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Messages - tanbir

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Departments / Scientists Identify Genes Linked to Migraines
« on: June 18, 2012, 06:32:01 PM »
Researchers have identified three genes linked to migraine headache and found that people who inherit any one of these genes have a 10 to 15 percent greater risk for the condition.

Migraine headache -- an abnormality in the response of nerve cells to stimuli -- is characterized by recurring severe headaches, which often result in nausea as well as sensitivity to light and sound.

In examining genetic data from more than 23,000 women, including over 5,000 migraine sufferers, the researchers found an association between the headaches and variations in three genes: TRPM8 (which plays a role in sensitivity to cold and pain), LRP1 (a gene involved in the transmission of signals between neurons) and PRDM16.

"While migraine remains incompletely understood and its underlying causes difficult to pin down, identifying these three genetic variants helps shed light on the biological roots for this common and debilitating condition," the study's lead author, Dr. Daniel Chasman, assistant professor in the preventive medicine division at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, said in a hospital news release.

One migraine expert called the findings "very exciting."

"The thinking for a long time was that migraine is most commonly a multi-genetic condition with potentially many genetic variations that contribute," noted Dr. Audrey Halpern, clinical assistant professor in the department of neurology at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York City. "We clearly understand now that migraine is a condition characterized by disordered sensory processing."

Although the study authors said the findings are encouraging, they noted that more research is needed to better understand exactly how each of these three genes is associated with migraine.

Halpern agreed that much more study lies ahead to unravel the genetics of migraine.

"This current research will help us more fully understand what happens during migraine, but there is also much more to learn," she said. "We've always known it's a genetic condition -- but the last 10 years we've learned it's a neurological condition. This study brings those two ideas together."

The report is published in the June 12 online edition of the journal Nature Genetics.

Departments / Top 10 Medical Inventions of 2011
« on: June 18, 2012, 06:27:31 PM »
Cleveland Clinic announced the top ten medical inventions of 2011. Cleveland is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. U.S. News & World Report has reported it as one of the top four hospitals in USA.

The top ten inventions are:

  1.  Molecular imaging biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer's Disease: A new brain imaging compound called AV-45 will soon make it possible to detect the very earliest stages of the brain damage caused by Alzheimer s, and is expected to become the dominant way to diagnose the disease.

  2.  Targeted T-cell antibody for metastatic melanoma: A new anti-cancer drug, ipilimumab, allows the body s own immune system to more effectively fight cancer. It was given priority review by the FDA after it improved the survival rates of patients with previously treated advanced melanoma.

   3.  First cancer vaccine approved by the FDA: Provenge (Sipuleucel-T), the first cancer vaccine to show a survival benefit, is a prostate cancer treatment that works by stimulating the immune system. Its April approval means it will likely be available for use earlier in the treatment process.

    4. Jupiter Study: Statins for healthy individuals: Through a large international study, researchers have found that cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins drastically cut the risk of heart disease and death for people with normal levels of cholesterol but elevated levels of inflammation.

    5. Hepatitis C protease inhibiting drugs: Two drugs awaiting approval, boceprevir and telaprevir, were developed specifically to target the hepatitis C virus and have shown a vast improvement over the cure rates of existing treatments.

    6. Telehealth monitoring for individuals with heart failure: An implantable, miniature, permanent monitor that can measure and communicate daily pulmonary artery pressure, as well as in-home devices that record and send real-time weight, blood pressure and heart rate data are allowing for closer monitoring of costly medical conditions, potentially reducing hospitalization.

    7. Endoscopic weight-loss procedure: Transoral Gastroplasty (TOGA). An incision-less option for bariatric surgery, TOGA uses two flexible endoscopes to pass instruments through the mouth, reducing the size of the stomach to a small pouch.

    8. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) breath analysis for diagnosing asthma: A hand-held diagnostic testing device that allows precision and accuracy in diagnosing and managing asthma, the device measures levels of exhaled nitric oxide, a gas produced by cells in the lungs during inflammation.

    Oral disease modifying treatment for multiple sclerosis: Fingolimod, approved this year by the FDA, is the first oral treatment av9. ailable to MS patients, a major breakthrough in treatment that reduced attacks and brain lesions in clinical trials.

    10. Capsule endoscopy for diagnosis of pediatric GI disorders: A safe and painless alternative to endoscopic imaging and X-rays, the pill-sized capsule takes hundreds of pictures and short video clips of the inside of the digestive tract and transmits them to a data recorder during transit.


People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for a heart rhythm disorder called atrial fibrillation, a new study finds.

The research involved more than 4 million people, including more than 18,000 with RA, in Denmark, who were followed for an average of five years.

During that time, people with RA had a nearly 40 percent increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared to those in the general population -- 8.2 events per 1,000 person years for those with RA and six events per 1,000 person years for the general population. That works out to one new case of atrial fibrillation per 12 RA patients followed for 10 years after diagnosis.

Among RA patients, women had a slightly higher risk of atrial fibrillation than men, according to the study published online March 8 on BMJ.

The researchers also found that people with RA had a more than 30 percent higher risk of stroke than those in the general population -- 7.6 events per 1,000 person years for those with RA and 5.7 events per 1,000 person years for the general population.

Previous research has linked RA to an increased risk of heart attacks, heart failure and stroke. This study finds that RA is also associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, which is associated with greater long-term risk of heart failure, stroke and death.

New guidelines recommend that patients with RA should undergo annual screening for cardiovascular risk factors, and this should include screening for atrial fibrillation, the researchers from Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte said in a journal release.

The researchers also noted that since inflammation plays a role in the development of atrial fibrillation and stroke, inflammation control is important for people with RA not only to alleviate joint symptoms, but also to reduce the need for drugs that may adversely impact heart health.

Original Source: BMJ, news release, March 8, 2012

Artical source:

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has warned consumers and health care professionals that pioglitazone (see all the brand names in Bangladesh) may increase the risk of bladder cancer when used for more than one year.

Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione, a drug class which also includes the diabetes drug rosiglitazone (see all the brand names in Bangladesh). Rosiglitazone was pulled off the International market in May because it was linked to an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Pioglitazone is used to control blood sugar levels and is sold alone or in combination with metformin and glimepiride (see all the brand names in Bangladesh).

The new bladder cancer warning will appear on the label of pioglitazone and is based on the FDA's review of data from an ongoing study that involves more than 193,000 patients with diabetes. The data revealed a 40 percent increased risk of bladder cancer in patients taking the drug longer than 12 months as compared to those never exposed to pioglitazone. Both France and Germany recently pulled pioglitazone from the market based on similar findings.

The FDA recommends that patients should talk to their health care provider regarding any concerns about the drug and should contact their physician if they are experiencing any symptoms of bladder cancer.

According to the FDA, "the benefits of blood sugar control with pioglitazone should be weighed against the unknown risks for cancer recurrence."

source: US-FDA

Departments / Project registration format
« on: June 17, 2012, 12:50:57 PM »
Here is the Project registration format which have to completed by participants and pharmacy students have to done it by 20.06.12.

Departments / What we have to pay for too much TV?????????????
« on: June 14, 2012, 07:29:55 PM »
Too Much TV Raises Risk of Diabetes, Heart Disease and Death

Couch potatoes beware: All those hours in front of the TV may be making you sick, or even killing you.

Watching television for two to three hours or more per day is linked to significantly higher risks of developing diabetes and heart disease and dying from all causes, according to a new analysis from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Noting that Americans watch an average of about five hours of TV per day -- the most common daily activity aside from working and sleeping -- researchers analyzed data from eight studies done between 1970 and 2011 on the association between TV viewing and incidence of type 2 diabetes, fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.

Two hours of daily television watching was tied to a 20 percent greater risk for diabetes, a 15 percent higher chance of cardiovascular disease and a 13 percent elevated risk for all-cause deaths, according to the new Harvard meta-analysis, a type of research that pools data from different studies on an issue and analyzes them to look for statistical trends.

The findings are published June 15 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

"The results really are not surprising at all. We already know that people who watch a lot of TV are more likely to eat an unhealthy diet and be obese," said senior study author Dr. Frank B. Hu, a professor of nutrition and epidemiology. "The message is actually quite simple . . . those who watch a lot of TV should cut back on TV watching and do more of something else."

Americans are hardly extraordinary in being glued to the tube. Hu pointed out that many people around the world structure their days in a similar fashion, with Europeans and Australians respectively spending an average of 40 percent and 50 percent of their daily free time watching television.

Prior research has established the negative health effects of TV viewing, including associations with less physical activity and unhealthy eating, such as higher consumption of fried foods, processed meat and sugar-sweetened beverages and lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Cancer incidence has not typically been studied in relation to TV watching, Hu said.

"There's no question this paper draws attention to the number of studies now that all seem to show the same thing," said Dr. Martin Abrahamson, chief medical officer of the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. "There are always limitations to these meta-analyses, but I think they're telling us a message we need to take heed of."

Based on disease incidence in the United States, Hu and his colleague, Anders Grontved, estimated that each two-hour increment of TV watching each day was linked to an absolute risk of 176 new cases of type 2 diabetes, 38 new cases of fatal cardiovascular disease and 104 new cases of all-cause mortality among 100,000 people per year.

Abrahamson and Hu agreed that the particularly ominous influence that TV has on diabetes incidence is due largely to its link to obesity, one of the biggest contributors to diabetes.

They also said that those who spend several hours per day exercising may be able to offset the negative health effects of prolonged TV watching, but that few tend to split their time equally between the two disparate activities.

"Certainly any physical activity would be beneficial regardless of the amount of TV you watch," Hu said. "But the reality is that people spend almost five hours a day watching TV. How much exercise do they do? There is a huge imbalance."

The Nemours Foundation has more on the health effects of TV viewing among children.

Departments / Diet for cancer patients: choosing the best option
« on: June 14, 2012, 07:21:32 PM »
Choosing a proper diet for patients getting cancer treatment is crucial to keep their weight and nutrition up — it is a part of overall management. Knowledge on foods is also essential for prevention of certain types of cancer.

Cancer patients during treatment experience difficulty in eating due to the side effects of powerful drug or radiotherapy. Common problems include appetite loss, change in sense of taste and smell, constipation, diarrhoea, bloating, cramps, dry mouth, lactose intolerance caused by radiation therapy, nausea, sore mouth, sore throat with trouble swallowing, vomiting, weight loss and so on.

It is particularly difficult to combat these adverse effects because cancer patient tend to develop strong food aversion that is thought to be caused by the effects of chemotherapy. So it is preferable that chemotherapy be withheld for 2 or 3 hours before and after meal. Carbohydrate and fat will be needed to provide this energy. Malnourished should receive extra protein.

High fat diet should be avoided as it is associated with cancer of the uterus, breast prostate and colon. The regular excessive intake of calorie is associated with cancer of the gallbladder and endometrium.

On the positive side, diet rich in fiber helps to protect against colorectal cancer. Vitamin C rich food may protect against the cancer of stomach and esophagus. Vitamin A and Carotene may protect against cancer of lung, bladder and larynx. Fruits and vegetables have abundant elements that will help fight cancer. Legumes such as soybean, dried bean and lentils may protect against cancer. High intake of soy foods is associated with a decreased risk of breast and colon cancer. Carrots, tomato and other foods, rich in carotene and lycopene may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

The recommendation is to eliminate vitamin A and vitamin E in supplemental form which may prevent cancer cells from self-destruction and work against cancer therapy. Some common suggestions for patients are —

    Eat those foods that you can, even if it is only one or two times

    Drink plenty of liquids

    Sip only small amount of liquid during meal

    Have a large drink at least 30 minutes before or after meal

    Avoid food and drink with smell that bothers you

    Keep your mouth clean

    Drink warm and hot liquid that can help relieve constipation

    Eat high fiber foods which include whole grain, beans, dried fruits etc.

    Eat foods and liquids high in sodium and potassium in case of diarrhoea

    Chew gums or ice cubes in case of dry mouth

    For nausea, have foods and drinks that are not too hot not too cold

    For sore mouth drink with a straw

    Avoid certain foods and drinks when your mouth is sore like citrus fruits, spicy food, salty food, crunchy food

    In case of sore, rinse your mouth 3 to 4 times a day

    Eat when it is time to eat rather than wait to get hungry

Source: The Daily Star

Departments / Tips To Reduce Medication Errors: Part one
« on: June 14, 2012, 07:02:05 PM »
In this part you will find some tips to reduce Medication Errors at home:

1. Keep your prescription medicines locked up so that kids cannot get them.

2. Pin up your doctor’s prescription next to your bed and read it each time you take your medications. This will help prevent accidental overdose.

3. Note the expiry dates of medications; if a medication is nearing expiry, mark a huge red X on it.

4. If your pharmacy issues expired medications to you by mistake, bring this to your health provider’s notice.

5. Never take another person’s prescription even if you have a similar problem.

6. Always monitor your children when they take their prescriptions.

7. Don’t retain left over prescription medications to use later if the same symptoms occur. Always consult your doctor each time.

8. Throw out any medication that’s gone past its expiration date.

9. Do not store any medications for which you’ve lost the prescriptions.

10. Always find out about the medication you’ve been prescribed, its purpose and dosage.

11. Understand the drug directions; how many times a day, and how many hours apart are you supposed to take a drug?

12. Find out if the drug should be stored in the fridge or at room temperature

13. Find out if you need to avoid medications, food items and beverages

14. Find out if there are any side effects of the medication and what you should do to manage them

15. When you give medication to your kids, read the drug name, dosage and prescription each time.

16. Make sure only one member of your family is in charge of dispensing medications to your children.

17. Always use the measuring spoon that accompanies the medicine and not your kitchen spoons.

18. Use compliance aids such as medicine containers with dosage based sections for daily doses. This will keep you from mixing up your medications.

20. Report all medications you are currently taking including OTC drugs, diet supplements, and herbs and so on. Some of the medications you’re taking might reduce the effect of a prescription medication.

21. Your doctor and your pharmacy should know about y our medication allergies and any unpleasant drug reactions.

Departments / Good News!! Vaccine for Meningitis B
« on: June 14, 2012, 06:35:00 PM »
Researchers Closer to Developing Universal Meningitis B Vaccine:

New research may bring scientists one step closer to developing a vaccine that protects against hundreds of strains of meningococcus B, the most common cause of bacterial meningitis.

Bacterial meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, can cause brain damage and death. Existing vaccines cover four of five types of bacteria that cause the disease, but developing a vaccine against meningococcus B has been challenging because more than 300 strains exist.

For this study, researchers with Novartis, the pharmaceuticals giant, and the University of Florence in Italy bioengineered 54 immunogens, which are substances that can elicit an immune response. They then tested these immunogens in mice to see which ones encouraged the development of antibodies when exposed to diverse strains of meningococcus B. From there, they tested eight particular immunogens that triggered the best antibody response in a mouse model against a larger, more diverse group of meningococcus B strains. This experiment allowed them to pinpoint the most effective candidate.

"The cool thing about what these researchers did is that they bioengineered their own variant," said Dr. Alka Khaitan, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at New York University Langone Medical Center in New York City. "The new technology would allow us to look at all the variations and then pick and choose the ones that are likely to be protective."

More study is needed, but if the technology becomes widely available, it could also foster the development of vaccines for malaria and HIV, the virus that cause AIDS, she said. HIV and malaria also have many variations, which has hampered vaccine development.

The study results are published July 13 in Science Translational Medicine.

Meningococcal B is highly contagious. Infants are at highest risk of infection, and if they survive, they may end up with learning disabilities, hearing loss or loss of limbs, according to the study. Disease onset occurs so fast that antibiotics are sometimes unable to stop it.

"We have failed up to now to develop a vaccine, and we have seen epidemics related to meningococcus B," said Dr. Bruce Hirsch, an infectious disease expert at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, N.Y.

"In a young healthy person, this strain can cause severe illness or death within hours, so the ability to prevent it in college dormitories, military recruits and crowded conditions is very important," Hirsch said.

Dr. Peter D. Kwong, of the vaccine research center of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Md., and co-author of an accompanying editorial, said the new technology may one day take the gamble out of developing the annual flu vaccine. Each year, scientists develop a vaccine based on projections and predictions.

"If we could develop one that provides quite broad protection against all flu strains, we may be able to have a general flu vaccine, so we don't need a new one every season," he said.

That said, many hurdles remain in terms of developing new vaccines, including safety and efficacy trials as well as cost and delivery issues.

More information
For more information about meningitis, visit the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Original Sources:
Peter D, Kwong, Ph.D., Vaccine Research Center, U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md.; Alka Khaitan, M.D., pediatric infectious disease specialist, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York City; Bruce Hirsch, M.D., infectious disease expert, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, N.Y.; July 13, 2011, Science Translational MedicineM

Departments / Re: very important
« on: June 14, 2012, 06:31:11 PM »
thank you sir...........your enthusiasm for English and related post will be very helpful for all .........

Departments / Re: learn English Grammar
« on: June 14, 2012, 06:20:32 PM »
at one stage our national curriculum ignored the importance of Grammar  make a generation with hotchpotch English.
this types of post can compensate this gape.

Departments / Aspirin as Effective as Warfarin for Heart Failure:
« on: June 14, 2012, 06:13:53 PM »
Aspirin is just as effective as the blood-thinner warfarin in preventing stroke and death in heart failure patients with a normal heart rhythm, a landmark study indicates.

Although the two treatments are equally effective, researchers from Columbia University in New York City said their findings could prompt more doctors and patients to choose aspirin because it is much cheaper.

The 10-year study was the largest comparison of aspirin and warfarin (Coumadin) in the treatment of heart failure patients. In conducting the comparison, researchers followed more than 2,300 patients in 11 countries on three continents. Study participants were assigned randomly either to aspirin or warfarin, and neither the patient nor their doctor knew which medication each patient was taking.

The investigators found that the combined risk of death, stroke and cerebral hemorrhage during the study period was 7.47 percent for patients taking warfarin and 7.93 percent for patients taking aspirin -- a difference that is statistically insignificant.

Although patients taking warfarin had a nearly 50 percent lower risk for stroke than those taking aspirin, their risk for major bleeding was twice as high. As a result, the researchers argued that the benefits do not outweigh the risks. They noted, however, that taking warfarin for four years or more may be more effective at preventing stroke and death.

"With at least 6 million Americans -- and many more around the world -- suffering from heart failure, the results of the ... study will have a large public health impact," Dr. Walter Koroshetz, deputy director of the U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, said in a Columbia University news release. "Patients and their physicians now have critical information to help select the optimum treatment approach. The key decision will be whether to accept the increased risk of stroke with aspirin or the increased risk of primarily gastrointestinal hemorrhage [stomach bleeding] with warfarin."

Although the study, published in the May 3 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, found aspirin and warfarin to be equally effective, the researchers noted that aspirin may be a more likely choice for doctors and patients.

Like warfarin, aspirin reduces the risk of stroke due to a clot or blockage. Aspirin, however, is cheaper and available over the counter. Warfarin also requires a strict dosing regimen, including regular blood tests to monitor patients' clotting levels.

"Since the overall risks and benefits are similar for aspirin and warfarin, the patient and his or her doctor are free to choose the treatment that best meets their particular medical needs," principal investigator, Dr. Shunichi Homma, associate chief of the cardiology division at New York-Presbyterian/Columbia and a professor of medicine at Columbia's College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City, said in the news release. "However, given the convenience and low cost of aspirin, many may go this route."

More information
The U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute has more about treatments for heart failure.
Original Source: Columbia University, news release, May 2, 2012
Artical source:

Departments / Re: Success of ETE Dept. in National Arena
« on: June 13, 2012, 06:09:08 PM »
continuation of this success is essential..............we hope further good news.

Departments / Re: Our Exam Hall requires wall clock to check the time
« on: June 13, 2012, 06:04:46 PM »
the main problem of hanging clock is Missing the clock.............
we can reduce or eliminate this problem and ensure clock in all class room by putting secure case (with lock and key)  for clock in the class room.
It will also help the teachers to better management of Lecture time............

Departments / Re: Can we work as Young Research Professionals?
« on: June 13, 2012, 05:59:10 PM »
Good proposal.............but sir why not all faculty?
Effort from all is sentential.....

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