Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Topics - Jalal

Pages: [1]
BBA Discussion Forum / Let's Learn Auditing
« on: September 13, 2011, 10:28:50 PM »
Auditing is the process by which a competent, independent person accumulates and evaluates evidence about quantifiable information related to a specific economic entity for the purpose of determining and reporting on the degree of correspondence between the quantifiable information and established criteria. According to section 210(6) of the Companies Act, 1994, the Boards of Directors of the company has the authority to appoint the first auditor(s). To become a auditor, one should follow some criteria.
a. Competent, Independent Person:
   Â·  Qualified to understand the criteria used.
   Â·  Know the types and amount of evidence to accumulate to reach the proper conclusion after the evidence has been examined.
Have an independent mental attitude (be independent in fact and in professionalism).
Unbiased information and objective thinking are needed for the judgment and decisions to be made.
b. Accumulating & Evaluating evidence:
Evidence-any information used by the auditor to determine whether the quantifiable information being audited is stated in accordance with the established criteria.
Deciding the amount of audit evidence-planning.
Accumulation of evidence – implementation.
Evaluation of evidence – implementation.
Drawing conclusion based on these evidence. Final stage.
Quality and volume of evidence – must satisfy the audit objective.

BBA Discussion Forum / Learn Marketing
« on: August 19, 2011, 10:38:29 PM »
Everyday we face many kinds of marketing and sometime we do marketing for our necessary purposes. I think A BBA student has some knowledge about marketing. Here, i present some marketing topic with power point slides that give a overview about marketing. I hope it will be helpful

BBA Discussion Forum / Learn Accounting
« on: August 17, 2011, 09:48:15 PM »
Dear Viewers,
Here i give some basic idea about accounting with presentation. I hope it helps to learn accounting and easily can understand overall knowledge of accounting.

Convocation / Want 3rd Covocation
« on: July 06, 2011, 10:58:09 PM »
Dear Authrity,
It is sorry to say that our university don't organize its 3rd convocation yet. Last convocation held in 2008. Now 3 years are gone, 3rd convecation is not helding. Convocation helps to increase  university,s Brand. It gives a clear message to the job market. I hope authority will consider this matter.

BBA Discussion Forum / Cash Basis Accouting
« on: July 01, 2011, 07:56:34 AM »
Accounting has two concepts. These are: 1) Cash Basis Accounting (2) Accrural Basis Accounting.
To make understand about Cash Basis accounting, i create a presentation. I hope it will help to make u understand.

BBA Discussion Forum / Learn Accounting Everyday
« on: June 04, 2011, 02:13:54 PM »
Visit this website & enrich ur Knowledge about Accounting :

BBA Discussion Forum / About Seminar
« on: May 30, 2011, 05:19:47 PM »
Seminar is, generally, a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization. It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone present is requested to actively participate.To familiar with important events,Job Markets issues, it is needed to organize a seminar about different topic for awareness of students.But, it is very sorry to say that our university do not organize seminar frequently. Although, when seminar organizes, it wan held on workday or class time. Sometimes students do not participate the seminar & someone busy with come & go in seminar time. It creates disturbances in seminar. So i want to request to the Authority, to held seminar on Friday & Saturday or any public holiday.

BBA Discussion Forum / Business Education
« on: May 30, 2011, 04:15:49 PM »
Business Education refers to the process of developing an individual's knowledge for analyzing business environment. It is broader than commercial education, which is often used to denote training to cater to clerical, secretarial or bookkeeping positions and operation of office appliances.The range of subjects taught in the business studies faculty includes business mathematics, operations research, micro and macro economics, financial administration, management, business policy, Organizational behavior, marketing, physical distribution, research methodology, cost accounting, management accounting, international trade, production management, banking, insurance, project appraisal and computer technology.

BBA Discussion Forum / Want Video Archive
« on: November 28, 2010, 03:32:52 PM »
 Dear Authority,
Our university arranged many programs on different occasions.Many important seminars are held on different times.
Sometimes students missed the programs for different reasons.There is no option to know the what's going on the seminar?
I request the authority to hold this seminars Videos,Pictures & materials at the contents of Diu homepage.So that students & other outside visitors can easily know & learn our renowned university.

You need to know / DIU Campus English Language Day
« on: July 24, 2010, 04:51:34 PM »
   :)  It is a very pleasure to know that Daffodil International University declares Every Wednessday and Thursday will be observed Campus English Language day.The medium of conversation will be full in English.
English is an international Language.Business English and business communication skills training courses tailored to meet the needs of organisations and their employees. It is very impotant to get a job any comany.A business student should have a general understanding of all of the business disciplines, accounting, marketing, management, etc, and, yes, economics.These books are written in English. All of these areas interact in the business world, so you need the knowledge to have a better understanding.
 In the age of globalization, communication is of paramount importance. If we have good fluency in English, we can resemble our country very proudly.
I hope DIU class lecture will be delivered in English.

Various Resource for Career Development / How to be a good presenter?
« on: June 25, 2010, 01:24:07 AM »
How to give a great presentation?[/color]
Creating a significant impression of an individual, group or an organization is supported by great presentation skills. In today's world 'giving presentation' has become a common phenomenon, but it requires enormous discipline, practice and preparation to make it perfect. One has to take both mental and physical preparations. In order to remain relaxed and comfortable while giving a presentation or while explaining a problematic passage; the speaker may 'speech practice' in front of a mirror, a friend or even a pet animal. First time speakers should rehearse as many times as possible. Once speaker gets comfortable with speaking in front of the audience, he or she will automatically feel more confident the next time.

PowerPoint presentation can be used in most cases to make the presentation more appealing, easily understandable, and more effective. It is popularly used for public speaking, seminar, workshop, school project, training or even official meeting. It helps to provide an audio-visual presentation aiding the audience to get a clear picture of the speech rather than only hearing it constantly. To prepare for a successful PowerPoint presentation, the presenter should always consider two important things:
a) The making of the PowerPoint slides, and
b) Presenting it to the audience.
Making of the PowerPoint Slides:
1. Use appropriate slide design: designing the slides with a nice background picture or a meaningful theme, which will attract the readers immediately.
2. Use appropriate fonts: It is better to use a sans serif font for titles (e.g., Arial,) and a serif font for bullets, body text or chart labels (e.g., Times New Roman) to make the slides easily readable. The serifs help to recognize the characters (and thus the words) faster. Ideally, the font size should be 30.
3. Avoid title capitalization: It is better to avoid “title capitalization” frequently unless it is a title.
4 . Show pictures: Visualization is more powerful rather than slides full of texts. It attracts people's attention easily and makes the subject matter more conceivable.
5. Avoid paragraphs or long blocks of text: Paragraphs or long blocks of text should be avoided as much as possible. It is recommended to use a couple of sentences, emphasize on the main points.
6. Avoid detailed reports: If a presenter needs to include a report in his or her presentation, it is better to hand it out so that the audience have focus on the parts based on their own interest.
7. Keep file size manageable: Avoid this issue by using smaller picture file types and using native PowerPoint features whenever possible (such as tables, charts and AutoShapes) instead of embedding and importing objects.
8. Keep things simple: The whole presentation should be kept very simple; thus, the presenter should cut down the unnecessary slides.
9. Do not give PowerPoint center stage: A speaker is the main focus of the presentation, not the slides. No amount of “razzle dazzle” can overcome a weak presentation. If the presenters do not do their job, PowerPoint cannot save them. It only makes a bad presentation worse.
Presenting to the Audience:
1. Show up early: It can help the speaker to solve unexpected problems with lighting, room assignments, equipment and so forth.
2. Physical appearance: Grooming and wearing formal attire is important to create a good image to the audience. Presenter should stand away from the podium, to communicate better with the audience.
3. Hydrate: Presenter should drink sufficient fluid to keep out dryness, and thus, enhance a better and clearer speech.
4. Start strong: At times presenters forget to introduce themselves and start in a rather abrupt manner; this can be avoided by being a bit more confident or by simply starting with a joke or an interesting story related to the subject matter.
5. Outline the presentation and manage time: It can be helpful if the presentation is split into different parts like introduction, objectives, content and conclusion, then, allocating a time frame for each division to finish the speech within the stipulated time.
6. Tell a story and provide examples: Reading the slides are not helpful hence the presenter can address the topic of the slide, and then explain it thoroughly with some relevant examples.
7. Pause: When the speaker says something important, it is recommended to take a pause. Let it hang there for a few seconds that will make the audience to think about it for a while.
8 . Keep up with the audience: The speaker should remember the 'target audience'. If the audiences are already familiar to the subject, he should not bore them with unnecessary basic information.
9. Use humor: Humor that is carefully woven into a presentation can be like a bell that the speaker can ring from time to time to keep up the audience's interest until the end of the whole presentation. Humor related to racism, sexism, homophobia, or religious intolerance must be avoided at all costs.
10. Distribute a handout and leave a trace: A handout of the presentation will help to jog the audience's memory later and more importantly to convey some credibility.
11. Don't apologize: The speaker should not apologize for any unintentional problems.
12. Welcome questions: If the presenter does well, he or she will be asked a lot of questions. Thus, the speaker should always welcome a “question and answer (Q&A) session” as a part of the presentation, so that, people can have a clear idea about the whole project.
13. End strong and finish early too: The speaker should end the presentation with enough confidence like, " that's why I like youth's empowerment and activism. I appreciate your attention today. Thank you". Finishing early leaves more time for questions, and shows appreciation and respect towards the audience.

BBA Discussion Forum / Accounting Principles
« on: June 25, 2010, 01:16:06 AM »
Introduction to Accounting Principles
We also have Quizzes, Crosswords, and Q&A for the topic Accounting Principles.

There are general rules and concepts that govern the field of accounting. These general rules—referred to as basic accounting principles and guidelines—form the groundwork on which more detailed, complicated, and legalistic accounting rules are based. For example, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) uses the basic accounting principles and guidelines as a basis for their own detailed and comprehensive set of accounting rules and standards.

The phrase "generally accepted accounting principles" (or "GAAP") consists of three important sets of rules: (1) the basic accounting principles and guidelines, (2) the detailed rules and standards issued by FASB and its predecessor the Accounting Principles Board (APB), and (3) the generally accepted industry practices.

If a company distributes its financial statements to the public, it is required to follow generally accepted accounting principles in the preparation of those statements. Further, if a company's stock is publicly traded, federal law requires the company's financial statements be audited by independent public accountants. Both the company's management and the independent accountants must certify that the financial statements and the related notes to the financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP.

GAAP is exceedingly useful because it attempts to standardize and regulate accounting definitions, assumptions, and methods. Because of generally accepted accounting principles we are able to assume that there is consistency from year to year in the methods used to prepare a company's financial statements. And although variations may exist, we can make reasonably confident conclusions when comparing one company to another, or comparing one company's financial statistics to the statistics for its industry. Over the years the generally accepted accounting principles have become more complex because financial transactions have become more complex.


Basic Accounting Principles and Guidelines
Since GAAP is founded on the basic accounting principles and guidelines, we can better understand GAAP if we understand those accounting principles. The table below lists the ten main accounting principles and guidelines together with a highly condensed explanation of each.

Basic Accounting Principle   What It Means in Relationship to a Financial Statement

1. Economic Entity Assumption   The accountant keeps all of the business transactions of a sole proprietorship separate from the business owner's personal transactions. For legal purposes, a sole proprietorship and its owner are considered to be one entity, but for accounting purposes they are considered to be two separate entities.
2. Monetary Unit Assumption   Economic activity is measured in U.S. dollars, and only transactions that can be expressed in U.S. dollars are recorded.

Because of this basic accounting principle, it is assumed that the dollar's purchasing power has not changed over time. As a result accountants ignore the effect of inflation on recorded amounts. For example, dollars from a 1960 transaction are combined (or shown with) dollars from a 2009 transaction.
3. Time Period Assumption   This accounting principle assumes that it is possible to report the complex and ongoing activities of a business in relatively short, distinct time intervals such as the five months ended May 31, 2009, or the 5 weeks ended May 1, 2009. The shorter the time interval, the more likely the need for the accountant to estimate amounts relevant to that period. For example, the property tax bill is received on December 15 of each year. On the income statement for the year ended December 31, 2009, the amount is known; but for the income statement for the three months ended March 31, 2009, the amount was not known and an estimate had to be used.

It is imperative that the time interval (or period of time) be shown in the heading of each income statement, statement of stockholders' equity, and statement of cash flows. Labeling one of these financial statements with "December 31" is not good enough—the reader needs to know if the statement covers the one week ending December 31, 2009 the month ending December 31, 2009 the three months ending December 31, 2009 or the year ended December 31, 2009.
4. Cost Principle   From an accountant's point of view, the term "cost" refers to the amount spent (cash or the cash equivalent) when an item was originally obtained, whether that purchase happened last year or thirty years ago. For this reason, the amounts shown on financial statements are referred to as historical cost amounts.

Because of this accounting principle asset amounts are not adjusted upward for inflation. In fact, as a general rule, asset amounts are not adjusted to reflect any type of increase in value. Hence, an asset amount does not reflect the amount of money a company would receive if it were to sell the asset at today's market value. (An exception is certain investments in stocks and bonds that are actively traded on a stock exchange.) If you want to know the current value of a company's long-term assets, you will not get this information from a company's financial statements—you need to look elsewhere, perhaps to a third-party appraiser.
5. Full Disclosure Principle   If certain information is important to an investor or lender using the financial statements, that information should be disclosed within the statement or in the notes to the statement. It is because of this basic accounting principle that numerous pages of "footnotes" are often attached to financial statements.

As an example, let's say a company is named in a lawsuit that demands a significant amount of money. When the financial statements are prepared it is not clear whether the company will be able to defend itself or whether it might lose the lawsuit. As a result of these conditions and because of the full disclosure principle the lawsuit will be described in the notes to the financial statements.

A company usually lists its significant accounting policies as the first note to its financial statements.
6. Going Concern Principle   This accounting principle assumes that a company will continue to exist long enough to carry out its objectives and commitments and will not liquidate in the foreseeable future. If the company's financial situation is such that the accountant believes the company will not be able to continue on, the accountant is required to disclose this assessment.

The going concern principle allows the company to defer some of its prepaid expenses until future accounting periods.
7. Matching Principle   This accounting principle requires companies to use the accrual basis of accounting. The matching principle requires that expenses be matched with revenues. For example, sales commissions expense should be reported in the period when the sales were made (and not reported in the period when the commissions were paid). Wages to employees are reported as an expense in the week when the employees worked and not in the week when the employees are paid. If a company agrees to give its employees 1% of its 2009 revenues as a bonus on January 15, 2010, the company should report the bonus as an expense in 2009 and the amount unpaid at December 31, 2009 as a liability. (The expense is occurring as the sales are occurring.)

Because we cannot measure the future economic benefit of things such as advertisements (and thereby we cannot match the ad expense with related future revenues), the accountant charges the ad amount to expense in the period that the ad is run.

(To learn more about adjusting entries go to Explanation of Adjusting Entries and Drills for Adjusting Entries.)

8. Revenue Recognition Principle   Under the accrual basis of accounting (as opposed to the cash basis of accounting), revenues are recognized as soon as a product has been sold or a service has been performed, regardless of when the money is actually received. Under this basic accounting principle, a company could earn and report $20,000 of revenue in its first month of operation but receive $0 in actual cash in that month.

For example, if ABC Consulting completes its service at an agreed price of $1,000, ABC should recognize $1,000 of revenue as soon as its work is done—it does not matter whether the client pays the $1,000 immediately or in 30 days. Do not confuse revenue with a cash receipt.

9. Materiality   Because of this basic accounting principle or guideline, an accountant might be allowed to violate another accounting principle if an amount is insignificant. Professional judgement is needed to decide whether an amount is insignificant or immaterial.

An example of an obviously immaterial item is the purchase of a $150 printer by a highly profitable multi-million dollar company. Because the printer will be used for five years, the matching principle directs the accountant to expense the cost over the five-year period. The materiality guideline allows this company to violate the matching principle and to expense the entire cost of $150 in the year it is purchased. The justification is that no one would consider it misleading if $150 is expensed in the first year instead of $30 being expensed in each of the five years that it is used.

Because of materiality, financial statements usually show amounts rounded to the nearest dollar, to the nearest thousand, or to the nearest million dollars depending on the size of the company.
10. Conservatism   If a situation arises where there are two acceptable alternatives for reporting an item, conservatism directs the accountant to choose the alternative that will result in less net income and/or less asset amount. Conservatism helps the accountant to "break a tie." It does not direct accountants to be conservative. Accountants are expected to be unbiased and objective.

The basic accounting principle of conservatism leads accountants to anticipate or disclose losses, but it does not allow a similar action for gains. For example, potential losses from lawsuits will be reported on the financial statements or in the notes, but potential gains will not be reported. Also, an accountant may write inventory down to an amount that is lower than the original cost, but will not write inventory up to an amount higher than the original cost.

Other Characteristics of Accounting Information
When financial reports are generated by professional accountants, we have certain expectations of the information they present to us:
1.   We expect the accounting information to be reliable, verifiable, and objective.
2.   We expect consistency in the accounting information.
3.   We expect comparability in the accounting information.

1. Reliable, Verifiable, and Objective
In addition to the basic accounting principles and guidelines listed in Part 1, accounting information should be reliable, verifiable, and objective. For example, showing land at its original cost of $10,000 (when it was purchased 50 years ago) is considered to be more reliable, verifiable, and objective than showing it at its current market value of $250,000. Eight different accountants will wholly agree that the original cost of the land was $10,000—they can read the offer and acceptance for $10,000, see a transfer tax based on $10,000, and review documents that confirm the cost was $10,000. If you ask the same eight accountants to give you the land's current value, you will likely receive eight different estimates. Because the current value amount is less reliable, less verifiable, and less objective than the original cost, the original cost is used.

The accounting profession has been willing to move away from the cost principle if there are reliable, verifiable, and objective amounts involved. For example, if a company has an investment in stock that is actively traded on a stock exchange, the company may be required to show the current value of the stock instead of its original cost.

2. Consistency
Accountants are expected to be consistent when applying accounting principles, procedures, and practices. For example, if a company has a history of using the FIFO cost flow assumption, readers of the company's most current financial statements have every reason to expect that the company is continuing to use the FIFO cost flow assumption. If the company changes this practice and begins using the LIFO cost flow assumption, that change must be clearly disclosed.

3. Comparability
Investors, lenders, and other users of financial statements expect that financial statements of one company can be compared to the financial statements of another company in the same industry. Generally accepted accounting principles may provide for comparability between the financial statements of different companies. For example, the FASB requires that expenses related to research and development (R&D) be expensed when incurred. Prior to its rule, some companies expensed R&D when incurred while other companies deferred R&D to the balance sheet and expensed them at a later date.


How Principles and Guidelines Affect Financial Statements
The basic accounting principles and guidelines directly affect the way financial statements are prepared and interpreted. Let's look below at how accounting principles and guidelines influence the (1) balance sheet, (2) income statement, and (3) the notes to the financial statements.

1. Balance Sheet
Let's see how the basic accounting principles and guidelines affect the balance sheet of Mary's Design Service, a sole proprietorship owned by Mary Smith. (To learn more about the balance sheet go to Explanation of Balance Sheet and Drills for Balance Sheet.)

A balance sheet is a snapshot of a company's assets, liabilities, and owner's equity at one point in time. (In this case, that point in time is after all of the transactions through September 30, 2009 have been recorded.) Because of the economic entity assumption, only the assets, liabilities, and owner's equity specifically identified with Mary's Design Service are shown—the personal assets of the owner, Mary Smith, are not included on the company's balance sheet.

Mary's Design Service
Balance Sheet
September 30, 2009
Assets         Liabilities   
$     300      Notes Payable
$  1,000
Accounts Receivable
1,000      Accounts Payable
160      Wages Payable
Prepaid Insurance
90      Unearned Revenues
10,000         Total Liabilities   1,500
         Owner's Equity   
         M.Smith, Capital
Total Assets   $11,550      Total Liabilities & Owner's Equity   $11,550

The assets listed on the balance sheet have a cost that can be measured and each amount shown is the original cost of each asset. For example, let's assume that a tract of land was purchased in 1956 for $10,000. Mary's Design Service still owns the land, and the land is now appraised at $250,000. The cost principle requires that the land be shown in the asset account Land at its original cost of $10,000 rather than at the recently appraised amount of $250,000.

If Mary's Design Service were to purchase a second piece of land, the monetary unit assumption dictates that the purchase price of the land bought today would simply be added to the purchase price of the land bought in 1956, and the sum of the two purchase prices would be reported as the total cost of land.

The Supplies account shows the cost of supplies (if material in amount) that were obtained by Mary's Design Service but have not yet been used. As the supplies are consumed, their cost will be moved to the Supplies Expense account on the income statement. This complies with the matching principle which requires expenses to be matched either with revenues or with the time period when they are used. The cost of the unused supplies remains on the balance sheet in the asset account Supplies.

The Prepaid Insurance account represents the cost of insurance that has not yet expired. As the insurance expires, the expired cost is moved to Insurance Expense on the income statement as required by the matching principle. The cost of the insurance that has not yet expired remains on Mary's Design Service's balance sheet (is "deferred" to the balance sheet) in the asset account Prepaid Insurance. Deferring insurance expense to the balance sheet is possible because of another basic accounting principle, the going concern assumption.

The cost principle and monetary unit assumption prevent some very valuable assets from ever appearing on a company's balance sheet. For example, companies that sell consumer products with high profile brand names, trade names, trademarks, and logos are not reported on their balance sheets because they were not purchased. For example, Coca-Cola's logo and Nike's logo are probably the most valuable assets of such companies, yet they are not listed as assets on the company balance sheet. Similarly, a company might have an excellent reputation and a very skilled management team, but because these were not purchased for a specific cost and we cannot objectively measure them in dollars, they are not reported as assets on the balance sheet. If a company actually purchases the trademark of another company for a significant cost, the amount paid for the trademark will be reported as an asset on the balance sheet of the company that bought the trademark.

2. Income Statement
Let's see how the basic accounting principles and guidelines might affect the income statement of Mary's Design Service. (To learn more about the income statement go to Explanation of Income Statement and Drills for Income Statement.)

An income statement covers a period of time (or time interval), such as a year, quarter, month, or four weeks. It is imperative to indicate the period of time in the heading of the income statement such as "For the Nine Months Ended September 30, 2009". (This means for the period of January 1 through September 30, 2009.) If prepared under the accrual basis of accounting, an income statement will show how profitable a company was during the stated time interval.

Mary's Design Service
Income Statement
For the Nine Months Ending September 30, 2009
Revenues and Gains   
   Gain on Sale of Land
      Total Revenues and Gains     15,000   
Expenses and Losses   
   Expenses   8,000   
   Loss on Sale of Computer
      Total Expenses and Losses   8,350   
Net Income   $  6,650   

Revenues are the fees that were earned during the period of time shown in the heading. Recognizing revenues when they are earned instead of when the cash is actually received follows the revenue recognition principle and the matching principle. (The matching principle is what steers accountants toward using the accrual basis of accounting rather than the cash basis. Small business owners should discuss these two methods with their tax advisors.)

Gains are a net amount related to transactions that are not considered part of the company's main operations. For example, Mary's Design Service is in the business of designing, not in the land development business. If the company should sell some land for $30,000 (land that is shown in the company's accounting records at $25,000) Mary's Design Service will report a Gain on Sale of Land of $5,000. The $30,000 selling price will not be reported as part of the company's revenues.

Expenses are costs used up by the company in performing its main operations. The matching principle requires that expenses be reported on the income statement when the related sales are made or when the costs are used up (rather than in the period when they are paid).

Losses are a net amount related to transactions that are not considered part of the company's main operating activities. For example, let's say a retail clothing company owns an old computer that is carried on its accounting records at $650. If the company sells that computer for $300, the company receives an asset (cash of $300) but it must also remove $650 of asset amounts from its accounting records. The result is a Loss on Sale of Computer of $350. The $300 selling price will not be included in the company's sales or revenues.

3. The Notes To Financial Statements
Another basic accounting principle, the full disclosure principle, requires that a company's financial statements include disclosure notes. These notes include information that helps readers of the financial statements make investment and credit decisions. The notes to the financial statements are considered to be an integral part of the financial statements.

Additional Information and Resources
Because the material covered here is considered an introduction to this topic, many complexities have been omitted. You should always consult with an accounting professional for assistance with your own specific circumstances

Common Forum / Prayer Room
« on: June 25, 2010, 01:12:18 AM »
Dear Authority,
I am one of the students of Prince Plaza.More than 4,000 students use Prince Plaza as their campus. Most of the Students are Muslim.   :(  :(Unfortunately, there is no prayer room in this campus. Although, there is a mosque at the basement floor at the Prince Plaza, but it has no good Ozu facilities. I request the authority to give a room for prayering so that students can take prayer at the break time after finishing the class.

BBA Discussion Forum / Inventory Valuation
« on: June 19, 2010, 02:39:59 PM »
Inventory valuation is the dollar amount associated with the items contained in a company’s inventory. Initially the amount is the cost of those items. However, under certain situations the cost could be replaced with a lower dollar amount.

The inventory valuation includes all of the costs to get the inventory items in place and ready for sale. The inventory valuation excludes the costs of selling and administration.

Since the inventory items are constantly being sold and restocked and since the costs of the items are constantly changing, a company must select a cost flow assumption. Cost flow assumptions include first-in, first-out; weighted average; and last-in, first out. The company must consistently follow its stated cost flow assumption.

A manufacturer’s inventory valuation will include the costs of production, namely direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. Manufacturers are also required to consistently follow their cost flow assumptions.

Inventory valuation is important in that it affects the cost of goods sold reported on the company’s income statement. Inventory is also an important component of a company’s current assets, working capital, and current ratio.

BBA Discussion Forum / Digital University
« on: May 11, 2010, 12:36:44 PM »
 :D :D :D :D :D
It is a great opportunity to DIU students can know their results from Mobile Phone via SMS.
This system used only The Daffodil International University.
No private university use this system.

go to message option on your cell phone, then type DIU RES Varsity ID & send it 5676

For Example DIU RES 071-11-1609 & send it 5676

Pages: [1]