according to the amount of data sent rather than connection time. GPRS supports flexible data transmission rates and provides continuous connection with the network.

GPRS is a packet-switched service that takes advantage of available GSM time slots for data communications , supports both X.25 and TCP/IP packet protocols, with quality of service (QoS) mechanisms and is considered most useful for bursty data applications such as mobile Internet browsing, e-mail, and various push technologies

EDGE provides nearly three times faster speeds than the outdated GPRS system. To support higher data rate EDGE adopts higher modulation schemes such as 8-PSK.

EDGE can retransmit a packet with more robust coding scheme. In EDGE re-segmentation is possible while in GPRS re-segmentation is not possible. In EDGE packets are addressed up to 2048 and window size to 1024 while GPRS packets were numbered from 1 to 128 and addressing window size was 64.
Third Generation (3G)

The goal of 3G systems was to offer increased data rates. International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has defined the demand for 3G in the International Mobile Telecommunication (IMT)-2000 standards to facilitate growth, greater voice and data capacity, support diverse applications, and high data transmission at low-cost. The data are sent through the technology called Packet Switching .Voice calls are interpreted through Circuit Switching.

    Year - 2000
    Standards -
        UMTS (WCDMA)– Based on GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) 2G system infrastructure,standardized by 3GPP.
        CDMA 2000 – Based on CDMA (IS-95 ) 2G standard, standardized by 3GPP2.
        TD-SCDMA radio interface was commercialized in 2009 and is only offered in China
    Speed : 384KBPS to 2MBPS
    Frequency : about 8 to 2.5GHz
    Bandwidth – 5 to 20 MHz
    Multiplexing/Access technologies
    Radio interface is called WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access)
    HSPA is an upgrades to W-CDMA offers speeds of 14.4 Mbit/s down and 5.76 Mbit/s up.
    HSPA+ can provide theoretical peak data rates up to 168 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink, using air interface improvements & multi-carrier HSPA and MIMO.
    Cdma2000 1X: It can support both voice and data services. The max. Data rate can reach 153 kbps, belonging to 3G mobile communications.
    Services –

Wireless voice telephony, high speed internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls, chatting & conferencing, mobile TV, Video on demand, Location-based services, Telemedicine, Web browsing, e-mail, paging, fax and navigational maps,  Mobile gaming, mobile music, multimedia services like digital photos and movies. Localized services for accessing traffic and weather updates, Mobile office services, like virtual banking. Greater security features than 2G like Network Access & Domain Security, User Domain and Application Security.

Fourth Generation (4G)

Initiation year-2010.4G - In 2008, ITU-R specified the IMT-Advanced (International Mobile Telecommunications Advanced) requirements for 4G systems.

The fourth Generation mobile system is all IP based network system. The main goal of 4G technology is to provide high speed, high quality, high capacity, security and low cost services for voice and data services, multimedia and internet over IP.

To use 4G mobile network, multimode user terminals should be able to select the target wireless system. To provide wireless services anytime and anywhere, terminal mobility is a key factor in 4G.

4G introduced new physical radio interface known as Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and new packet –switching based core network called as Evolved Packet Core (EPC).  IP-based network architecture, allows for seamless handovers for voice and data to GSM, UMTS or CDMA2000 technology.

    Standards - Long-Term Evolution Time-Division Duplex (LTE-TDD and LTE-FDD) Mobile WiMAX standard (802.16m standardized by the IEEE
    Speed - 100Mbps while moving and 1Gbps while stationary ,with the help of following features
    IP telephony
    OFDMA multi-carrier transmission and frequency-domain equalization (FDE) schemes
    Smart antenna arrays for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications.
    New frequency bands, wider channel frequency bandwidth
    Multiplexing/Access Technologies - OFDM, MC-CDMA, LAS-CDMA and Network-LMDS
    Bandwidth - 5–20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz
    Frequency Bands :- LTE standard covers a range of many different bands.
    In North America, 700, 750, 800, 850, 1900, 1700/2100 (AWS), 2300 (WCS) 2500 and 2600 MHz are used (bands 2, 4, 5, 7, 12, 13, 17, 25, 26, 30, 41); 2500 MHz in South America;
    700, 800, 900, 1800, 2600 MHz in Europe (bands 3, 7, 20); 800, 1800 and 2600 MHz in Asia (bands 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, 13, 40)
    1800 MHz and 2300 MHz in Australia & New Zealand (bands 3, 40).
    Services - Mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing, manage multi broadcast streams and handle quick-moving mobile phones , Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB), Dynamic information access, wearable devices. smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks and automatic roaming between different wireless networks

4G implementation variants :

The LTE standard supports only Packet Switching & is all IP Network. Voice calls in GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000 are circuit swiyched, so with the adoption of LTE, carriers will have to re-engineer their voice call network.  However since it requires lot of infrastructure changes, three different approaches are

Voice over LTE (VoLTE) : VoLTE is based on the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network i.e. voice service (control and media planes) being delivered as data flows within the LTE data bearer. VoLTE has up to three times more voice and data capacity than 3G UMTS. Furthermore, it frees up bandwidth because VoLTE’s packets headers are smaller than those of unoptimized VoIP/LTE.

Circuit-switched fallback (CSFB) : In this approach, LTE just provides data services, and when a voice call is to be initiated or received, it will fall back to the circuit-switched domain. When using this solution, operators just need to upgrade the MSC instead of deploying the IMS, and therefore, can provide services quickly. However, the disadvantage is longer call setup delay.

Simultaneous voice and LTE (SVLTE) : In this approach, the handset works simultaneously in the LTE and circuit switched modes, with the LTE mode providing data services and the circuit switched mode providing the voice service. This is a solution solely based on the handset, which does not have special requirements on the network and does not require the deployment of IMS either. The disadvantage of this solution is that the phone can become expensive with high power consumption.

One additional approach which is not initiated by operators is the usage of over-the-top content (OTT) services, using applications like Skype and Google Talk to provide LTE voice services

Fifth Generation (5G)

Initiation year-2015

It will make Unified global standard. The Physical and Data Link layer defines the 5G wireless technology indicating it as an Open Wireless Architecture(OWA).The 5G technology also maintain virtual multi-wireless network.

To perform this the Network layer is sub-divided into two layers; upper network layer for mobile terminal and lower network layer for interface. Here all the routing will be based on IP addresses which would be different in each IP network worldwide.

In 5G technology the higher bit rate loss is overcome by using Open Transport Protocol (OTP).The OTP is supported by Transport and Session layer. The application layer is for quality of service management over various types of networks. 5G brings forward a real wireless world-Wireless World Wide Web (WWWW)

    Speed - 1 to 10 Gbps.
    Bandwidth - 1,000x bandwidth per unit area.
    Frequency - 3 to 300 GHz
    Multiplexing/Access Technologies - CDMA and BDMA

    Standard – IP broadband LAN/W AN/PAN & WWWW
    Features :Real time performance – Fast response, Low Jitter, latency & delay
    Very High Speed Broadband – Gigabit data rates, high quality coverage, Multi spectrum
    Virtualized Infrastructure – Software defined network, scalable and low cost system.
    Support IoT & M2M - 100 times more connected devices, Deep Indoor Coverage & Signalling efficiency
    About 90% reduction in network energy usage.
    Its radio technology will facilitate different version of radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently.

Services : - Some of the significant applications are –

    Connected people & devices anywhere anytime. Its application will make world real Wi Fi zone.
    Mobile IP address will be assigned as per the connected network and geographical position.

    Radio signal at higher altitude as well.
    Parallel multiple services, such as you can know weather and location while talking
    You can control your PCs by handsets.Education will become easier. A student sitting in any part of world can attend the class.
    Remote diagnostics is a great feature of 5G. -A doctor can treat the patient located in remote part of the world.
    Monitoring will be easier − A governmental organization and investigating offers can monitor any part of the world. Possible to reduce the crime rate.
    Visualizing universe, galaxies, and planets will be possible.
    Possible, natural disaster including tsunami, earthquake etc. can be detected faster.Architecture

Sixth Generation (6G)

6G is proposed to integrate 5G with satellite networks for global coverage.

It is considered to be a cheap and Fast Internet Technology to provide unbelievably high data rates or very fast Internet speed access on air through wireless and mobile devices possibly up to 11 Gbps, while travelling or in a remote location.

The satellite communication network may consist of telecommunication satellite networks, earth imaging satellite networks and navigation satellite networks. The goal of 6G is to integrate these kinds of satellite networks to provide network position identifier, multimedia and internet connectivity, and weather information services to the mobile users.

Specially designed Nano Antennas will be implemented at different geographical locations or positions along roadsides, villages, malls, airports, hospitals etc to broadcast such high speed electromagnetic signals.

The globe will be decorated by fly sensors with the help of 6G technology. These fly sensors will provide information to their remote observer stations; further these stations will check any activity upon a special area such as the activity of terrorists, intruders etc.

The point to point wireless communication networks that transmit super- fast broadband signals through the air will be assisted by high speed optical fibers lines to broadcast much secured information from transmitters to destinations.

Features/Advantages of 6G Technology:

    Ultra fast access of Internet.
    Data rates will be up to 10-11 Gbps.
    Home automation and other related applications.
    Smart Homes, Cities and Villages.
    May be used in the production of Energy from galactic world.
    Space technology, Defense applications will be modified with 6G networks.
    Home based ATM systems.
    Satellite to Satellite Communication for the development of mankind.
    Natural Calamities will be controlled with 6G networks.
    Sea to Space Communication.
    Mind to Mind Communication may be possible
    Standards :- The Global Position System(GPS) by USA, the Galileo by Europe, the COMPASS by China and the GLONASS by Russia. If 6G integrates with 5G with these satellite networks, it would have four different standards. So handoff and roaming will be can be a big issue in 6G

7G deals with space roaming.

The 7G of mobile wireless networks which aims to acquire space roaming. The world is trying to become completely wireless, demanding uninterrupted access to information anytime and anywhere with better quality, high speed, increased bandwidth and reduction in cost.

The world is trying to become completely wireless, demanding uninterrupted access to information anytime and anywhere with better quality, high speed, increased bandwidth and reduction in cost. After 4G the next generation 5G aims a real wireless world with no limitations while 6G integrates 5G with satellite networks. Due to variable technologies and standards, with 6G handoff/roaming will be an issue. This drives the 7G of mobile wireless networks which aims to acquire space roaming.

Success is a subjective notion, if there ever was one. But for simplicity's sake, let's assume the higher you are on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the better you're doing. In case you don't remember the levels from Psych 101, essentially, people can't be their best possible selves (self-actualization) until lower-level needs are met first. In other words, you can't be an ideal version of yourself if you don't have enough food and money to pay the bills, or enough love and esteem to feel good about your value as a human being. So, what can you do to move yourself up the pyramid?

Check out the findings from several studies, which shine a light on what it takes to achieve more in life.

Increase your confidence by taking action.

Katty Kay and Claire Shipman, authors of The Confidence Code, wrote a stellar article for The Atlantic on this subject. Highlighting scads of studies that have found that a wide confidence gap exists between the sexes, they point out that success is just as dependent on confidence as it is on competence. Their conclusion? Low confidence results in inaction. "[T]aking action bolsters one's belief in one's ability to succeed," they write. "So confidence accumulates--through hard work, through success, and even through failure."

Broaden your definition of authenticity.

Authenticity is a much sought-after leadership trait, with the prevailing idea being that the best leaders are those who self-disclose, are true to themselves, and who make decisions based on their values. Yet in a recent Harvard Business Review article titled "The Authenticity Paradox," Insead professor Herminia Ibarra discusses interesting research on the subject and tells the cautionary tale of a newly promoted general manager who admitted to subordinates that she felt scared in her expanded role, asking them to help her succeed. "Her candor backfired," Ibarra writes. "She lost credibility with people who wanted and needed a confident leader to take charge." So know this: Play-acting to emulate the qualities of successful leaders doesn't make you a fake. It merely means you're a work in progress.

Improve your social skills.

According to research conducted by University of California Santa Barbara economist Catherine Weinberger, the most successful business people excel in both cognitive ability and social skills, something that hasn't always been true. She crunched data linking adolescent skills in 1972 and 1992 with adult outcomes, and found that in 1980, having both skills didn't correlate with better success, whereas today the combination does. "The people who are both smart and socially adept earn more in today's work force than similarly endowed workers in 1980," she says.

Train yourself to delay gratification.

The classic Marshmallow Experiment of 1972 involved placing a marshmallow in front of a young child, with the promise of a second marshmallow if he or she could refrain from eating the squishy blob while a researcher stepped out of the room for 15 minutes. Follow-up studies over the next 40 years found that the children who were able to resist the temptation to eat the marshmallow grew up to be people with better social skills, higher test scores, and lower incidence of substance abuse. They also turned out to be less obese and better able to deal with stress. But how to improve your ability to delay things like eating junk food when healthy alternatives aren't available, or to remain on the treadmill when you'd rather just stop?

Writer James Clear suggests starting small, choosing one thing to improve incrementally every day, and committing to not pushing off things that take less than two minutes to do, such as washing the dishes after a meal or eating a piece of fruit to work toward the goal of eating healthier. Committing to doing something every single day works too. "Top performers in every field--athletes, musicians, CEOs, artists--they are all more consistent than their peers," he writes. "They show up and deliver day after day while everyone else gets bogged down with the urgencies of daily life and fights a constant battle between procrastination and motivation."

Demonstrate passion and perseverance for long-term goals.

Psychologist Angela Duckworth has spent years studying kids and adults, and found that one characteristic is a significant predictor of success: grit. "Grit is having stamina. Grit is sticking with your future, day in, day out, not just for the week, not just for the month, but for years, and working really hard to make that future a reality," she said in a TED talk on the subject. "Grit is living life like it's a marathon, not a sprint."

Embrace a "growth mindset."

According to research conducted by Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck, how people view their personality affects their capacity for happiness and success. Those with a "fixed mindset" believe things like character, intelligence, and creativity are unchangeable, and avoiding failure is a way of proving skill and smarts. People with a "growth mindset," however, see failure as a way to grow and therefore embrace challenges, persevere against setbacks, learn from criticism, and reach higher levels of achievement. "Do people with this mindset believe that anyone can be anything, that anyone with proper motivation or education can become Einstein or Beethoven? No, but they believe that a person's true potential is unknown (and unknowable); that it's impossible to foresee what can be accomplished with years of passion, toil, and training," she writes.

Invest in your relationships.

After following the lives of 268 Harvard undergraduate males from the classes of 1938 to 1940 for decades, psychiatrist George Vaillant concluded something you probably already know: Love is the key to happiness. Even if a man succeeded in work, amassed piles of money, and experienced good health, without loving relationships he wouldn't be happy, Vaillant found. The longitudinal study showed happiness depends on two things: "One is love," he wrote. "The other is finding a way of coping with life that does not push love away."

Faculty Sections / How to Get PhD Funding
« on: December 18, 2017, 02:34:34 PM »
Professor Daniel Drezner of Tufts University once quipped: “Should you get a PhD? Only if you are crazy or crazy about your subject.” If you fit one of those two categories, you’ll no doubt be keen to find out how to finance your mad endeavor. Here’s a quick guide to getting PhD funding…
How much does a PhD cost? Costs of a PhD

In the first place, how much does a PhD cost? Here, the answer varies considerably by country. In the UK, being a self-funded PhD student can be an expensive undertaking, with an annual tuition bill of approximately £3,000 to £6,000 (about US$4,300-8,700) for domestic students and up to £18,000 ($26,000) for international students for the first three years.

In the US, the price tag for a PhD is even higher, ranging from US$28,000 to US$40,000 per year. In Germany, on the other hand, PhD students face no tuition fees at all, aside from a nominal semester contribution of €150 (~US$162) and €200 (US$217).

Before some of these high figures deter you, be reassured that there are many PhD funding opportunities available; few PhD students are self-funded.

PhD funding from national research councils

In the UK, PhD funding is provided via seven research councils, each covering a specific academic sector. Across Europe, such funding is offered by the European Research Council. Both the US and Canada have the equivalent in their National Research Councils, which give financial support to students either individually, via scholarships, or for funded research projects, via a research group or department.

PhD funding from universities PhD scholarships

Most universities provide substantial scholarships, studentships and other PhD funding opportunities. These schemes typically cover the cost for a good proportion of the annual tuition fees, if not more. Universities often also provide some funding for doctoral students to cover the costs of field trips and conference attendance.

A further means to fund a PhD is by obtaining a PhD position, sometimes also called PhD studentships or assistantships. These are essentially jobs tied to the PhD program, involving work in teaching, research or both. This is an ideal way to support your research, while being involved in a larger, often team-based, funded research project and gaining work experience.

Living costs and opportunity costs

Other costs to be considered when calculating PhD funding are living costs and opportunity costs. Living expenses will of course vary significantly by country and city. Studying in Paris (France) or Oslo (Norway) will likely incur a substantially higher annual cost than completing a PhD in Bangkok (Thailand), for example.

In addition, opportunity costs can be high. Unlike a master’s degree, which usually takes just one or two years full-time, a PhD demands a markedly higher time investment – most programs require an absolute minimum of three years, and some require five to six, depending on the country.

During this time, full-time employment is possible only if it is in relation to the PhD program itself. Some may opt to continue working and attempt to complete a PhD part-time – but this has proven to be exceptionally challenging; some studies suggest that drop-out rates for part-time PhDs are as high as 66%.

Career prospects with a PhD PhD graduates

But while this might all sound daunting, there are considerable benefits and advantages to getting a PhD. In other words: the prospects for careers with a PhD are good. While entry-level salaries may not be considerably higher compared to those for master’s graduates, those with a PhD do have better long-term prospects for faster career- and pay-scale advancements. And a growing number of PhD students consider a post-doc life outside of academia.

There has been a clear trend in non-academic employers (such as consultancies, think tanks, media and others) increasingly valuing not only the specialist knowledge of PhD graduates but also their maturity and soft skills. Attributes valued by PhD employers across a wide range of industries include diligence, research abilities, focus, discipline, presentation skills and the demonstrated ability to work under pressure and to a deadline.

For all those aspiring doctoral students who aim to have a quick return on their investment, a word of caution: the benefits of a PhD are not to be had in the fast lane. The value of a PhD qualification is to be found in the long-term benefits it brings, financially, professionally and intellectually. It is a labor of love, and, as we know there is always some madness in love, but for those with realistic expectations and the discipline and tenacity to complete this highest of academic degrees, it is a tremendously rewarding experience, in more ways than one.

This article was originally published in November 2013. It was updated in February 2016.

Teaching & Research Forum / 10 tips for a good teacher
« on: March 28, 2016, 11:53:51 AM »
In 1998, professor Leblanc was awarded the Seymous Schulich Award for Teaching Excellence. His top ten requirements for good teaching was originally published in The Teaching Professor, Vol. 12, # 6, 1998.


1. GOOD TEACHING is as much about passion as it is about reason. It’s about not only motivating students to learn, but teaching them how to learn, and doing so in a manner that is relevant, meaningful, and memorable. It’s about caring for your craft, having a passion for it, and conveying that passion to everyone, most importantly to your students.
2. GOOD TEACHING is about substance and training students as consumers of knowledge. It’s about doing your best to keep on top of your field, reading sources, inside and outside of your areas of expertise, and being at the leading edge as often as possible. But knowledge is not confined to scholarly journals. Good teaching is also about bridging the gap between theory and practice. It’s about leaving the ivory tower and immersing oneself in the field, talking to, consulting with, and assisting practitioners, and liaising with their communities.
3. GOOD TEACHING is about listening, questioning, being responsive, and remembering that each student and class is different. It’s about eliciting responses and developing the oral communication skills of the quiet students. It’s about pushing students to excel; at the same time, it’s about being human, respecting others, and being professional at all times.
4. GOOD TEACHING is about not always having a fixed agenda and being rigid, but being flexible, fluid, experimenting, and having the confidence to react and adjust to changing circumstances. It’s about getting only 10 percent of what you wanted to do in a class done and still feeling good. It’s about deviating from the course syllabus or lecture schedule easily when there is more and better learning elsewhere. Good teaching is about the creative balance between being an authoritarian dictator on the one hand and a pushover on the other. Good teachers migrate between these poles at all times, depending on the circumstances. They know where they need to be and when.
5. GOOD TEACHING is also about style. Should good teaching be entertaining? You bet! Does this mean that it lacks in substance? Not a chance! Effective teaching is not about being locked with both hands glued to a podium or having your eyes fixated on a slide projector while you drone on. Good teachers work the room and every student in it. They realize that they are conductors and the class is their orchestra. All students play different instruments and at varying proficiencies. A teacher’s job is to develop skills and make these instruments come to life as a coherent whole to make music.
6. GOOD TEACHING is about humor. This is very important. It’s about being self-deprecating and not taking yourself too seriously. It’s often about making innocuous jokes, mostly at your own expense, so that the ice breaks and students learn in a more relaxed atmosphere where you, like them, are human with your own share of faults and shortcomings.
7. GOOD TEACHING is about caring, nurturing, and developing minds and talents. It’s about devoting time, often invisible, to every student. It’s also about the thankless hours of grading, designing or redesigning courses, and preparing materials to further enhance instruction.
8. GOOD TEACHING is supported by strong and visionary leadership, and very tangible instructional support resources, personnel, and funds. Good teaching is continually reinforced by an overarching vision that transcends the entire organization from full professors to part-time instructors and is reflected in what is said, but more importantly by what is done.
9. GOOD TEACHING is about mentoring between senior and junior faculty, teamwork, and being recognized and promoted by one’s peers. Effective teaching should also be rewarded, and poor teaching needs to be remediated through training and development programs.
10. AT THE END OF THE DAY, good teaching is about having fun, experiencing pleasure and intrinsic rewards…like locking eyes with a student in the back row and seeing the synapses and neurons connecting, thoughts being formed, the person becoming better, and a smile cracking across a face as learning all of a sudden happens. It’s about the former student who says your course changed her life. It’s about another telling you that your course was the best one he’s ever taken. Good teachers practice their craft not for the money or because they have to, but because they truly enjoy it and because they want to. Good teachers couldn’t imagine doing anything else.

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