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Bangladeshi Labor and the Attraction of the Textile Industry”
Authors: Eduardo Gonzalez
Elizabeth Lugo
Florida International University, USA

The world economy is constantly changing and shifting from location to location, in search of the next most efficient location that can produce goods. This has been true since the “Silver Century” when Europeans traveled the world in search for goods that would bring them profit in return for things that they had in abundance (Brook). The race to the bottom is characterized by this motive. It is a way of attaining efficiency and in certain places, avoiding the markets (Rivoli). However this race has become natural in the quest for the success of businesses and the development of countries. The race to the bottom searches for cheap labor, cheap investments, and flexible regulations. When there are no more of these things in a given area, the race moves on in search of a place that will grant producers flexibility and cost efficiency. All of this is for not if a sizeable workforce is not found. We pose the question “What aspects of Bangladeshi labor attract the textile industry?” We will analyze labor in Bangladesh and why it is so attractive to foreign companies. It is important to understand that labor is not only the people, but the living and financial conditions of people as well as the social dependencies that these people have. Labor provides the gears for which production can become efficient. The wages of workers, the facilities of workers, and the regulations of workers can become obstacles to producers that can make or break their investments. It is necessary to have a workforce that can be content with receiving jobs from foreign producers to be able to operate with cost efficient investments. Bangladesh satisfies the aforementioned criteria. It is a country that is rising in the world arena and is considered one of the next places for the race to the bottom.

Background to Bangladeshi Labor:
Bangladesh has a population of more than 127.5 million people ( It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Most people live below the living standard, forcing the majority of people to seek jobs that will provide them with more profit. The Bangladeshis that live in rural areas move to the cities where there are supposed to be jobs and better living conditions. However, there are fewer jobs and homes than there are people moving to the cities, thus producing a string of shantytowns where people live in terrible conditions ( These conditions have led people to welcome the coming of textile factories and the development of the industry in Bangladesh. Textile manufacturers are always looking for the next location that will give them an edge in efficiency and cost. They need to find places that will provide them with an efficient labor force and that will render their investments more valuable than anywhere else. Bangladesh seems to be the place where the textile industry has shifted to in response to the multitude of Bangladeshis that need consistent and substantial wages.
Labor in Garment Industry
The labor force in Bangladesh is primarily comprised of women. The garment sector alone has a workforce that is 85 percent women. This has been the result of the type of work that women must tend to in rural areas. This work typically requires strength and long periods of time outdoors. Women are thus poorer and at a disadvantage when it comes to the work a man can typically accomplish in rural areas ( Like the Chinese women in textile factories from PietraRivoli’s book, “The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy”, Bangladeshi women experience the same issues in rural areas. Their aspirations and living conditions force them to seek jobs that will get them away from the harsh work and at the same time provide them with an opportunity to escape the poverty they experience in rural areas.

The economic and social history of Bangladesh can be traced to 1971 when the country gained its independence. Since then it has increased its real per capita by 130 percent and has been able to cut poverty levels by 50 percent ( To understand the drastic transformations the country has undergone, one must perceive it as a mostly rural country with agriculture being its original and primary form of revenue. Urbanization has changed this and emphasized on industrial development instead of agricultural development ( Rural Bangladeshis have been left with little land and have been forced to rethink their lifestyles. The process of urbanization and the rise of factories have required more land, specifically land that has belonged to rural Bangladeshis. The country still employs 44 percent of its labor in the agricultural sector ( Aside from this statistic, Bangladesh can be considered the current country in the race to the bottom as textile manufacturers seek workers that will work for lower wages.

Labor has specifically attracted the textile industry to Bangladesh because of the huge workforce and the relatively low wages that Bangladeshis are willing to accept. The current average wage is five thousand takas per month (Kiron). Eighty takas are equivalent to one dollar. This makes the monthly wage of a worker to be around sixty-two dollars. There are also several other reasons why companies have chosen to target Bangladesh for investment. In regards to labor, the country has a large segment of the population that is young and takes part in the labor force. 57 percent of the population is under 25 years old. They are also highly literate, having a 72 percent literacy rate ( This part of the population can provide more work efficiency than a labor force that is older. Companies address efficiency concerns by investing in countries that will obviously provide them with more output at a lower cost. 78 percent of the country’ export earnings come from the textile sector. This sector accounts for 5 percent of the country’s total national income (Malhorta). This gradual ascendency has turned Bangladesh into the prime candidate for the next country in the race to the bottom. Cheap labor that is educated and plentiful makes for a very lucrative opportunity for textile companies. Despite all of these attractive characteristics of the country’s labor, unemployment persists and people continue to live in below standard conditions.

Considering the youthful labor force is significant, when comparing Bangladesh’s current economic state to its condition in the 1980s. During the 1960s and the 1970s there was a vast growth in people being born and this has predominantly led to the current wave of young workers in the 1990s and the 2000s. The Bangladeshi labor force has gone from 30.9 million in 1985-1986 to 56 million in 1995-1996 ( This increase is a product of the rise in population and the search for a better lifestyle in cities. A significant portion of the labor force is employed in rural areas. Work in rural areas is very harsh and drives people to finding jobs that will be relatively more comfortable and that will pay better (

Our research led us to a textile engineering student in Bangladesh named Mazharul Islam Kiron. He operates his own blogging site specifically based on textiles. He relayed to us the current predicament of the labor force in Bangladesh. Kiron said that most people live below the living standard in Bangladesh. Unemployment is a common problem in this country and the garment sector seems to alleviate this issue. Kiron said that it is the largest field in terms of providing employment to people. He tells that around 50 lakh people are involved in the garment industry alone. This is equivalent to 5 million people. The sheer amount of people working on textiles alone is evidence to what a growing sector textiles has become for Bangladesh. The country has the potential to outmaneuver many other countries home to textile factories because of the evident devotion to textiles and the continued employment growth in the sector. The textile industry has benefited from the conditions in Bangladesh because of the need for employment, the migration of rural Bangladeshis to cities, and because of the low wages being paid to the workers when compared to the developed countries where these firms come from.

The MFA and Bangladesh:
Despite these favorable conditions for the development of the textile industry, Bangladesh has only recently been targeted by companies to produce textiles. January 1, 2005 marked the end of the MFA, or Multi Fiber Agreement, which had led the world of textiles and garments since 1974. The MFA imposed quotas on the amount developing countries could export to developed countries (Saxena). The quotas posed a problem for developing countries. However the EU did not impose such restrictions on these countries, one of which was Bangladesh. This gave way to a massive expansion of the RMG sector, the Ready-Made Garments sector in the country. Although Bangladesh was expected to suffer in comparison to other competitors such as China, orders for textile goods kept coming after the MFA expired and reached an expert overturn of about $10.7 U.S. dollars in the year 2007 (Saxena).

Productivity and competitiveness have been the major issues that Bangladesh has faced since the fall of the MFA. International trade strategies, international garment buyers, and international NGOs combined with coalition building among stakeholders in the sector has resulted in significant and favorable changes at both the government and factory levels. This has allowed Bangladesh to remain competitive and has resulted in an unprecedented cooperative movement. Although Bangladesh is predicted to do well in the RMG sector, in order to expand it needs to make investments in human capital and technology, rather than just reduce costs. These investments will stimulate the creation of positive working environments and will provide the needed stimulation for the industry to innovate and prosper.

In an interview for the Asia Foundation’s Economic Reform and Development Program, BGMEA (Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association) president Falzul Haq stated, “Bangladesh is doing well after the end of the MFA, but we are not satisfied. We have the potential to grow more… [the question is] do we want to do 25 million dollars of business, or stay at 10.5 million?” The year 2008 proved to be important for the garment industry. Vietnam entered the WTO in 2008, which made the country one of the largest competitors for Bangladesh and the recession in the U.S. and EU markets gave way to a decline in imports from the Bangladeshi market (Saxena).

In a study conducted in Dhaka in January and November of 2008 by the Asia Foundation for Economic Reform and Development, various groups of people were interviewed and asked their notion of competitiveness and what they thought were the key factors for success at the factory level and state level. These four groups were international buyers, government officials, factory owners and middle managers. Some factory workers were also interviewed. Although these groups had different opinions, they all ultimately agreed that productivity was the most important factor in ensuring competitiveness for the Bangladeshi market. These groups also agreed that productivity was the area that needed the most improvement (Saxena). When asked, factory workers stated that the quality of products, wages, good working conditions, healthcare, and training were factors that affected a factory’s competitiveness (Saxena).

Perception of what constitutes good working conditions has changed over time amongst factory workers. In previous years, workers wanted their basic needs such as increased wages, healthcare and safety to be met, but in more recent years, demands for respect and the yearning to be heard have risen among the workers. This has led many in the garment sector to emphasize on establishing a positive work and factory culture, motivating workers, and communicating with them (Saxena). In 2008 workers still linked productivity and increased wages. A worker stated, “If wages are increased, the quality of work will improve and more buyers will come” (Saxena).

International retailers agreed that it is cost, along with productivity, that makes a factory competitive. Reliability and pre-production assistance are also factors that were identified as pre-conditions for an international buyer to trust a factory. National labor laws and international labor standards were also mentioned as conditions for export to the U.S. and EU. Compliance to these is now considered necessary, but not sufficient, for a factory to maintain its competitiveness. Buyers mentioned an appreciation for Bangladesh’s quality amongst its entrepreneurs and its work force (Saxena).

Government assistance has become necessary in order for competitiveness in the Bangladeshi textile sector to thrive. Factory managers and international buyers agree with such aid. Both groups expressed a need for more infrastructure, trade facilitation and cost of production (Saxena). Workforce and productivity are amongst the most important factors that make Bangladesh a competitive country in the garment sector, but the poor infrastructure and working conditions are amongst its weaknesses.

Bangladesh has proved its ability to be a low cost producer of quality goods after the phasing out of the MFA. If investments in training, labor conditions, and infrastructure are made, along with producing quality items, Bangladesh will remain among the top sources for international buyers and secure its position as a top competitor in the textile industry.

Labor Laws and Conditions:
The flexibility of labor in Bangladesh is also protected by laws. Even though companies have taken advantage of the lax restrictions in Bangladesh, there have recently been laws implemented that protect workers. The recent, Labor Act 2006, and other similar policies have been established to provide workers with appropriate holidays, work hours, safety, minimum wages, and justification for dismissals. This gives workers a guarantee that their jobs are safe and that they will work in a healthy environment ( In Bangladesh the weekly holidays are Friday and Saturday. Workers typically work 8 and a half hour a day and can stop for a meal and prayer. The total work hours per week sum up to be 48 hours ( This framework helps create a standard from which workers can compare with their own jobs. It can help them make demands for fair treatment and avoid being exploited. Kiron made a point that has relevance to this issue. He recalled that there had been a series of strikes on behalf of the work unions in response to poor wages and facilities. This was a small occurrence and nothing out of the ordinary, but it demonstrates that workers have a voice in determining how they work and resolving issues in the workplace. Worker unions in Bangladesh have a lot of say in working conditions and privileges. They are usually affiliated with a political party which gives them some sort of leverage in the government ( As a result of this collective action, workers can ask for better wages r better facilities as was the matter of the aforementioned demands.

However, workers unions have not been as effective in the private sector. These unions are banned from Export Processing Zones, or EPZs, and these areas are even exempt from the labor laws. In 2004 worker association was permitted, but in 2007 this was revoked by a state of emergency and restrictions were implemented on unionization ( EPZs are even exempt from having to abide by certain labor laws ( Companies involved in the textile industry could take advantage of the labor force without having to abide by certain labor laws that would otherwise limit their ability to control cost efficiency. Having factories in Bangladesh allows them to be flexible with wages and prerequisites.

These exemptions seem to be made to attract foreign investment. Companies will want to invest in a location that can give them flexibility and a significant workforce. This particular aspect of labor combined with the current situation of the workforce in Bangladesh has generated the ideal scenario for Bangladesh to become the next large competitor for foreign investment in the world. A reliable and conscious workforce is crucial to generate a positive output. Labor in Bangladesh has several aspects that make it more attractive than labor in many other locations. Bangladesh has a large amount of workers that are educated and these workers are in need of jobs. The currency is valued much lower than the dollar making it the ideal place for cost efficiency and competitiveness. The government even provides companies the ability to waive certain labor laws in order to maximize production in EPZs and attracting even more foreign investment. Labor in Bangladesh seems to have all of the ideal characteristics for foreign investment and the continued growth of the textile industry. Bangladesh produces quality goods that cost relatively less than in other locations and has a labor force that acknowledges this type of work. This makes the country the perfect candidate in the current race to the bottom.

Trimmings :The material component except main fabric which  are used  in the garments are called trimming or accessories .Besides fabric various additional things are use for making garments .Fore the example sewing thread ,button, etc .There are two types of  trimming  .They are
(a)visible trimming&
(b) invisible trimming .Visible trimming can be seen  from outside of the garments .For example :interlining.

Some trimming used for functional purpose which is used for decorative purpose.

List of trimming used in shirt, jackets and trousers:
1.   Label 2.Motif 3.Button 4.Swing thread 5.Interling 5.Zipper7.Hook &loop fastening  9.lignin 10.Sholder pad 11.Rivte 12.Lace,braid,&elastic 13.Collar insert, butter fly, plastic clip ,buckle , pin, poly bag. Bar code .

Buttons are hardware items used in junetion with buttonholes for the fastening of garments.

The purposes of using buttons are
A) Functional purpose:

This referee to buttons which are used to open and close garments with security.
B) Decorative purpose:
These are buttons which are used purely for decorative purpose .for example, Sleeve vents.

Types of buttons:

Buttons can be classified in various types, some are mentioned below.

1 According to line  no .There are various types of buttons.Ligne is the measuring unit of button diameter .To  maser  the outer diameter  of button we use ligne  no

   1 ligne = 0.025’’ or 0.0635 mm

The button sizes are
a16 L b.18L c.24L
 d.12L e.28L f .32L g.36L
In shirts mostly we use 16L button is also used .In button (B.D) shirts 12L button are use d. Inmost  common parts 24L button  is used .Sometime times 26L snap button are also used.

2. According to the no of holes:

There are three types of button.

A) 2-hole button
B) 4-hole button
C) Special button (a) shank button (b) snap button (c) decorative button used in sleeve.

3According to material:

According to the manufacturing material there are the following types of button –

Plastic button:
This button are made of polyamide, polyester,polyacrylonitrite etc.they are cheap, not glossy and widely used in shirt.
Metal button:
They are used in denim pants, trousers etc.
Wooden button:
They are used in decorative and functional purpose
Horn button:
They are made up of horns of animals used in shirt, pants. Artificial horns are also used which are made up of nylon ,plastic and additives.
Chalk button:
It is used to make plastic glossy, used in shirt.
Printed button:
They are used only in decorative purpose. 

Rivet is not used to open or close the opening the garments .They are used for the following purpose.

a) Widely used for decorative and reinforcement purpose of denim or jeans garments.
b) It has two parts and requires an appropriate device to attach on garments.
This item consists of two woven polyamide tapes one covered with very fine hooks and the other very fine loops .When pressed together they adhere securely to each other. This fastener is used instead of zipper and button.
A Swiss inventor made this product and he offered the trade name ‘VELCRO’ for it ‘VELCRO’ come,s form two France words ‘velour’ and ‘crochet’.
It is used in only a limited number of garments like shoes, belts ,sports were children wear,madecal textile etc.

This is one kind of trimming which is use open and close of special parts of garments.


Functional purpose of zipper is as a part of a garment here zipper is used to open and close the openings.

Decorative purpose:
Where zipper is used as a decorative purpose, it inches the beauty of germens.

In making trousers and jackets , chain or zipper is in essential component which is used to open or close of special parts of garment.

Types of zipper:
According to manufacturing material there are 3 types of zipper.

1. Metal zipper:
.Metal zipper is used in trousers and shorts.

2. Polyester zipper:
Polyester or nylon zipper are used in jackets .It is made from a continuous filament paced onto narrow fabric tape.

3. Plastic - molded zipper:
This types of zipper is used in pants.

It is move up and down. Function of slider is to engage or disengage the teeth of opposite  sides of chain.

Slider mainly three types they are:-
1. Non –locking.
2. Semi-looking.
3. Full or auto locking.

Label is an attached component of garment on which important information regarding the garment are written or printed. No garment can be sold without  some kind of label attached to it .Specially in case of exporting label on a garnets  is must .For example the size of garment  trade mark country of origin type of fiber etc, are written on label There are mainly 3 types of label .
1. Main label:
Main label contains brand name or trade name of buyer which is registered by the buyer .For example Levis .Polo, lee etc.
2. Size label:
Indicate the size of garment I e L, M, XL, XXL or collar length of shirt 15,16,17,18 etc.

3. Care label:
It indicates the care instruction of the garment by some internationally recognized signs. It shows the washing, drying, dry-cleaning, and ironing conditions of garments. The all other labels are called sub –labels.

The special component which is attached outside of the garement for decorative purpose is called motife.Company  name ,trade mark or other symbols can be written on the motif.

Hangtags are designed to draw attention to the garments and are hung on the side of the garments and sometimes in front of button line so that the customers can see them easily .Hangtags are printed paper tags hung from the garments by plastic staple or string. They usually show the brand name, style no, etc. It is regarded as finishing accessories, not sewing accessories.

Lining are generally a functional part of garment .They are used to maintain the shape of  a garment  to the hang and comfort by allowing it to slide over other garment .Lining  are are available as knitted and woven fabric made from polyester  .polyamide .acetate, viscose for use where slippery  material  is required and from cotton, polyester cotton wool where decoration and worm handle is required. Linings are joined to main garment by sewing and for this purpose normal plain swing machines are used. Lining are widely used in jackets coats overcoats pockets flaps children wear etc .Genaraleycheap fabrics are used as lining material.

Interlining are used to support reinforce and control the shape of some areas of garments such as collar, cuffs, waist bands ,facings and in front of corts .They may be sewn into the garments or they may be attached by the fusing .Nowadays sewn interlining are hardly used and usable interlinings are widely used.
Interlining is available in a wide variety of weights and constructions to mach the fabric of garment. They can be woven non –woven product .Woven interlining are most commonly of plain weave construction, whereas non-woven interlining are made directly from textile fibers and are held together by mechanical ,chemical ,thermal or solvent means or combination of these.
Swing interlining is made by swing .Some plies of fabrics together by swing densely then it is joined with main garments by swing. Where fusible interlines have coating       
of thermoplastic material on them and are joined to the garment by adhering them with the help of pressure and heat. Fusible interlining give better result then that of sewn ones.

Shoulder pad:
Shoulder pad is a standard item in tailored garments both for women and for men. Linings are used on the top and bottom of shoulder pad.As a result the appearance become beautiful ,comfortable and  lasts for long time.
Shoulder pads are for functional purpose and some times for decorative purpose.

Quality of trimmings:
Trimmings may be of textile materials or non-textile materials. They should be selected carefully to get desired performance. The quality of trimmings are described below-

1. Lifetime:
The life time of garments and that of the trimming should be equal .Otherwise the trimming will be faded or spoiled by washing, pressing, ironing, rubbing.
 2. Shrinkage:
The appearance of the garment may be hampered if the accessories shrink due to ironing, washing or pressing. Fore example seam pueker will be result in if the sewing thread shrinks. So the shrink ability of the dress material and the trimming should be checked earlier.

3. Color fastness:
The fastness properties of accessories should be good. The color of trimming should not be faded due to washing or exposure to sunlight. The appearance of garment will be hampered if the trimming materials are faded.

4. Rust:
Where items are made from metal, the main construction is the problem of rusting. The button, clamp, rivets etc may be made up the metals like iron, brass, steel etc .If rusting  occurs they will create spot on garment. So to avoid this problem the metal trimmings should be electroplated or they should be made up of non-rusting materials.

5. Comfortability:
Trimming should not create any uncomfortable felling to the wearer .They should be hygienic also as to cause no skin disease.

Textile science, events, trade and issues / Parachute Fabric Properties
« on: September 01, 2013, 09:29:04 PM »
Parachute Fabric
A parachute fabric is specifically designed for parachutes. Due to its high strength and longevity, a parachute fabric is immensely used in parachutes. Parachutes were once made from silk but now they are almost always constructed from more durable woven nylon fabric, sometimes coated with a - silicone - zero porosity coating to improve performance and consistency over time.
Parachute fabric has been ruling the parachute world for long time and no competitor appears to be displacing it form the top spot in near future. Parachutes are made with great prudence using parachute fabrics that are in tune with various new technologies. As manufactured to suit the requirement of most discerning people, the parachute fabric capable of impressing anyone

Fabric for canopy
Suggested material is lightweight ripstop nylon. For the prototype parachute that I constructed, I simply used a nylon shower curtain, which was nearly ideal, the only drawbacks being it was not ripstop and that it was somewhat heavier fabric than was necessary. It had a nice tight weave, not surprisingly, since it's intended purpose dictates that it be water-resistant! The following table lists the specifications for commercial parachute fabrics, as well as for the fabric that I used for the prototype parachute:
Parachute Fabric Properties
CODE   TYPE   (oz/sq.yd.)   (per in.)   (per in.)   (in)   (lbs)   (lbs/in)   (CFM/sq.ft)
498E   D   0.88   90   90   N.A.   2.5   40   300-500
498E   G   0.88   90   90   N.A.   2.5   40   100-325
7020H   I   1.10   120   120   0.003   5.0   42   80-120
7020H   II   1.60   120   120   0.004   5.0   50   100-160
44378   I   1.17   126   132   0.003   5.0   45   0-5
*   *   1.81   80   100   0.004   N.A.   47   N.A.
*  IKEAtm, Billingen shower curtain (white) or Rosanna (off-white), 180x200 cm.; p/n 17763 (Billigen), 14331 (Rosanna), $14.50 CAD (sufficient fabric to make two 1-metre diameter canopies). Fabric for both is identical (100% nylon). The latter has a water-repellant coating, but this can be eliminated (before dyeing) by washing the fabric in hot water with laundry detergent. Properties listed for this fabric were determined by measurement and/or testing.
Fabric Dye
One half of the quantity of fabric that was used to make the canopy was dyed red. The dye used was:
•   RIT tm, tint & dye, #5 scarlet, one 32 gram package, $1.77 CAD.
Cord for shroud lines
The type that I used was braided nylon cord, the kind that is sold in the camping department of stores. The specific type that I used was:
•   World Famoustm, p/n 3150, 15 m. package, $2.47 CAD.
The approximate width and thickness of the cord, measured under light tension loading, are :
•   width = 0.175 in. (4.5 mm)
•   thickness = 0.050 in. (1.27 mm)
and the cord tested breaking strength is:
•   Breaking strength = 185 lbs (822 N.) average
Sewing thread
The thread that was used for machine stitching the canopy together and for sewing the shroud lines to the canopy was the following:
•   Coats tm, 100% nylon upholstery thread, 137 m. spool, $2.79 CAD
The measured diameter, and tested breaking strength of the thread are:
•   Diameter = 0.013 in. (0.33 mm)
•   Breaking strength = 9 lb. (40 N.) average
Seam Binding
The seam binding that was used to join the canopy panels was as follows:
•   Wrights tm, Iron On Hem Tape, 100% polyester, PC22, 2.75 m. package, $1.97 CAD

which is identical to the
•   Wrights tm, "Soft and Easy" Seam binding, 100% polyester, PC16, 2.75 m. package, $1.97 CAD

except that the hem tape has heat activated adhesive to facilitate the joining process.
The measured dimensions and tested breaking strength are:
•   width = 0.525 in. (13 mm)
•   thickness = 0.005 in. (0.13 mm)
•   Breaking strength (longitudinal) = 61 lbs (271 N.) average
•   Breaking strength (transverse) = 46 lbs/in (81 N/cm.) minimum

Business Administration / What is a Bottleneck ?
« on: December 09, 2012, 12:15:46 AM »
A bottleneck in a process occurs when input comes in faster than the next step can use it to create output. The term compares assets (information, materials, products, man-hours) with water. When water is poured out of a bottle, it has to pass through the bottle's neck, or opening. The wider the bottle's neck, the more water (input/assets) you can pour out. The smaller, or narrower, the bottle's neck, the less you can pour out – and you end up with a back-up, or "bottleneck."
There are two main types of bottlenecks:
1.   Short-term bottlenecks – These are caused by temporary problems. A good example is when key team members become ill or go on vacation. No one else is qualified to take over their projects, which causes a backlog in their work until they return.
2.   Long-term bottlenecks – These occur all the time. An example would be when a company's month-end reporting process is delayed every month, because one person has to complete a series of time-consuming tasks – and he can't even start until he has the final month-end figures.
Identifying and fixing bottlenecks is highly important. They can cause a lot of problems in terms of lost revenue, dissatisfied customers, wasted time, poor-quality products or services, and high stress in team members.
How to Identify Bottlenecks
Identifying bottlenecks in manufacturing is usually pretty easy. On an assembly line, you see when products pile up at a certain point. In business processes, however, they can be harder to find.
Start with yourself. Is there a routine or situation that regularly causes stress in your day? These frustrations can actually be a significant indicator that a bottleneck exists somewhere.
For example, imagine that you're responsible for reviewing a report that another team member creates each week. Once you're done, you give it to another team member, who has to post the report on your company's intranet. Due to your workload, however, the report often sits on your desk for hours – so the next person down the line sometimes has to stay later at the end of the day to post it on time. This causes a lot of stress for you as well as your colleague. In this scenario, you're the bottleneck.
Here are some other signs of bottlenecks:
•   Long wait times – For example, your work is delayed because you're waiting for a product, a report, or more information. Or materials spend time waiting between steps of a business or manufacturing process.
•   Backlogged work – There's too much work piled up at one end, and not enough at the other end.
•   High stress levels.
Two tools are useful in helping you identify bottlenecks:
1. Flow Charts:
Use a flow chart to help you identify where bottlenecks are occurring. Flow charts break down a system by detailing every step in the process in an easy-to-follow diagrammatic flow. Once you map out a process, it's much easier to see where there might be a problem. Sit down and identify each step that your process needs to function well.
For example, in the trucking scenario we mentioned earlier, a flow chart might look like this:
•   Step 1 – Goods are manufactured at the factory.
•   Step 2 – Goods are loaded onto the truck.
•   Step 3 – The warehouse is notified about the truck's arrival time.
•   Step 4 – The warehouse schedules a forklift for the expected arrival time.
•   Step 5 – The truck arrives at the warehouse, and unloading starts.
In this case, the delay occurred because Steps 3 and 4 were missing, and this led to a long wait between Steps 2 and 5. Creating the flow chart before investigating the problem would have helped you quickly see where your process broke down.

Suppose, you receive a yarn dyed t-shirt order from buyer. Details as below

Style: 100% cotton, Single jersey, 160 gsm yarn dyed round neck t-shirt.
Color:  Beige/Navy (only one combo)
Quantity: 10,000 pcs (in four sizes, S, M, L & XL)
Stripe: Beige 7 cm & Navy 1.5 cm (Total 8.5 cm)

Body length: 73 cm
Sleeve length: 19.5 cm
½ Chest: 52 cm

Consumption: 2.78 kgs/dozen (considering total wastage 18%) you may use this for pricing. Normally the wastage of yarn dyed garments depends on styling. 
Normal wastage for yarn dyed:
Dyeing (yarn) wastage: 6%
Knitting wastage: 3%
Wash wastage: 5%
So, you should need 116 kgs yarn to produce 100 kgs fabric

But be careful, during the bulk yarn booking you should booked the yarn based on the consumption you got by using pattern & marka. Some time I saw buyer asked for match the body stripe with sleeve then the cutting wastage become more than 5%.

We know the body length is 73 cm
Where, beige color stripe is 7 cm
And Navy color stripe is 1.5 cm
Then total length of one repetition is 8.5 cm
So, we need total (73/8.5) = 8.58824 repletion to complete a body (but here we will count 9 repetition for cutting & sewing wastage.)

So, total sum of Navy stripe will be (1.5 cm X 8.58824) = 12.8824 cm
And total sum of Beige color stripe will be (7 cm X 8.58824) = 60.1177 cm
So, 12.8824 cm + 60.1177 cm = 73 cm (total body length)

Now we just calculate the percentage of each color in a body

Navy color percentage in the body will be

= (12.8824 ÷ 73) %
= 17.65 %

= (60.1177÷73) %
= 82.35 %

= 17.65 + 82.35

= 100 %

So, now if the consumption is 2.78 kg


Navy color will be = 0.49067 kg ( 2.78 kg X 17.65% )
And Beige color will be = 2.28933 kg ( 2.78 kg X 82.35% )

In this above way you can booked the yarn

Hope everything is clear to all.

Business Administration / costing technique in clothing industry
« on: December 09, 2012, 12:01:05 AM »
In order to achieve perfect garment costing, one must know about all the activities including purchase of fabrics, sewing, packing, transport, overheads, etc and also about their costs, procedures, advantages and risk factors, advocates C Vigneswaran.
The Indian textile and apparel industry is very large and diverse, employing 35 million people and accounting for 27 per cent of the country's exports. The apparel industry plays a pivotal role as a key driver of the national economy and has grown to be the most significant contributor to the country's economy over nearly three decades of its existence. However, during last 10 years, the industry's actions, government policies as well as market events have begun to converge, providing several growth opportunities for the sector domestically as well as in the global market.
As the MFA quota-regime ended, India presented many opportunities for buyers, suppliers and investors to collaborate with its textile industry, and to profit from the partnership. While the industry recorded a remarkable growth in a protected market environment, it faces a series of challenges that have come to the fore in the post-quota situation, notably in areas such as:
   Price competitiveness.
   Faster lead times.
   High raw material base.
   Full service offering.
   Access to market. "A Cost is the value of economic resources used as a result of producing or doing the things costed".
Garments costing
There are two types of garments, namely woven and knitted garments. Shirt, trouser, sarees, bed spreads, blankets, towels and made ups are woven. T-shirts, sweaters, undergarments, pyjamas and socks are knits.
Costing is the deciding factor for fixing of prices and the important thing to follow in all stages like purchase, production, marketing, sales, etc. Also update knowledge about everything related to garments, is essential to make perfect costing.
Costing includes all the activities like purchase of fabrics and accessories, processing and finishing of fabrics, sewing and packing of garments, transport and conveyance, shipping, over heads, banking charges and commissions, etc.
We must be aware that there are always fluctuations in the costs of raw materials and accessories, charges of knitting, processing, finishing, sewing and packing, charges of transport and conveyance. The method of making costing will vary from style to style. As there are many different styles in garments. Hence let us take men's basic T-shirt style as example which is in regular in use.
To find out the costing of a garment, the following things should things be calcuated:
   Fabric consumption.
   Gross weight of other components of garment.
   Fabric cost per kg.
   Fabric cost per garment.
   Other charges (print, embroidery, etc).
   Cost of trims (labels, tags, badges, twill tapes, buttons, bows, etc).
   CMT charges.
   Cost of accessories (hangers, inner boards, polybags, cartons, etc).
   Cost of a garment.
   Price of a garment.
Fabric consumption
The garments manufactured in many sizes to fit for everybody. Generally they are in sizes Small (S), Medium (M), Large (L), Extra large (XL) and Double Extra Large (XXL). The quantity ratio or assortment can be any one of the following approximate ratio.
S: M: L: XL: XXL - 1:2:2:2:1
S: M: L: XL: XXL - 1:2:1:2:1
S: M: L: XL: XXL - 1:2:3:2:2
As the price is the same for all these sizes of garments, the author have taken the centre size large(L) for average calculation. Generally, the quantity of L size will be higher or equal to the quantity of each of other sizes.
Men's Basic T-shirt
Description: Men's Basic T-shirt-short sleeves- 100% Cotton 140 GSM Single jersey - 1 x 1 ribs at neck - solid dyed - light, medium and dark colours in equal ratio.
Sizes: S, M, L, XL, XXL Ratio: 1: 2: 2: 2: 1
Export carton: 7 ply -120 GSM virgin corrugated - sea worthy. Cartons are to be strapped with 2 nylon straps.
Measurements in cm: (Finished garment)
Size: L
Chest - 60 cm
Length - 78 cm
Sleeve length - 24 cm
Neck rib width - 3 cm Hem - 3 cm
Patterns are generally made with the seam allowance and cutting allowance. Generally, 12 cm is added with the total of body length and sleeve length.
That is,
Fabric consumption =(Body length + Sleeve length + allowance) * (Chest + allowance) * 2 * GSM
 = (70 + 24 + 12) * (60 + 3) * 2 * 140
= 187 grams
Body & Sleeves : 187 grams
Neck rib : 10 grams (approximately)
Gross weight : 197 grams Therefore, the fabric consumption per garment is 197 grams.
Gross weight & net weight

The above weight is the gross weight of fabric. It means the weight of the fabric bits cut in tubular form without taking shapes is called gross weight. This is the consumed fabric for the particular garment. Hence costing is to be made as per this gross weight. The weight of the cut pieces after taking the shape according to the pattern is called net weight of fabric.
Fabric cost per kg (in Rs) (all charges approximately)
Cost of fabric per kg is calculated and given in
Particulars   Light colours   Medium colours   Dark colours
34's combed yarn   Rs.135.00    Rs.135.00    Rs.135.00
Knitting charge    Rs.8.00    Rs.8.00    Rs.8.00
Dyeing charge    Rs.35.00    Rs.45.00    Rs.55.00
Compacting charge    Rs.6.00    Rs.6.00    Rs.6.00
Fabric wastage @ 5%    Rs.9.20    Rs.9.70    Rs.10.70
Fabric cost per kg    Rs.193.20    Rs.203.70    Rs.224.70
Fabric consumption per garment    197 gms    197 gms    197 gms
Fabric cost per garment    Rs.38.06    Rs.40.13    Rs.44.27
Cost of trims
The accessories which are attached to the garments are called Trims.
Now the author have taken Men's Basic T-shirts, as example. Let us see what are the trims required for this style.
Labels: Woven main label (2.5 cm width x 7 cm length): Rs 0.35
Polyester printed wash care label: Single colour print: Rs 0.10
Hang tag: Rs 0.40
So the total cost of trims is Rs 0.85 per garment.

Cost of accessories:
Polybags: Normal - Rs 0.30 per garment
Master Polybag: Rs 2 per master polybags to contain 8 garments - Rs 0.25 per garment.
Export carton: Normal: Rs 40 per carton to contain 48 garments - Rs 0.80 per garment.
So the total cost of accessories is Rs 1.35 per garment.
Garment costing
Now we at last have to take the step to find out the freight charges for the Men's Basic T-shirt. Price of garment estimation is given in Table 2.
Table 2: The freight charges for the Men's Basic T-shirt. Price of garment estimation is given
Particulars   Light colours   Medium colours   Dark colours
34's combed yarn   Rs.135.00    Rs.135.00    Rs.135.00
Fabric cost per garment    Rs.38.06    Rs.40.13    Rs.44.27
Cost of Trims    Rs.0.85    Rs.0.85    Rs.0.85
CMT Charges    Rs.11.00    Rs.11.00    Rs.11.00
Cost of accessories    Rs.1.35    Rs.1.35    Rs.1.35
Rejection of garments (commonly 3%)    Rs.1.50    Rs.1.50    Rs.1.50
Cost of Garment    Rs.52.76    Rs.54.83    Rs.58.97
Local Transport    Rs.1.00     Rs.1.00    Rs.1.00
Profit@15% appro.    Rs.7.90    Rs.8.20    Rs.8.90
Commission/ pc     Rs.2.00    Rs.2.00    Rs.2.00
Price of Garment    Rs.63.66    Rs.66.03    Rs.70.87

Shipping charges
For men's basic T-shirt, the delivery terms in the buyer enquiry as 'FOB'. So sea freight charges is not added. But the local transport with the cost of garment has to be added. Finally, we have to convert the Indian rupee value to USD or Euro.

Note: For detailed version of this article please refer the print version of The Indian Textile Journal May 2009 issue.
C Vigneswaran.
Lecturer, Daprtment of Textile of Fashion Technology,
PSG College of Technology,
Coimbatore 641 004.

Science and Information / some IE formula use in garments production
« on: November 19, 2012, 12:36:53 AM »

Capacity = 60 / Capacity time in minute

    Cycle Time
Cycle Time = 60 / Team target

    Team target
Team target = (Work hour/SMV) * Present operator * Organizational efficiency

    Capacity Achievable
Capacity Achievable = Capacity * Balance

Balance = BPT / Bottle neck time (BNT)

    Standard time
Standard time = Net operation time * (1 + Ratio of loss time)

    Daily output
Daily output = Work hour / SMV

    Factory capacity
Factory capacity = (Work hour / SMV) * Total worker * Working day * Efficiency

CPM = (Total over head cost of the month / No of SMV earners * Work minutes) *Efficiency 

    Required no of operator
Required no of operator = Target daily output / Daily output per operator

    CM of garments
CM of garments = Total production / (No of worker * Work hour)

    Marker Efficiency
Marker Efficiency = (Total area of marker / Total area of lay) * 100

    CPD (Consumption per dozen)
CPD = Marker length * Marker width * GSM * 12 / (1000 * 100 * 100 * Total marker pc’s)


Textile science, events, trade and issues / Re: online notice board
« on: November 07, 2012, 01:34:07 AM »
thanks for update the info.

   Why recycle ???

So the important question is: why recycle textiles? The global issues surrounding the environment and the contentious use of landfill has never been more prominent and I&G Cohen are determined to divert as much textile waste as possible from landfill sites.

Did You Know?

    Over 1 million tonnes of textiles are thrown away every year mostly from domestic sources, of which only 25% are recycled.
    Textiles represent between 3% - 5% of household waste.
    Estimates for arising of textile waste vary between 550,000 - 900,000 tonnes each year.
    Recycling textiles can save up to 15 times the energy recoverable by incineration.
    Textiles make up 12% of landfill sites
    In one year discarded clothing would fill Old Trafford Football Stadium
    If everyone in the UK bought one reclaimed woollen garment each year, it would save an average of 371 million gallons of water, (the average UK reservoir holds about 300 million gallons) and 480 tonnes of chemical dyestuffs- (source: evergreen)
    There are about 6,000 textile banks nationwide, but clothes banks are only operating at about 25% capacity
    Over 70% of the world's population use second hand clothes
    Discarded clothing and shoes are typically sent to landfill. Textiles present particular problems in landfill. Synthetic (man-made fibres) products do not decompose. Woollen garments do decompose, but in doing so they produce methane, which contributes to global warming and climate change. This is an ominous warning which only highlights the importance of recycling in textiles.

What are the benefits of recycling?

When asking why recycle textiles there are further benefits that extend outside the immediate environmental positives. Recycling in textiles in the UK provides an affordable source of clothing to disadvantaged people in the developing world and emerging countries in Eastern Europe. In many of these countries it also provides the basis of economic growth by providing employment for much of the population.

Alan Wheeler of the Textile Recycling Association confirms this when he says this "clothing recycling is not only good for the environment, but also that it has an important social and economic role to play. The benefits extend to the UK where we estimate that private textile reclamation businesses employ around 5 - 10,000 people, with a further 9,500 employed in UK charity shops. The public and politicians should be fully aware of the crucial contributions this industry makes to the world economy and sustainable development."

Our work at I&G also provides a help to local authorities and local communities. For example local councils such as Gateshead Council currently pay about £30 for every tonne of material sent to landfill. If we multiply this by waste produced by Gateshead residents' last year, then the 115,000 tonnes of gives a waste disposal bill of over £2 million pounds. We can help these local councils save money particularly during this current economic climate by diverting textile waste from landfill and therefore cutting local council’s waste expenditure.

On a positive note according to DEFRA, in 2008-9 the total waste collected from the UK's 25m households dropped slightly to 24.3m tonnes. Of this, 9.1m tonnes were recycled. Almost all of the remainder went to landfill. A DEFRA spokesman claims, "We can't keep on sending textile waste to landfill, People are already reducing the amount of waste they produce, and are reusing and recycling more, and we are working hard to increase this,"

What Can I Do?

Take your used clothes to a textile recycling bank. Contact the recycling officer in your local authority if there are no banks in your area and ask why not? They may collect textiles through other means.

Or next time one of our care2collect bags comes through your door put some of your unwanted clothing in and we will happily collect your used goods, averting textile waste from landfill whilst working on behalf of a number of worthwhile charities.

বছর ঘুরে আবার ফলের রাজা আমের মৌসুম এসেছে, আমরা যারা সামর্থ্যবান, তারা যেকোনো সময়ই নিতে পারছি এই মধুফলটির স্বাদ, কিন্তু যারা পথশিশু, যাদের গায়ে কোনো জামাকাপড় নেই, তারা আম তো দুরের কথা, ঠিক-ঠাক মতন ভাত-ই খেতে পারেনা। তাদের ঐ শতক্লান্ত মুখে হাসির রেখা মুছে গেছে অনেক আগেই। আমাদের লক্ষ্য একটা দিনের জন্য হলেও তাদের মুখে হাসি ফোটানো, একদিনের জন্য হলেও তাদের খালি হাত দুটি রসাল ফল দিয়ে ভরে দেয়া...
এর আগে আমরা ঢাকা ও চট্টগ্রামে পথশিশুদের মাঝে আম বিতরণ করেছিলাম, এবারো তার ব্যতিক্রম হবেনা, এবার ঢাকা ও চট্টগ্রামের পাশাপাশি খুলনা জেলাতেও পথশিশুদের মুখে হাসি ফোটানো হবে..

বিগত দুই বছরের মতো এবারও ফেসবুক গ্রুপ "Amra Khati Gorib..."-এর উদ্যোগে শুরু হয়েছে পথশিশুদের মাঝে আম বিতরণ কার্যক্রম। আপনিও সহায়তা করতে পারেন এই কার্যক্রমে।
২৮ জুনের মধ্যে আপনার আর্থিক সহায়তা পৌঁছে দিন নিচের ঠিকানায়:

Account Name: Rohit Hasan Kislu
Account Number: 110.101.97783
Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited

Science Discussion Forum / Trimmings of accessories...
« on: June 20, 2012, 08:39:07 AM »

This is one kind of trimming which is use open and close of special parts of garments.

Functional purpose of zipper is as a part of a garment here zipper is used to open and close the openings.

Decorative purpose:
Where zipper is used as a decorative purpose, it inches the beauty of germens.

In making trousers and jackets , chain or zipper is in essential component which is used to open or close of special parts of garment.

Types of zipper:
According to manufacturing material there are 3 types of zipper.

1. Metal zipper:
.Metal zipper is used in trousers and shorts.

2. Polyester zipper:
Polyester or nylon zipper are used in jackets .It is made from a continuous filament paced onto narrow fabric tape.

3. Plastic - molded zipper:
This types of zipper is used in pants.

It is move up and down. Function of slider is to engage or disengage the teeth of opposite  sides of chain.

Slider mainly three types they are:-
1. Non –locking.
2. Semi-looking.
3. Full or auto locking.

মুঠোফোনে বাংলা পড়বেন বা লিখবেন কিভাবে: ??? ???
বাংলাদেশে ইন্টারনেট ব্যবহারকারীদের অর্ধেকের বেশী মুঠোফোনে ইন্টারনেট ব্যবহার করেন। এদের মধ্যে নব্বই ভাগই মুঠোফোনে ফন্টস সমস্যার কারনে বাংলায় কিছু পড়তে পারেন না, লিখতে পারেন না। ফলে সার্বক্ষনিক নেটের সাথে যুক্ত থাকা সত্বেও অনলাইন নিউজ পেপার পড়তে পারেন না। কোন আপডেট নিউজ পান না। যে কোন মোবাইলে ইন্টারনেটে বাংলায় পত্রিকা পড়তে একটি জনপ্রিয়তম সহজ উপায় নিচে দেওয়া হলো।

১। মোবাইলে অপেরামিনি ( ডাউনলোড করে নিন। যাদের মোবাইলে অপেরা আছে তারা নতুন করে ডাউনলোড করার দরকার নেই।

২। অপেরার address বক্সে গিয়ে পুরো ঘরটি clear করে তাতে লিখুন Opera:config । এর OK বা Go to দিন।

৩। একটি page আসলে তার নিচের দিকে নামুন। একেবারে নিচে Use bitmap image in complex fonts লেখা আছে তার ডান পাশে NO লেখা, আপনি Yes করে দিন।

৪। Pageটির আরেকটু নিচে নামলে Save লেখা দেখবেন। আপনি এবার Save দিয়ে বের হয়ে আসুন।

যাদের মোবাইলে বাংলা দেখা যায় কিন্তু লিখা যায় না। তারা পানিনি বাংলা নামে একটি এপ্লিকেশন ব্যবহার করে খুব সহজে মোবাইলে বাংলা লিখতে পারেন। থেকে সফটওয়্যারটি ডাউনলোড করতে পারেন। বাংলায় এসএমএস দিতে পারবেন। ফেসবুক বা টুইটারে দিতে পারবেন বাংলায় স্ট্যাটাস।

কিভাবে কাজ করবেন :
১। পানিনি বাংলা নামের এপ্লিকেশন টি অন করলেই স্ক্রীনে বাংলা কী-প্যাড দেখাবে। আপনার কাঙ্খিত অক্ষরটি না থাকলে নেক্সট বাটনে ক্লিক করুন।

২। মেসেজ লেখা শেষ হলে “অপশন” গিয়ে “পাঠান/দেখুন” যান।

৩। লেখাটি ফেসবুকে বা অন্য কোথাও ব্যবহার করতে পুরো লেখাটি “Mark All” দিয়ে “Copy” করে নেন। এরপর এপ্লিকেশন থেকে বের হয়ে গেলেও লেখাটি ফেসবুক বা অন্যকোথাও যেখানে দরকার সেখানে এডিট করার সময় অপশন এ গিয়ে `paste’ করে দিলে আপনার লেখাটি পেয়ে যাবেন।

৪। যুক্তাক্ষর ব্যবহারের জন্য কম্পিউটারের মতোই ভেঙে লিখতে হবে। যেমন : ক্ত= ক+ হসন্ত চিহ্ন +ত, ল্ল= ল+ হসন্ত চিহ্ন +ল, “য” ফলা লিখতে হসন্ত চিহ্ন দিয়ে তারপর “য” লিখুন। একই ভাবে (র্ ) রেফ লিখতে ( ) হসন্ত চিহ্ন দিয়ে র লিখতে হবে, এভাবেই যুক্তাক্ষর লিখতে হবে। যারা কম্পিউটারে কাজ করে তারা ব্যাপারটা ভালো ভাবে জানেন আশা করি।

এই লিঙ্কটি থেকে সরাসরি ডাউনলোড করতে পারেন।


Departments / Re: One of my paper which published from Singapore
« on: June 17, 2012, 01:42:55 AM »
 Congratulations sir...

Health Tips / Need To known for All
« on: June 02, 2012, 09:35:38 AM »
High Blood Cholesterol....!! :'(
Cholesterol is one of the important elements in the body. Produced in the liver, it is a yellowish fatty substance which performs functions such as transportation of fat, providing defense mechanism, protecting red blood cells and muscular membrane of the body. Cholesterol is also produced from the food which is consumed. The normal level of cholesterol varies between 150 - 200 mg per 100 ml, an increase in which, results in high cholesterol. The most common symptoms of high blood cholesterol are general fatigue, excess sweating and feel of uneasiness, pain and heaviness in chest area and breathlessness. Excessive smoking and alcohol consumption, eating high fat diet, obesity and heredity factors are some of the causes for high cholesterol. However, high cholesterol can be controlled at home using certain home remedies. Learn more on how to treat high cholesterol naturally.

Hypercholesterolemia, or high cholesterol, is a condition wherein fatty deposits develop in the blood vessels. Cholesterol is used by the body to build healthy cells as well as some vital hormones. When more and more of these deposits accumulate, it becomes difficult for enough blood to flow through the arteries, thus decreasing the oxygen in the blood stream. Eventually, such a condition increases the risk of a heart attack and can cause brain stroke. Consumption of wrong type of food is the largest contributor of high cholesterol in a person. To know more about the causes and symptoms of high cholesterol, read the following lines.

Causes Of High Cholesterol

    Heredity factors
    Excess weight
    Lack of physical activity/exercise
    Eating too much saturated fat
    Excessive smoking
    Drinking too much alcohol
    Certain diseases
    Certain medication

Symptoms Of High Cholesterol
High cholesterol has no symptoms. A blood test is the only way to detect high cholesterol. The symptoms that can be seen are actually the effect of high cholesterol on the health of a person. These include coronary disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Home remedy for High Cholesterol

    The best home remedy to cure a person with high cholesterol is to have at least 8-10 glasses of water per day.
    Immerse 2 tablespoons of coriander seeds in a glass of water. Boil the concoction and allow it to cool. Strain the water and have it three times a day.
    Take 10 pieces of cinnamon sticks and put them in a pot containing 5 teacups of water. Boil the water and then add a tablespoon of honey to it. Drink this concoction when it’s warm.
    In a glassful of milk, add a piece of garlic and boil it. Allow it to cool before drinking. Consume this for a few days. Not only would it reduce cholesterol, but also take care of the cardiac pains.
    Alternatively, a person who has problems of high cholesterol can also have 2-3 cloves of garlic per day.
    Mix 10-12 tablespoons of apple juice and 5-6 tablespoons of apple cider vinegar. Intake this mixture once a day.
    Consuming raw onions or onion juice is also beneficial in reducing the high cholesterol.
    Regular exercising is very necessary to keep the cholesterol levels under control.
    In green leafy salads, mix a small amount of olive oil. It proves beneficial lessening the high cholesterol levels as well as for the proper functioning of the heart and the body.
    Persons suffering from high cholesterol should have foods rich in fiber such as raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, broccoli, green beans, etc.
    Consume lots of almonds and walnuts. These are helpful in reducing the cholesterol levels.
    Chewing sweet neem is also beneficial in lowering the high cholesterol levels.
    Having fenugreek seeds and sprouts helps to reduce the high cholesterol levels.
    Persons suffering from high cholesterol levels should have a small bowl of curd everyday. Curd acts favorably in reducing the cholesterol levels.
    Another effective natural remedy to treat high cholesterol levels would be to have foods rich in lecithin such as egg yolk, vegetable oils, whole grain cereals, soybeans and un-pasteurized milk.
    It is advisable to have food prepared from sunflower seeds instead of butter and saturated oil. This is highly beneficial in regulating the cholesterol levels

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