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Ditetics / Downsides of keto diet
« on: February 29, 2020, 11:23:21 AM »
A new twist on extreme weight loss is catching on in many parts of the world. It’s called the "keto diet."

People promoting the diet say it uses the body’s own fat burning system to help people lose significant weight in as little as 10 days.

It has also been known to help moderate the symptoms of children with epilepsy, although experts are not quite sure why it works.

Proponents say the diet can produce quick weight loss and provide a person with more energy.

However, critics say the diet is an unhealthy way to lose weight and in some instances it can be downright dangerous.

The “keto” diet is any extremely low- or no-carbohydrate diet that forces the body into a state of ketosis.

Ketosis occurs when people eat a low- or no-carb diet and molecules called ketones build up in their bloodstream.

keto diet
Low carbohydrate levels cause blood sugar levels to drop and the body begins breaking down fat to use as energy.

Ketosis is actually a mild form of ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis mostly affects people with type 1 diabetes. In fact, it is the leading cause of death of people with diabetes who are under 24 years of age.

However, many experts say ketosis itself is not necessarily harmful.

Some studies, in fact, suggest that a ketogenic diet is safe for significantly overweight or obese people.

Critics say the keto-type diets usually work only in the short term and can be unhealthy.Once your body enters ketosis, you also begin to lose muscle, become extremely fatigued, and eventually enter starvation mode. Then it actually becomes even harder to lose weight.Keto diets should only be used under clinical supervision and only for brief periods.Anyone with type 2 diabetes can benefit from weight loss and a reduced-carb diet because it will improve insulin sensitivity. However, a keto diet will do more harm than good for the majority of patients, especially if they have any underlying kidney or liver issues.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology / Drugs that cause weight gain
« on: February 29, 2020, 11:16:22 AM »
Medicines that may cause weight gain include:

Medicines for diabetes, such as insulin, thiazolidinediones, and sulfonylureas

Antipsychotic medicines such as haloperidol, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and lithium

Antidepressant medicines like amitriptyline, imipramine, paroxetine, and sertraline

Epilepsy medicines like valproate, carbamazepine, and gabapentin

Steroid hormone medicines like prednisone or birth control pills

Blood pressure-reducing medicines like beta-blockers such as propranolol and metoprolol

It’s important to note that not all medicines of these types cause weight gain. For example, the diabetes medicine metformin might make you lose weight instead of gain it. Topiramate (a medicine used for seizures and migraines) also can help a person lose weight.

Departments / Helicobacyer pylori infection in Bangladesh
« on: November 15, 2018, 02:02:26 PM »
          Helicobactor pylori (H pylori) is one of the commonest and most ancient chronic bacterial infection of mankind.
          Like other developing countries, the prevalence of H pylori is very high in Bangladesh. More than 80.0% children become infected with H pylori by the age of 6-9 years and92.0% adult population are seropositive for H pylori in Bangladesh. H pylori infection is a common and curable cause of dyspepsia, peptic ulcer diseases and few upper GI malignancies. Approximately 17.0% of infected patients develop peptic ulcer, and one quarter of such patients experience an ulcer complication. In a community based endoscopic survey among adult population, the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease was found to be 15.6% in

          Risk factors of H. Pylori:

          H. pylori is often contracted in childhood. Risk factors for H. pylori infection are related to living conditions in your childhood, such as:
          Living in crowded conditions. You have a greater risk of H. pylori infection if you live in a home with many other people
          Living without a reliable supply of clean water. Having a reliable supply of clean, running water helps reduce the risk of H. pylori.
          Living in a developing country. People living in developing countries, where crowded and unsanitary living conditions may be more common, have a higher risk of H. pylori infection.
          Living with someone who has an H. pylori infection. If someone you live with has H. pylori, you're more likely to also have H. pylori.


7. Be present.

Everything in your life that is sabotaging you is the product of being unwilling to be present. We shop, spend, eat, drink, dream and plan our way out of the present moment constantly, which means that we never confront the feelings that we are carrying around. Being present is essential for developing mental strength and emotional health, because it allows us to actually respond to our thoughts and feelings in real time, and to confront that which unnerves us before we adopt unhealthy coping mechanisms to eradicate it.

The subconscious mind believes whatever it feels to be true. Therefore, it is easy for us to program ourselves to be subconsciously convinced that we are inadequate, in danger, or unloved. Mental immunity is what happens when we bring those ideas to the forefront of our consciousness and debunk them by marrying our feelings with reason.

Consistently reminding ourselves that a spectrum of feeling is healthy and helpful and letting go of the idea that overcoming something means eradicating it, rather than learning to act in spite of it, will help us to inch toward the lives we aspire to, rather than succumb to being victims of our own minds.

6. Imagine what you would do with your life if fear were no object.

That is what you should be doing now. Focusing too much on trying to "get over" something actually reinforces it. It keeps us in the space of being broken. Learning to refocus on what matter is what actually gets us to move on.

5. Be willing to see change.

When people struggle with something for long periods of time, there can be a resistance to seeing anything change, simply because of the length of time it has been going on. The willingness to see something change actually begins to change it. If you can do nothing else in a day, say out loud: I am willing to see this change.

3. Stop trying to eradicate fear.

Expect the fearful thought, but recognize that it is not always reflective of reality.

4. Interpret "weird" or upsetting thoughts as symbols, not realities.

If you are afraid of driving in the car by yourself, or losing a job, or being stuck in some kind of natural disaster, consider what that could represent in your life (perhaps you feel as though you are disconnected from loved ones, or that you are "unsafe" in some way). Most of these are trying to direct you to make a change, so honor them.

2. Be careful not to identify with that which you struggle.

A lot of people who have spent their lives struggling with anxiety begin to assume that it is just part of their personality. "I am an anxious person," or similar phrases, are common but not necessarily true. Adopting an idea about yourself into your identity means that you believe it is who you fundamentally are, which makes it significantly more difficult to change.

1. Adopt an attitude of progress, not perfection.

Aiming for even a 1% improvement in your behavior or coping mechanisms each day is more effective than trying to radically revolutionize your life for one reason only: the former is actually attainable.

Common Forum/Request/Suggestions / what is mental immunity?
« on: August 15, 2018, 02:07:18 PM »
Mental immunity is the foundation of emotional resilience.

The same way in which a cold or flu can derail the health of someone who is already ill, a small setback or troubling thought can do the same to someone who is not "mentally immune." Mental immunity is what happens when we condition our minds to not only expect fearful thoughts or external challenges, but to tolerate them when they arise. It is shifting one's objective in life from avoiding pain to building meaning, recognizing that pain will be some part of the journey regardless.

Mental immunity is not being able to resist or deny negative thoughts, it is being able to observe them without acting on them, or automatically believing they represent reality.

Human Nutrition / OBESITY AND CANCER
« on: August 15, 2018, 02:05:43 PM »
Researchers have found that obesity is a significant risk factor for cancer and they are still untangling the relationship. While White’s study doesn’t directly address the matter, he says it does show a concrete link between lipids and cancer growth. In that sense, it adds one piece to what is likely a very large puzzle.

Whether altering one’s diet to consume less fats might forestall melanoma progression is another open question, one the team is interested in exploring further.

The study shows the utility of model systems like zebrafish for studying cancer, and the advantage of a place like MSK, where basic scientists and clinicians can easily collaborate. MSK melanoma specialists Jedd Wolchok, Charlotte Ariyan, Travis Hollmann and Paul Chapman collaborated on the project.

“We started this in the zebrafish and were able to take it all the way through to human tissues,” White says. “It would have been tough to pull this off at another institution.”
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health Director’s New Innovator Award (DP2CA186572), the Mentored Clinical Scientist Research Career Development Award (K08AR055368), the Melanoma Research Alliance, the Pershing Square Sohn Foundation, the Alan and Sandra Gerry Metastasis Research Initiative at Memorial Sloan Kettering, the Harry J. Lloyd Foundation and Consano, the Starr Cancer Consortium, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Translational Research Oncology Training Program fellowship, and National Cancer Institute F32 Postdoctoral Training Grant (CA210536-01A1).

« on: August 15, 2018, 02:04:31 PM »
In studying the connection between body fat and cancer growth, researchers found that consuming fat changed the cancer cells’ behavior. Fat-fueled melanoma cells showed an enhanced capability to chew through collagen and cross membranes, allowing them to spread more easily. They also changed their metabolism to burn fat for energy instead of sugar.

The results led the team to wonder if blocking a melanoma’s ability to take up fat would dampen its aggressiveness. To test the premise, they used a drug to block a protein, called the FATP transporter, that enables the cancer cells to take in fat. Cancer cells have much more of this protein than normal cells, so they are more sensitive to the drug. As predicted, reducing the cells’ ability to take up fat slowed their growth and spread.White says the results could instruct a new treatment regime against melanoma. “Can we identify a subset of patients that are particularly lipid dependent? Those might be the ones who could benefit from an approach geared toward blocking fat uptake into the cells,” he says.

Human Nutrition / Cancer's Hidden Helper: Your Fat
« on: August 15, 2018, 02:01:17 PM »
Pound for pound, fat contains more energy than any other nutrient. So it’s perhaps not surprising that certain cancer cells show a clear preference for growth in fatty tissues.

According to a new study by researchers at the Sloan Kettering Institute (SKI) at Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK), melanomas prefer to grow near adipose (fat) tissue. The team, led by Richard White, a physician-scientist in the Cancer Biology and Genetics Program at SKI, showed that melanomas actively take in lipids if given the chance, and they tend to migrate toward tissues rich in fat cells.

“This is the seed-and-soil hypothesis,” White says. “Tumor cells like to go to places where there is fertile soil. Based on our results, we think that adipose tissue can be very fertile soil for melanoma.”

food safety / 10 facts on food safety
« on: August 08, 2018, 09:10:56 PM »
The great majority of people will experience a foodborne disease at some point in their lives. This highlights the importance of making sure the food we eat is not contaminated with potentially harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals.

Food can become contaminated at any point during production, distribution and preparation. Everyone along the production chain, from producer to consumer, has a role to play to ensure the food we eat does not cause diseases.

Fact 1: More than 200 diseases are spread through food.
1 in 10 people fall ill every year from eating contaminated food, and 420 000 people die each year as a result. Children under 5 years of age are at particularly high risk, with some 125 000 young children dying from foodborne diseases every year. Proper food preparation can prevent most foodborne diseases.

Fact 2: Contaminated food can cause long-term health problems.
The most common symptoms of foodborne disease are stomach pains, vomiting and diarrhoea. Food contaminated with heavy metals or with naturally occurring toxins can also cause long-term health problems including cancer and neurological disorders.

Fact 3: Foodborne diseases affect vulnerable people harder than other groups
Infections caused by contaminated food have a much higher impact on populations with poor or fragile health status and can easily lead to serious illness and death. For infants, pregnant women, the sick and the elderly, the consequences of foodborne disease are usually more severe and may be fatal.Fact 4: There are many opportunities for food contamination to take place
Today’s food supply is complex and involves a range of different stages including on-farm production, slaughtering or harvesting, processing, storage, transport and distribution before the food reaches the consumers.

Fact 5: Globalization makes food safety more complex and essential
Globalization of food production and trade is making the food chain longer and complicates foodborne disease outbreak investigation and product recall in case of emergency.

Fact 6: Food safety is multisectoral and multidisciplinary
To improve food safety, a multitude of different professionals are working together, making use of the best available science and technologies. Different governmental departments and agencies, encompassing public health, agriculture, education and trade, need to collaborate and communicate with each other and engage with the civil society including consumer groups.

Fact 7: Food contamination also affects the economy and society as a whole
Food contamination has far reaching effects beyond direct public health consequences – it undermines food exports, tourism, livelihoods of food handlers and economic development, both in developed and developing countries.

Fact 8: Some harmful bacteria are becoming resistant to drug treatments
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing global health concern. Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in agriculture and animal husbandry, in addition to human clinical uses, is one of the factors leading to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in animals may be transmitted to humans via food.

Fact 9: Everybody has a role to play in keeping food safe
Food safety is a shared responsibility between governments, industry, producers, academia, and consumers. Everyone has a role to play. Achieving food safety is a multi-sectoral effort requiring expertise from a range of different disciplines – toxicology, microbiology, parasitology, nutrition, health economics, and human and veterinary medicine. Local communities, women’s groups and school education also play an important role.

Fact 10: Consumers must be well informed on food safety practices
People should make informed and wise food choices and adopt adequate behaviors. They should know common food hazards and how to handle food safely, using the information provided in food labelling.

Source: World Health Organisation

The major difference between soybean and olive oil lies between their fat types; i.e. Soybean oil contains polyunsaturated fats; while Olive oil contains monounsaturated fats.
Almost all oils are obtained from some types of plant sources; while the oil categories contain different types of fats, according to which they differ and are uniquely identified. Consequently, Soybean oil is one of the types of vegetable oil; while Olive oil which is a fat is obtained from olive seeds. In today's world, Oils are making trends in the cooking and baking fields. They play the most essential ingredients role in many sectors; oils like soybean and olive are used in other fields like cosmetic and are applicable in the health related issues. These oils at some stage are recommended by the dieticians or physicists, in order to maintain a healthy and happy life.Soybean oil is most beneficial for baking, frying, cooking and salad dressings. The oil is obtained from the well known and cultivated soybean seeds; which are considered to be the rich source of proteins. The oil is rich in oxidation-prone linolenic acid; poly- and monounsaturated fats; low in saturated fats and trans fat-free; along with these compositions the oil is also a rich source of proteins.

Soybean oil is processed to form drying oil, which is further used in the applications of printing inks (soy ink) and oil paints. Other than cooking, the oil has tremendous number of decorating applications in mayonnaise, salad dressings, frozen foods, imitation dairy and meat products and commercially baked goods like margarine. Along with these the oil can also be used in shortening purposes in the old-fashioned pie crust or blended with a flavored vinegar for a new dressing, as the oil’s natural flavor gets adapted to the one in which it is used.
Olive oils are known for their rich and extra healthy benefits. From traditional times, olive oils are extracted from the olive seeds. The oil has unique types; they are categorized according to their extraction types into:
Extra Virgin olive oil- comes from the first pressing of the olives;
Virgin Olive oil - oil does not undergo any refinement;
Olive oil - it’s a blend of virgin olive oil and lower-quality refined olive oil
Olive Pomace oil - this is very refined olive oil, obtained from the residue that remains once the oil is pressed
Among the all above, the extra-virgin oil is regarded to be the best of all, sue to nits healthier cooking benefits.

The olive oils have applications in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, soaps and also it act as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive oils and their types are of particular flavor texture and shelf-life makes them more useful in different applications like, human direct consumption on bread, or salads; also applicable in the indirect consumption in domestic cooking and catering, along with the industrial uses such as animal feed or engineering. 

In comparison factors, soybean oil is one such type of oil which has a mild flavor and is easily applicable in the cooking fields; whereas olive oils and their categories are available in different flavors and features, hence, these are applicable according to their uses in the relevant fields. Both oils are obtained from plant sources, and both are liquid at room temperatures, but they have a major difference in the health related issues; i.e. soybean oil possessing polyunsaturated fats are known to lower down the total blood cholesterol level; whereas olive oils which posses the monounsaturated type of fats are known to lower the LDL (Lousy) Blood cholesterol level.

In regrds to health benefits, soyabean oil is being used as nutritional Supplement in Intravenous Feedings and has an
established role in the treatment of patients suffering from Alzheimer's Disease.
Olive OIL on the other hand has the following benefits:
-Reduce Breast Cancer Risk
-Maintain Healthy Cholesterol Levels
-Extra Virgin Olive Oil protects against Alzheimer's Disease
-Helps Prevent Acute Pancreatitis
-Protects the Liver
-Protects from Ulcerative Colitis
-Helps Prevent Stroke

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