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Topics - librarian

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1
Library of DIU / DIU Library at Daffodil Smart City: An Overview
« on: July 17, 2021, 10:41:46 AM »
Knowledge is needed to make life beautiful by refreshing and expanding the mind. Reading books is one of the ways to know yourself. Reading books independently is essential for students' freedom of reading and freedom of thought. Which later played a practical role in the formation of the country and the nation. And you need a library to read books independently.

The library is the lifeblood of an educational institution and the bearer of knowledge. The more developed the library, the more developed the country.

Realizing this, Daffodil International University, Daffodil Smart City, Ashulia, near the capital Dhaka, has established a Daffodil International University Library with an area of ​​one lakh ten thousand (110,000) square feet. Where all the knowledge of the world, including academic books, such as history, religion, politics, economics, culture, culture, etc., are arranged in layers on top of all the new and old alluring books. The collection of books in this library is very good, in total there is a huge collection of about one lakh (100,000) books. Everyone in the DIU community can be a member of this library. The system of reading books while sitting is also quite nice, 650 users can use this library at a time, there is an opportunity to take books home as a member.
The library has several sections such as Circulation, Cataloging, and Processing, Main Stack, Reference and Reserve, Newspaper and Periodical, Archives and Audio Visual Materials to provide smooth and efficient library services.

In addition, Bangabandhu's glorious contribution was not only in liberating a nation but also in leading the task of building the golden Bengal of his dreams. Which will play a role in bridging the gap between the new generation and the true history of Bangladesh.

In addition to traditional library services, e-library services are currently the most popular. There is also an e-resource browsing center. This e-library includes e-books, e-journals, e-magazines, A-Z Database including UGC, UDL, and e-resources subscribed to various national and international consortiums. Even in this corona situation, library services do not stop using contemporary library software. Through OpenAthens, users of this library can access e-resources from anywhere in the world. There is a search system through VuFind due to which there is no need to search in separate databases. Besides, there is KOHA, DSpace. Turnitin software is used to verify the authenticity of the research reports of students and researchers.

Just as there are opportunities to read books in private in different parts of the library, there is also a 'Cafe Library' in another corner, where students can read a book while sipping a mug of coffee or eating something light. There is free WiFi browsing for readers throughout the library. Which has become a dream world for book lovers in the Daffodil community.

There is no alternative to reading books and sports to keep the young generation and youth free from various crimes including drugs. Therefore, in order to make the library accessible to the readers, different groups regularly organize ‘lesson-chats’ for the purpose of exchanging reading experiences, feelings, perceptions, and opinions of the readers.
People's mental excellence, transparency in work, social responsibility, improved living — above all, I want the library to know myself.

2
The academic library aims to provide academic support and research reference at the right information to the users. At present education systems cross the boundary of users’ expectations. Users expect to learn a new arena of education that will be enjoyable and where sound, photographs, and teaching techniques can all come together and follow during the learning mood of the time.  DIU library is thinking of a new arena of education to expose these services and facilities and enhance the users' attraction to come to the library.

In this connection, the DIU library will add an attractive CinePlex for the users and fulfill users’ other needs. It will include education-based documentaries, movies, theater, and renowned experts’ opinions on particular topics. Users will be utilized by the CinePlex as their need with the cooperation of the Head of the department.

3
Library of DIU / হজ বাতিলের ইতিহাস
« on: April 05, 2020, 03:43:36 PM »
এবারও যদি হজ্ব বন্ধ হয়, সেটা হবে খুবই দুঃখজনক একটা ঘটনা। কিন্তু একইসাথে এটাও লক্ষ্যণীয়, অতীতেও হজ্ব বাতিল হয়েছিল।  বিভিন্ন সংবাদ মাধ্যমে প্রকাশিত সংবাদে; ১৭৯৮ সালের কথা উল্লেখ করা হলেও বাস্তবে ১৭৯৮ সালে হজ বন্ধ ছিল এমন কোন তথ্য পাওয়া যায়নি.

হজ বাতিলের ইতিহাস[1]

প্রথমবার বাতিল হয়েছিল ৮৬৫ খ্রিস্টাব্দে, আব্বাসীয়দের সময়, ইসমাঈল বিন ইউসুফের মক্কা আক্রমণের কারণে।

এরপর বন্ধ হয়েছিল ৯৩০ সালে। কট্টর শিয়া গ্রুপ কারমাতিদের আক্রমণে সে বছর ৩০,০০০ হাজি শহিদ হয়েছিল। তারা হাজিদেরকে হত্যা করে তাদের লাশ জমজম কুপে ফেলে দিয়েছিল। ফিরে যাওয়ার সময় তারা সাথে করে হাজরে আসওয়াদ বাহরাইনে নিয়ে গিয়েছিল। পরবর্তীতে হাজরে আসওয়াদ পুনরুদ্ধার হওয়ার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত এক দশক হজ্ব বন্ধ ছিল।

৯৮৩ থেকে ৯৯০ সাল পর্যন্ত হজ্ব বাতিল হয়েছিল রাজনীতির কারণে। ইরাক ও সিরিয়া ভিত্তিক আব্বাসীয় খিলাফত এবং মিসর ভিত্তিক ফাতেমীয় খিলাফতের মধ্যকার দ্বন্দ্বের কারণে সেবার ৮ বছর পর্যন্ত হজ্ব বন্ধ ছিল।

শুধু যুদ্ধ-বিগ্রহ না, মহামারীর কারণেও হজ্ব বাতিল হয়েছিল। প্রথমে ১৮১৪ সালে হেজাজ প্রদেশে প্লেগের কারণে ৮,০০০ মানুষ মারা যাওয়ায় হজ্ব বাতিল করা হয়।

এরপর ১৮৩১ সালে ভারত থেকে যাওয়া হজ্বযাত্রীদের মাধ্যমে মক্কায় প্লেগ ছড়িয়ে পড়ে এবং চারভাগের তিনভাগ হাজী মৃত্যুবরণ করে। ফলে সে বছর হজ্ব বাতিল করা হয়। এছাড়াও ১৮৩৭ থেকে ১৮৫৮ সালের মধ্যে প্লেগ এবং কলেরার কারণে তিন বারে মোট ৭ বছর হজ্ব বন্ধ ছিল।

ইসলাম অবাস্তব কোনো ধর্ম না, এলিয়েনদের জন্য আসা ধর্ম না। এটা মানুষের জন্য আসা ধর্ম। এবং মানুষের সাধ্যের বাইরে এখানে কিছু করতে বলা হয়নি।

তথ্যসূত্র: হারাম শরিফের ওয়েবসাইট, মিডল ইস্ট আই, টিআরটি, দ্য নিউ আরব।


4
Library of DIU / Visited National Archive by ISLM Students.
« on: March 11, 2020, 05:39:41 PM »
Students of ISLM program visited National Archives and Library as part of course. Students has learnt more in practically and they have seen archival activities and leaded by Mr. Md. Dulal Uddin. The management of national archives cooperated to students and also offered snacks as part of their official courtesy.   

5
Library of DIU / National Library Observed
« on: March 11, 2020, 05:29:37 PM »
Daffodil International University (DIU) Library observed the National Library Day on Feb 05, 2020. DIU Library Team participated in the really with Public library and other organizations. After a short discussion, the DIU library captures a photograph with the presence of Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Registrar of DIU. This day has been recognized by the Prime Minister of the Government of Bangladesh. Library professions celebrated this day with sincerely and respectably. Library professionals are not going to behind rather they are going to highlighted their job places to provide better services and develop this field with their level best.

6
Fee Structure of PGD in ISLM Program

Items of the Fees                               Amount

Admission Fee                                                       Tk. 10,000
Library Fee                                                       Tk.   2,000
Computer Lab Fee                                                                      Tk.  1,500
Semester Fee (3 Semester @Tk. 2000)                                    Tk.  6,000
Extra Curriculum Activities Fee (Semester@ Tk. 500)                     Tk.   1,500
Tuition Fees for Theory Credits (36 Credits Hours @ Tk. 4,500)               Tk. 54,000
Total payable for 36 Credits                                                 Tk.75, 000

While taking admission, a student has to pay a total of Tk. 14,500.00

Items of the fees                     Taka
Admission Fee                                 10,000
Library Fee                                   2,000
Extra Curriculum Fee                               500
Semester Fee                                    2,000
During Admission                          14,500

1st Installment (Before Mid-Term Exam) 9,000
2nd  Installment (Before Final Exam}      9,000
Total Fees of 1st Semester                     32,500

Fees of Subsequent Semesters
2nd Semester
Items of the fees                              Taka
Semester Fee                                      2,000
Extra Curriculum Fee                                  500
Tuition Fee (3 Credits)                      4,500
During 2nd Semester Registration      7,000
1st  Installment (Before Mid-Term Exam)   6,750
2nd Installment (Before Final Exam}          6,750
Total Fees of 2nd Semester   20,500

   3rd Semester
Items of the fees                                 Taka
Semester Fee                                        2,000
Extra Curriculum Fee                                    500
Computer Lab Fee                                1,500
Tuition Fee (3 Credits)                        4,500
During 3rd Semester Registration         8,500
1st Installment (Before Mid-Term Exam)   6,750
2nd Installment (Before Final Exam}   6,750

Total Fees of 3rd (Final) Semester   22,000


7
Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103: Lecture#07
« on: October 17, 2018, 05:29:11 PM »
Lecture#07
PGD in ISLM
Date: Oct 13, 2018

Using of Marketing Tools for exploring library services and facilities

PRM Exposing Services in Libraries According Bhatt, R.K. (2011, p.56) Publicity refers to the generation of news about a person, product or service that appears in broadcast or print media. Public relation and marketing are synonymous. In fact, publicity /marketing are really a subset of the PRs efforts.

 There are divided into three groups: (a) Printing methods (b) Electronic methods and (c) Traditional methods.

Printing methods:

i.   Brochure: Brochures should be aesthetic and attractive to users as well as language should also be simple and easy so that users can understand easily and feel interest to read it attentively.

ii.   Leaflets: Leaflets will act as guides to the library and its special collections. It can be kept in the library at a location which is placed so that user who enters the library is paying attention to that corner.

iii.    Newsletters: The library can convey information about new acquisitions, new services, events and activities, fee changes etc. In fact, there are excellent marketing tools due to include all the activities of a library.

iv.   Posters: It offers good visual communication. It can be displayed at prominent locations and provide brief information about an event, service, etc. Old and defaced posters need to be replaced on a regular basis.

v.    Advertising: Advertisement can play a very important role to expose the library services. Libraries can advertise its products and services in newspapers, scholarly journals, magazines, newsletters, radio, television, web etc. It helps in building image of the library.

Traditional methods:

i.   Extensive activities: These activities like book display, lectures, quiz debates, seminars, competitions, exhibitions, etc. can play positive impact on the image of the library. Users can motivate to come to the library and promote the use of its products and services.

ii.   Environment: Good environment is the most important factors to use the library by the users. It reflects the appearance of employees, the physical setting, lighting, work environment, noise level etc. It must be healthy and suitable to make a positive impact on users.

iii.   Library tour: While on a library tour, users can be promoted to ask questions and find out more about new activities, products, and services. Library tour for new and existing members can be used to promote the library services.

iv.   Library Monthly/Day: Libraries can create awareness of its importance in society through organizing national library day/month can be effective way to promote the library.

v.   Seminars/conference: Seminars/conference is an effective method to create awareness about library services and facilities among the users. Library can arrange such seminars / conference frequently for the users.

Electronic methods:

i.   Websites: The websites contain details about the library. It can be continuously updated to avoid an adverse effect on the image of the library. Websites can play a significant role to increase the impact on the users.

ii.   Bulletin board: It is a medium for messages of interest to a community of online users. This service can be used by libraries for disseminating information to online users

iii.    E-mail: It is the most universal application on the Internet and it can be used for direct communication with potential users. There are many benefits to using email as a promotional tool that create personalized services, membership renewal, easily communicate with library personnel anytime and anywhere.

iv.   Blogs: Libraries can use blogs to promote its products and services by making it appealing and informative. To get feedback, comments and suggestions can be invited from visitors.

v.   Social networks: Now a day, social networks are mostly used for sharing knowledge, attractive image, interesting events, update news and also rare news which can be motivated to use the library resources. Facebook is one of them which act as digital knowledge platform for the users to share relevant knowledge each other.

vi.   E-library activities: In the digital era, digital library/e-library can play a vital role to promote library resources, facilities and services among the users.

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Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103:Lecture#06
« on: October 17, 2018, 05:21:55 PM »
Daffodil International University
PGD in ISLM
Course Code: 103, Course Title: Information Sources and Services
Lecture# 06, Date: Sept 12, 2018

Roles of the Reference Librarians

 This can be dependent upon the setting: in an academic environment it could be promoting the library's services, interacting with faculty, teaching information literacy courses, collection development, keeping up with new technology, creating information services and conducting the reference interview.

As Reference Librarian
•   provides reference services,
•   guides users in using computer resources
•   analyze patrons’ needs and evaluate materials to develop collection,
•   provide readers advisory service through bibliography materials,
•   Educate patrons on library utilization, inventory reference collection and updated.

QUALITIES OF A REFERENCE LIBRARIANS
There are five main qualities which are essential to being a good reference librarian. 

1.   The most important quality, which is also the most accurate and depend on users’ need. Reference librarians must have experience and skills to provide good customer service.

2. Reference librarians must be knowledgeable in their field; they must have a good understanding of how to find information, how to evaluate the quality of information sources, and how information is organized.

3. Reference librarians must be good teachers, “demonstrating how, when, and why to use various reference sources in an integrated way that will capture the user’s attention at the teachable moment.

4. Technology has changed the patron’s expectations for service and resource formats.  Librarians must be familiar with new developments.  Librarians utilized new developments such as the telephone and the early forms of electronic databases, and must continue to explore developing tools such as chat and mobile technology.

5. The ability to work within a team is also an essential quality for reference librarians.  Libraries can increase available resources, provide longer service hours, and access a broader field of expertise.

Responsibilities of Reference Librarians

Reference librarians help library patrons locate the information that they need. It depends upon the size and types of libraries. 
Reference librarians are usually expected to maintain a collection of relevant and accurate reference sources, assist patrons with information searches and, in some contexts, train patrons in reference and citation techniques.

•   Reference librarians are a library's eyes and ears.
•   They understand user needs and perceptions.
•   They know what's working and what's not.
•   They act as subject selectors; they are the library's primary liaison with faculty in their subject areas and its most visible representatives.
•   They know how to help, inform, convince, and teach users.
•   It is essential that they be involved in its planning, implementation, and operation.
•   Assistance identifying library materials needed to answer a question.

### Reference Sources act as quick guide-Explain

Reference sources such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, atlases, etc. are research tools that can help you with your paper or project. Reference sources provide answers to specific questions, such as brief facts, statistics, and technical instructions; provide background information; or direct you to additional information sources.
Quick guide for selecting the right type of reference source (Collins, 151):

Mention the quick guide to find out right information from right type reference sources

For information about...                                                                                       Choose as reference tools / sources
Words                                                                                                                     Dictionaries
General information/Overview of topic                                                                             Encyclopedias
Names & addresses of people, organizations, institutions, companies                             Directories
Profiles of people                                                                                                     Biographical Dictionaries
Places/Maps                                                                                                             Gazetteers or Atlases
Facts and Statistics                                                                                                     Almanacs
Formula, Tables, How-To-Do-It                                                                                     Handbooks and Manuals
A person's work                                                                                                             Reviews or Criticisms
Dates, outlines, historical timelines ,Historical tables                                                       Chronologies, Historical yearbooks
Periodical Articles                                                                                                     Indexes or Abstracts
Books and other sources                                                                                             Bibliographies or Guides to Literature...



9
Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103: Lecture#05
« on: October 17, 2018, 05:15:41 PM »
Post Graduate Diploma in Information Science and Library Management
ISLM-103 (Information Sources and Services)
Lecture #05
Date: Oct 06, 2018

What is a reference services?
Ranganathan defines Reference Service as: “Personal Service to each reader in helping him to find the documents answering his interest at the moment pin pointedly, carefully and properly‟ (Ranganathan, 1961).

Reference services are the services provided by the reference department in a library that helps the library patron to get access to the information that they needed.

Reference Sources
Dictionaries, directories, encyclopedias, handbooks, manuals, yearbooks are few to name as examples for reference sources. Thus reference sources are key players of library reference services.

 Reference librarians will help the student to locate the information that they need faster and in the right way. Some of the task and services provided by the librarian in the reference department are:

1)     Teach patrons on how to use the library catalogue
 2)     Help patrons how find out books on shelves
3)     Recommend books to the patrons
4)     Teach user how to use online database
5)   Advice on how to search information in database

Types of Reference Service

•   Assistance in finding the answer to specific reference questions.
•   Assistance in developing research strategies for reports, term papers, theses, and dissertations.
•   Instruction in the use of the Library and its resources.
•   Verification of Library holdings and referral to institutions which have materials this Library lacks.
•   Orientation to the Library through tours, tutorial sessions, subject specific workshops, etc.
•   Compilation and production of various instructional aides.
•   Online search service.
•   In-depth reference appointments for faculty and grad students engaged in research based endeavors.
Document Delivery Service

 Document Delivery Service (DDS) is concerned with supply of documents to the users on demand either in original or its photocopies, irrespective of the location and form of the original documents.

Modes of Document Delivery Service Libraries Endeavour to meet the demand for documents through different methods.

Reprographic Service

Reprography is a term used to refer to photocopying as well as duplicating documents whereby one or more copies of the same size or in reduced or enlarged form are produced.

Importance of Reprographic Service

1. It helps in the dissemination of information.
2. It facilitates the work of Inter-library-loan.
3. The documents reproduced in microforms helps in solving the space problem.
4. It acts as a duplicate of the original copy.
5. It helps in saving the original document.
 6. It saves the time of the users.

Difference between Information and Reference Services

Information Services                                                                                      Reference Services
It refers to non-traditional approach.                                           It refers to traditional approach
The emphasis / importance is to provide information                    The emphasis is to provide document services
To provide exact information to meet the users need.                   To provide ready and listed information
Information providers does not wait for the users.                   Information providers wait for the users
No need to maintain any rules to provide information services    Need to maintain any rules to provide reference services
Users can information services directly                                           Users can reference services indirectly or need base. 


10
Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103:Lecture#04
« on: October 02, 2018, 04:59:18 PM »
Post Graduate Diploma in Information Science and Library Management
Lecture#04, September 29, 2018

What is social networking?
“Social Networking is primarily Internet based tools for sharing and discussing information among human beings.” – Wikipedia

A social networking is a platform to build social networks or social relation among people who like to share interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

Social Networking Tools
These tools include blogs, wikis, RSS (Really Simple Syndication), podcasting, social bookmarking, wikis, feeds and Google utilities (Churchill 2007).

Purposes of Social Networking Usage in Libraries

1. To reach a new audience of potential users.
2. To provide quick updates to users.
3. To build discussion groups and collaborative work.
4. To push library news and press release.
5. To modernize the library image and e-reputation.
6. Marketing of library product and services.
7. To spread news and service alerts.
8. For fund raising.

Impact of Use of Social Networking on Libraries

•   Social media is integral to market library.
•    Social media capture potential users of the library.
•   Social media helps students to use library.
•   Social media allows user to create, connect, converse, to contribute, vote and share information.
•   It helps libraries to get closer to the users.
•   It helps libraries in building collaborative network with the users.
•   Social media helps students in locating library resources.
•   Social media facilitates knowledge sharing.
•    Social media helps in promoting distance learning.

Problems Use of Social Networking

•   Lack of time to use social media.
•   Lack of privacy and identity theft.
•   Confidentiality of information.
•   Lack of knowledge how to use it.
•   Inadequate funding for libraries.
•    Inadequate library staff.
•   Low interest of librarians in learning and utilizing social media.
•   Inadequate training opportunities for library staff.
•    Electricity failure.
•   Slow speed of Internet.

Some Examples of Social Networking Sits

Wikis (Wikipedia, Wikia) Interact by adding articles and editing existing articles.

Social Networking (Facebook, Hi5, Last.FM) Interact by adding friends, commenting on profiles, joining groups and having discussions.

Social Photo and Video Sharing (YouTube, Flickr) Interact by sharing photos or videos and commenting on user submissions.

Social Bookmaking.(Del.icio.us, Blinklist, Simpy) Interact by tagging websites and searching through websites bookmarked by other people.

Social News (Digg, Propeller, Reddit) Interact by voting for articles and commenting on them.

How Works Social Networking Sits in Library

Facebook:
Most popular now because it is librarian- friendly, with many applications like JSTOR search, World Cat, and much more. Librarians can interact with users to know their information need. Libraries try to link some of these specialized library applications to Facebook.

MySpace:
In Academic institutions where the students are; libraries have taken advantage of this site post, calendar, custom catalog search tools, and blog features to improve their presence.

Blogs:
Here, librarians can periodically post messages; share information on a particular subject or issue, and allow users to contribute to content. They can write articles, news on topical issues and expect an instant reaction from their users.

Wikis:
Is a free online encyclopedia that gives a background knowledge and definition of concepts it offers a platform for users to access, edit and contribute to content. This is a collaborative web page for developing web content.

LinkedIn:
Librarians can get patrons connected with specialists in their particular field of interest via LinkedIn. Librarians can use this platform to render specialized services such as Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI).

Twitter:
A micro blogging application to keep staff and patrons updated on daily activities, like frequently updated collections. Users can utilize this platform to type in short messages or status update. Users can send Instant Messages on complaints or ask questions on a particular issue and get a feedback on the spot using twitter.

Flickr: Librarians can use this tool to share and distribute new images of library collections. Cover page of new arrivals of both books and journals can be disseminated to users via Flickr.



11
Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103: Lecture#03
« on: September 27, 2018, 05:55:45 PM »
ISLM-103: Information Sources and Services
Lecture#03
Dated: Sept 28, 2018

Source vs Resource
Though the two words source and resource look a bit similar, they are two different words with different meaning.

Source refers to a place or origin from where something is obtained. It can refer to a place, person or thing. The meaning of this word can slightly differ according to different contexts.

A source can refer to a person who provides information, book or document that acts as the primary reference, and the point of origin of a stream of water.

Resource means something that can be used to function effectively. A resource can refer to money, materials, staff, or other assets.

Oxford Dictionary defines a resource as a stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively.

This is the main difference between source and resource.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND INFORMATION RESOURCES

A source is a place or person from which you can obtain something useful or valuable. The sources from where we get information are called information sources and these comprise of documents, humans, institutions as well as mass media like radio and television.  Information sources are significant for information organizations and information users. Information sources also provide an in-depth treatment of a topic or aspect of a topic and can also provide a broad overview or historical view of a topic. Information sources are also different from information resources.

An information resource is not the same as a resource and is defined as a resource which can convey or describe (essential) characteristics of a resource in some way. The data and information assets of an organization are referred to as information resources.  Information and related resources, such as personnel, equipment, and information technology are also information resources of an organisation.  Good research involves using a variety of reliable information resources to find out facts and information about a topic. 
 There are experts who refer to some information sources as information resources.  Examples of such information resources are  Encyclopaedias, books, articles and websites.

Encyclopaedias- Encyclopaedias are great for providing a summary or background information, and they are a reliable source/resource of information, written usually by several experts. There are many print and online encyclopaedias.

 Books - Books give us a greater amount and more in-depth information on a topic than an encyclopaedia. They are also a reliable source/resource of information, having been written by credible author(s) who have gone through a publishing process.

 Articles - Newspaper, magazine, or journal articles can provide up-to-date information on very specific topics and they are generally a reliable source of information. 

 Websites - We can find information on almost anything on the Internet, so it can be a great resource, especially when looking for hard to find or very recent information. However, the information found on websites may not be correct or reliable. 

 CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMATION SOURCES

 Information sources have several characteristics, which are:

a)   Availability  b) Cost  c) Currency of information d) Amount of detail, i.e., depth e) Breadth of coverage f) Reliability g) Format h) Medium 
Five Criteria for Evaluating Resources: AAOCC

We will use a list of five critical. You might want to remember AAOCC (Authority, Accuracy, Objectivity, Currency, and Coverage), if for no other reason than you might be asked to list these criteria and describe them briefly. The same basic questions should be asked of all information sources: books, journal articles, web pages, blogs, videos, sound recordings and e-books.

Authority
Who is the author or creator (who is responsible for the intellectual content). Is there any indication of the author's education, other publications, professional affiliations or experience?

Accuracy/Quality
For research on any topic dealing with things and events in the real world, accuracy is, obviously, of highest importance. Data and information must be based on observations, measurements, analyses, interpretations and conclusions. High-quality writing, including good format, grammar, spelling and punctuation, can enhance the appearance of accuracy.

Objectivity
Authors often have their own agendas, when using any information resource, you must decide whether the information is sufficiently objective for your purpose or whether it is biased.

Currency
It is important for information found on the web to be up-to-date. However, its appearance on the web is not a guarantee. This may mean checking three dates, the date the page was last updated or posted to the web, the date of publication, and the date of the research or statistics used.

Coverage
Decide whether the information source adequately covers the topic. Consider how coverage from one source compares with coverage by other sources.
Look for a statement describing the purpose or coverage of the source and consider if the information is in-depth enough for your needs.
Does the information source leave questions unanswered (ask the "five W's and H" to check: who, what, when, where, why and how)?

SELECTING  INFORMATION SOURCES

 On basis of information needs of users, as already identified, suitable information sources are to be selected.  The table below lists the most important types of sources of information for finding what users usually need for their information requirements.   
 Kind of Information Selecting the Information Sources

Kind of Information          Selecting the Information Sources

Biographies             Books, periodicals, encyclopedias, websites

Companies                                 People, organizations, Directories

Facts                                     Almanacs, atlases, books, databases, dictionaries, encyclopedias, government documents, handbooks,
                                                 manuals, newspapers, websites, yearbooks

Graphics/Image-based       Almanacs, atlases, books, databases, websites

Original documents          Bibliographies, books, periodical articles, websites

Popular opinion                 Books, periodical articles, newspapers, websites

Product information           Databases, manufacturer and vendor catalogs

Professional commentary       Bibliographies, books, periodical articles, websites, yearbooks

Research    Bibliographies, books, government documents, periodical articles, statistical abstracts

Statistics/Data    Almanacs, atlases, books, databases, statistical abstracts, yearbooks

Strategies for Identifying Information Sources

Many kinds of information are found in more than one type of source. To help determine which type of source is most likely to contain the information a user requires,  the following  question are required to be asked.

a)   How broad or narrow a focus is needed?
Books will also give a broad overview of topic but in considerably greater detail, and may summarize the published information on required topic. Journal articles will give information on very specific aspects of the topic. Often we will need a mixture of encyclopedias, books, and periodical articles to find the desired information.

b)   What level of information is needed?
Articles in these publications can also provide us with needed background information that will help us to understand the technical language used in scholarly journal articles.

c)   How current does the information need to be?
information can be found in year books, almanacs; and for older information we may look for books, encyclopaedias, annual reviews, etc. 
d) Do we need specialized information?

At  times we need specialized information such as statistics, maps or diagrams, or addresses for people or the manufacturer of a product. These special kinds of factual information are most often found in atlases, almanacs, yearbooks, directories, catalogs, or government documents.  Usually the most current editions of these information sources are found in a library's reference department.

d)   Do we need primary, secondary or tertiary information?
 Primary sources include personal experiences, eyewitness accounts, product information, and historical documents.
Secondary materials are raw data and primary source materials that have been analyzed and then organized into logical presentations
by someone-usually a researcher.

Tertiary information is commentary or opinions about a given topic, based on and quoting primary and secondary sources.
Information Access Tools

Libraries provide a number of tools to identify specific sources of information.  The strategies for locating specific information sources vary depending on the access tool needed to find them. The three broad categories of access tools usually used to find the desired information sources are:

 • Library Catalogues
• Printed Indexes and Databases 
• Web Indexes and Search Engines

 Generally we may need to use more than one access tool because well-balanced information activities usually requires information from different kinds of sources.  The table below gives the type(s) of access tools required based on the type of information sources needed.
 
Information Sources                Access Tools

Almanacs                     Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Atlases                Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Bibliographies             Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Books or book chapters            Library catalog, databases and print indexes, web indexes, search engines

Dictionaries             Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Directories             Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Databases             Databases, search engines

Encyclopedias             Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Government documents       Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Handbooks             Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Periodical articles          Print indexes, databases, search engines

Manuals                     Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Newspaper articles          Print indexes, databases, search engines

Statistical abstracts          Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Manufacturer & vendor catalogs    Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

Web sites                     Web indexes, search engines

Yearbooks             Library catalog, web indexes, search engines

 Evaluating Information Resources

Evaluating information sources is a important part of the research process. Not all information is reliable or true, nor will all information be suitable for your paper or project. Print and Internet sources vary widely in their authority, accuracy, objectivity, currency, and coverage. Users must be able to critically evaluate the appropriateness of all types of information sources prior to relying on the information.

Today, however, many online resources are being added to supplement collections, replace printed (paper) items, or improve access. Although online sources are accessible via the Internet, many originated in paper form and follow the same publication criteria.
Therefore, the quality of print and online information sources is similar and will be considered the same in this discussion. A look at a few characteristics of print and Internet sources will identify major quality distinctions between print and Internet information sources.
Print Sources vs. World Wide Web

Print Sources
•   Quality standards of printed materials are controlled through a system of checks and balances imposed by peer review, editors, publishers, and librarians, all of whom manage and control access to printed information. This assures that published materials have been through some form of critical review and evaluation, preventing informal, poorly designed, difficult-to-use and otherwise problematic materials from getting into the hands of users.

•   Printed information follows standard formats for logical and effective organization.

•   Materials in printed form are stable. Once in print, information remains fixed for all time. New editions and revisions often are published, but these are separate and distinct physical entities that can be placed side by side with the originals.

World Wide Web
•   On the web, anyone can, with no supervision or review at all, put up a web page.
•   On the Web, there is no systematic monitoring of much of what appears, except, of course, for article published in the online forms of otherwise reputable scholarly journals and books. Biases, hidden agendas, distorted perspectives, commercial promotions, inaccuracies, and so on are not monitored.

•   There is no standard format for web sites and documents. Web pages exhibit fewer clues regarding their origins and authoritativeness than print sources. Important information, such as dates, author(s), and references are not always easy to locate. While a reader can easily note this information in a book or periodical article, the web user must often search through several pages, if the information is provided at all.

•   Internet sources are also not stable. Web documents can be changed easily. And once changed, the original is gone forever unless a specific effort is made to preserve it. In fact, many Web documents are intentionally designed to change as necessary, and with automatic changes as with manual changes, the original disappears.

•   Web resources use hypertext links and need not be organized in any linear fashion. One can easily be led astray and distracted from the topic at hand. But, of course, one can also be led to additional information of value.

•   The changing nature of the web and web documents create major problems with the stability of information and with links between different units of information. Dead or broken and links on the Web are common and others just disappear or are not updated.

•   For print sources, quality control is sought through critical evaluation during the publication process.

•   It is the user's responsibility to evaluate information sources, in print and on the web, that they find during the research process before using it in a paper or presentation.

12
Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103: Lecture#02
« on: September 22, 2018, 03:49:04 PM »
Post Graduate Diploma in Information Science and Library Management
ISLM-103 (Information Sources and Services)
Lecture#02
Date: September 22, 2018 (Saturday)

•   What is source-
•   Source means the origin of something where produced / created information which may be relevant / irrelevant.
•   A specific publication or other type of media where specific information was obtained. These are usually included in footnotes, endnotes, or a bibliography, and can be people.


•   What is Information Source- An Information Source is a source of information for somebody, i.e. anything that might informs a person about something on provide knowledge to somebody.
Information sources may be observations, people speeches, documents, pictures, organizations etc. Information can come from virtually anywhere — media, blogs, personal experiences, books, journal and magazine articles, expert opinions, encyclopedias, and web pages — and the type of information you need will change depending on the question you are trying to answer.

 Types of information sources- Different epistemology have different views regarding the importance of different kind of information sources. Empiricism regards sense data as the ultimate information sources, while other epistemology have different views (Kragh 1989)(4).

The various types of information sources can be divided into two broad categories.
A- Documentary Sources
B- Non-Documentary Sources

Types of Information Sources
A-   Documentary Sources:
•   Primary source
•   Secondary source
•   Tertiary source
B- Non-Documentary Sources
i.   Formal source         ii.     Informal source

Documentary sources- These are generally published or recorded documents of knowledge. Documentary sources may be as under-:

DOCUMENTARY INFORMATION SOURCES


PRIMARY    SECONDARY    TERTIARY

􀂾Periodical
􀂾Research Report
􀂾Conference Proceedings
􀂾Patents
􀂾Standards

􀂾Trade Literature
􀂾Thesis
      
􀂾Indexing Services
􀂾Abstracting Services
􀂾Review of Progress
􀂾Reference Works
􀂾Treatises
􀂾    Monographs
􀂾Text Books
Yearbooks and Directories
􀂾Bibliographies
􀂾Location list of periodicals
􀂾List of Indexing and abstracting services
􀂾Guides

􀂾List of Research in progress
􀂾Guide to professional organizations


Primary Sources- Primary sources of information are the first published records of original research and development or description of new application or new interpretation of an old theme or idea. There are original documents representing unfiltered original ideas.

Primary sources are unorganized sources, which are rather difficult to use by them, the secondary sources helps us to use these.
Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period or idea being studied.

It serves as an original source of information about the topic. Similar definitions are used in library Science, and other areas of scholarship.

In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation or a document created by such a person. Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. Though the distinction is not a sharp one. “Primary and secondary are relative terms, with sources judged primary or secondary according to specific historical contexts and what is being studied.” (Kragh 1989).

For Example-:

Published sources:
•   Books
•   Periodicals
•   Conference Papers
•   Research Monographs
•   Research Reports
•   Patents
•   Standards
•   Thesis
•   Industrial and trade literature
•   Manuscripts

Unpublished Sources:-    

•   Memoranda Laboratory notebooks
•   Diaries
•   Company Files
•   Portraits
•   State Papers
•   Web sites
•   Video Recordings

o   Speeches
o   Works of Arts, architecture,
o   literature and music

Secondary Sources- Secondary sources of information are those which are either compiled from or refer to primary sources of information. The original information having been casually modified selected or reorganized so as to serve a definite purpose for group of users. Such sources contain information arranged and organized on the basis of some definite plan. These contain organized repackaged knowledge rather than new knowledge. The primary sources are the first to appear, these are followed by secondary sources. It is difficult to find information from primary sources directly. Therefore, one should consult the secondary sources in the first instance, which will lead one to specific primary sources.

KINDS OF SECONDARY SOURCES

“Bonn” has divided the secondary sources into three types which are as below
1. Index Type: (a) Index (b) Bibliography (c) Indexing periodicals (d) Abstracting Periodicals
2.   Survey Type: (a) Review (b) Treatise (c)Monograph
3. Reference Type: (a) Encyclopedia  (b) Dictionary (c)Hand book, Manual (d) Critical Tables

Tertiary Sources:- This is the most problematic category of all. However, people rarely expected to differentiate between secondary and tertiary sources. Materials in which the information from secondary sources has been digested- reformatted and condensed, to put it into a convenient, easy to read form.
Tertiary sources of information contain information distilled and collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary function of tertiary sources of information is to aid the searcher of information in the use of primary and secondary sources of information. Most of these sources do not contain subject knowledge. Due to increase in literature, tertiary sources are becoming increasingly important. Out of various kinds of sources, tertiary sources are the last to appear.

1. Bibliography of Bibliographies
2. Directories and yearbooks
3. Guide to literature
4. List of research in progress
Non-documentary sources- Non documentary sources of information form a substantial part of communication especially in science and technology.
Types- There is two kinds of sources:-
(1)Formal Sources: - -Research Organization
-Societies
-Industries
-Govt. dept.
-Universities
-Consultants
Informal Sources
-Conversation with colleges
- Visitors
- Attendance at Professional Meetings.


13
Information Sources and Services / ISLM-103: Lecture#01
« on: September 22, 2018, 03:44:14 PM »
Post Graduate Diploma in Information Science and Library Management
ISLM-103 (Information Sources and Services)
Lecture#01
Date: Jan 12, 2018

1.   Define information
Data that is (1) accurate and timely, (2) specific and organized for a purpose, (3) presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and (4) can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty.

Information is valuable because it can affect behavior, a decision, or an outcome. For example, if a manager is told his/her company's net profit decreased in the past month, he/she may use this information as a reason to cut financial spending for the next month. A piece of information is considered valueless if, after receiving it, things remain unchanged. For a technical definition of information see information theory.

Information is knowledge gained or given; facts; news or the communicating or receiving of knowledge.   
•   Information can mean different things to different people, depending on their particular circumstances, but most accept
•   Information is a means of communicating knowledge, helping us to find out what we need to know. The information source we choose will always depend on the quantity and quality of information required.

2.   Kinds of information
i.   Factual information/ Accurate Information
•   World Almanac
•   Almanac of American Politics
•   Encyclopedia Britannica
•   Grove's Dictionary of Music
•   McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology

ii.   Biographical information
•   Biographical and Genealogy Master Index
•   Current Biography
•   Dictionary of American Biography
•   Who's Who in America

iii.   Maps, images, and other graphical information
•   National Geographic Atlas of the World
•   Gray's Anatomy
•   Dictionary of Art
•   The Observer's sky atlas : with 50 stars charts covering the entire sky

iv.   Statistical information
•   Statistical abstract of the United States
•   Agricultural statistics
•   Housing construction statistics, 1889 to 1964
•   United States Census of Population
v.   Products
•   Thomas register of American manufacturers and Thomas register catalog file
•   MacRae's blue book
•   Vendor's Catalogs

vi.   Patents / Copyright / Official documents
•   US Patent and Trademark Office patent database
•   Escape - Europe's Network of Patent Databases
•   Trilateral Web Site (patent database of European, Japanese and US patents)

vii.   Research information
•   Educational Research
•   Journal of Animal Science
•   Environmental Ethics
3.   Formats of Information
Information is published in a range of formats and it is important to select and use those appropriate to your needs. What you use will depend on your circumstances, including the time and technology available.
Below is a brief overview of the three main formats:
1. Print:  Print is simply the paper (hard copy) form of information. Books, serials, official publications and some specialized sources are usually published in print form.
2. Electronic:  Electronic information resources refer to anything that is recorded, stored and retrieved using computer technology. Examples of electronic information sources include CDs, DVDs and all online sources including searchable databases.
 3. Audio-Visual: Audio-visual (AV) resources consist of sound and visual images. These include items such as television programmes, motion pictures, music recordings and slides.
4.  Microfilm 5. Microfiche  6.  Microform

4.   Producers/Originators of Information

There are three main producers/originators of information. These are:

1. Government Agencies
2. Academic institutions
3. The private Sector
4. Individuals
1.   Government Agencies: Government departments and agencies publish lots of information in print and electronic formats. In various countries of the world, governments at all levels play an important role in producing information for the society they serve.

Example:    i. National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA),
ii.  National Bureau of Statistics (NBS),

2.   Academic Institutions:  Academic institutions such as universities and colleges are major producers of information in a society or country.

Example:    i. University of Ibadan, Nigeria
ii. University of Zambia
iii. Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
iv. University of Zimbabwe

3.   Private Sector:  A third major producer of information in a country is the private sector. This consists of print and electronic media organizations, commercial business outfits, publishers/vendors.

Example:

Non-profit professional organizations
 Profitable organizations and commercial agencies
 International Agencies
      Professional Associations or organizations
 Private institutions
Corporate laboratories


4.   Private Individual: Individuals also create information. Many print and web documents available today are created by private individuals,


5.   Why needs information for people / users

   Information needs to reduces cost
   Information save the time
   Information improves decision making
   Information Yields Customer Satisfaction
   Information needs to making master plan
   Information needs for researchers to collect  real facts
   

14
Records and Archives Management / Methods of Filing Systems
« on: August 18, 2018, 03:03:55 PM »
Methods of filing: alphabetical. Numerical, geographical, chronological and subject wise

Based on classification of files
Classification of files refers to the process of selecting heading under which documents are grouped or classified on the basis of common characteristics. The bases of classification are as follows:

  1. Alphabetical classification
The filing method under which files and folders are arranged in order of alphabets of the names of person or institution concerned with such file is alphabetical classification. It is most popular and common method of filing. In case name of more than one person starts with same letter then second letter of name is taken into consideration. It is flexible method. It is used in both small and large organization.
 Advantages
•   Simple and easy to understand
•   Doesn’t need separate index
•   It is flexible
 Disadvantages
•   Time consuming
•   Difficult to arrange files
•   Difficult to locate in case of common names

 2. Numerical classification
The filing method under which files and folders are arranged in order of number is called numerical classification. All files and folders are given separate numbers. It is indirect method of classification of filing. In this filing alphabetical index is required. It includes name, address, phone number, subject and other information along with file number.
 Advantages
•   Suitable for large offices having large number of files and folders
•   Accurate method of filing
•   It is flexible
•   Separate index can be easily developed using numbers.
 Disadvantages
•   It is expensive
•   It is time consuming
•   Not suitable for small organization
•   It is not easy to operate
•   Separate alphabetical index is required.

 3. Subjective classification
In this filing method, records are classified according to their subject; letters and documents are classified and arranged in files and folders into subject or sub-subject wise. In this filing, subject must be arranged alphabetically. It is widely used in those cases where subject is more important than the name of the person or organization. All documents relating to same subject are filed together in one file.
 Advantages
•   Simple to operate
•   Flexible
•   Convenient
•   Easy to locate
 Disadvantages
•   Not applicable for filing miscellaneous subject
•   Time consuming
•   Difficult to locate when subject matter is not properly understood

 4. Geographic classification
In this method, files are grouped according to the geographical location of firm, organization or person. Under this method name of places are written in file and are arranged in drawer either in alphabetical or numerical order whichever is suitable for organization. It used in multinational companies or those organizations whose business and branches are located in many places of the nation or the world.
Advantages
•   Easy to understand and use
•   Can be arranged in alphabetical and numerical order
•   It used in those organizations whose business is engaged in correspondence with the businesses all over the globe or the nation.
 Disadvantages
•   Expensive
•   Not suitable for small scale organization
•   Time consuming
•   No use of card or index

5. Chronological classification
In this method, files and folders of documents are arranged in an order of their date, day, and time. In an office, several letters and documents may be received and dispatched. They all are arranged according to time and date when they were received and dispatched
 Advantages
•   Simple to understand and easy to operate
•   Quickly located if their dates are known.
•   Less expensive
 Disadvantages
•   Not suitable for large offices
•   When clear dates are not mentioned then there can be difficulty.
 Importance of filing
1.    It helps to keep all records together so the history of office can be understood.
2.   It helps to provide safety place for storage of necessary documents in order to use and locate then when required.
3.   To make records readily and easily available.
4.   It can be used as evidence in case of dispute
5.   It helps in some legal formalities.
6.   It is shown as profit or legal evidence.
7.   It can be presented as a legal document in court.
8.   It helps to make future plans. Past records are the base of future records

Qualities of good filing system
1.   Simple: It should be easy and simple to be understood by the entire employees.
2.   Economy: Filing should be cheap and must come under the budget of the organization. The installation and operation cost should be low.
3.   Compactness: It should be compact and should not take unnecessary space
4.   Accessibility: Files and folders must be preserved for future and must be easily accessible.
5.   Suitable: It should be suitable for any kind o organization. It should meet the requirement of business
6.   Flexible: It should be flexible enough. It must be dynamic and changeable according to the needs of an organization
7.   Safety: A good filing system must preserve all the necessary documents from insects, dust, fire, water and so on
8.   Indexing: A good filing system must have proper indexing
9.   Classification: The files should be classified in a proper way so that it helps in easy location.


15
Records Management and Document Management are commonly confused. While they share some features, they are two different disciplines. Document management involves tracking and storing electronic files while records management includes document management, but with a stronger focus on archival, retention, and compliance issues.

Document Management Includes:

•   Reducing lost and misfiled documents
•   Providing faster search and retrieval of documents
•   Reducing physical storage space
•   Helping organize existing documents
•   Improving organizational efficiency

Records Management Includes:

•   Requirements of document management
•   Identifying records in an inventory
•   Applying required retention periods to stored items
•   Identifying the owner of each records series
•   Verifying the existence of a chain of custody and a proper audit trail
•   Assisting in e-discovery issues and applying legal holds to records
•   Administering records policies and procedures
•   Managing the disposal of documents
•   Preserving records throughout their life cycle



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