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Topics - Saba Fatema

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Nutrition and Food Engineering / Recipe of white sauce
« on: January 09, 2014, 06:40:27 PM »
Recipe of white sauce:
•   2 tablespoons butter
•   3 tablespoons flour
•   1 cup milk
•   1/4 teaspoon salt
•   dash white pepper

1.   Melt butter.
2.   Whisk in flour, salt and pepper until smooth.
3.   Cook until bubbly, about 1 minute.
4.   Add milk.
5.   Whisk until smooth.
6.   Cook until thickened and smooth.


Nutrition and Food Engineering / Nutritional Benefits of Oranges
« on: January 09, 2014, 06:09:23 PM »

Nutritional Benefits of Oranges:

#1: It is helpful in inflammatory conditions
•   Various vitamin contents like Vitamin C are known as a powerful antioxidant for human body. Orange has the ability to reduce oxidant injuries. It provides resistance power against infectious agents.
•   Vitamin C protects the body against harmful and pro-inflammatory free radicals present in blood. As we know citrus fruits are rich in Vitamin C, orange is the best for the source of Vitamin C.
#2: Good for anti-aging
•   Presence of bioactive compound like Narigenin which is a good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and a good immune system provider helps in neutralizing the effect of free radicals and the unstable oxygen molecules in human body. These neutralizing effects clears the sign of aging like scars, wrinkles giving you the perfectskin letting you feel the glow and sparkle of your skin. This nutritional benefit of orange is more useful for aging women .
#3: Good for skin
•   Vitamins present in orange posses the good skin maintaining properties providing healthy, glowing, smooth and soft skin. This nutritional benefit of orange is used by cosmetic companies for making their product.

#4: Helps in losing weight
•   Nutritional benefits of oranges helps in losing weight as they are fat and calorie free fruit containing large amount of fiber. It also contains vital nutrients for human body like thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6, magnesium and copper.
•   All these contents with fat free elements help in losing weight and providing all necessary elements and vitamins for your body.
#5: Orange juice absorbs medicines in the body
•   One of the very good health benefit of orange juice is that it helps in absorbing the biochemical and physiological effects of medicines which help you cure your disease in a faster processes thus helping in absorbing medicines by the body.
#6. Good for vision
•   Orange contains a good percentage of Vitamin A and various flavonoid contents along with the antioxidant particles like alpha and beta carotenes, beta cryptoxanthin, zea-xanhin and lutein gives you a good skin. As we all know Vitamin A is most essential element for eye sight vision thus keeping your mucous membrane and skin of the eye healthy.
#7: Oranges control heartbeat and blood pressure
•   Large number of mineral present in orange helps to control the heart rate stable and moderate.
•   The minerals are like potassium and calcium controls the sodium action in the human body and maintains blood pressure and heart beat.
•   Oranges contain fiber with fat free, sodium free and cholesterol free properties keep your heart healthy.

#8: Prevents cancer
•   Large amount of Vitamin available in orange and other flavonoid antioxidants like alpha and beta carotenes and other antioxidant compounds which helps in preventing cancer.
•   The most useful nutrition fact of orange is that it is rich in flavonoid that prevents from lungs and cavity cancer.
#9: Orange peels lower blood sugar level
•   Orange peels contain low sugar percentage affect blood sugar levels. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome patients should take Glycemic load lower. This nutritional benefit of orange is useful for diabetic patients.
#10: It keeps balance in nutrition
•   Oranges have essential Vitamin contents, antioxidants, protein, water percentage, fiber, some necessary minerals that helps in keeping your body nutrition in a balanced manner.

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History of Mathematics / Biography: Rene Descartes
« on: September 12, 2013, 02:53:03 PM »

René Descartes (1596–1650) was born in the town of La Haye in southern France. From an early age  Descartes liked mathematics because of “the certainty of its results and the clarity of its reasoning.”He believed that in order to arrive at truth, one must begin by doubting everything, including one’s own existence; this led him to formulate perhaps the most well-known sentence in all of philosophy: “I think,therefore I am.” In his book Discourse on Method he described what is now called the Cartesian plane. This idea of combining algebra and geometry enabled mathematicians for the first time to “see” the equations they were studying. The philosopher John Stuart Mill called this invention “the greatest single step ever made in the progress of the exact sciences.”Descartes liked to get up late and spend the morning in bed thinking and writing. He invented the coordinate plane while lying in bed watching a fly crawl on the ceiling, reasoning that he could describe the exact location of the fly by knowing its distance from two perpendicular walls. In 1649 Descartes became the tutor of Queen Christina of Sweden. She liked her lessons at5 o’clock in the morning when, she said, her mind was sharpest. However, the change from his usual habits and the ice-cold library where they studied proved too much for him. In February 1650, after just two months of this, he caught pneumonia and died.

Science Discussion Forum / "Googol"
« on: April 27, 2013, 08:03:51 PM »
Edward Kasnar

A prominent American Mathematician Edward Kasner (April 2, 1878 – January 7, 1955) is perhaps best remembered today for introducing the term "googol." The name "googol" was invented by a child Milton Sirotta (in 1938), nine year-old nephew of Edward Kasner. He coined the term googol for the number 1 followed by 100 zeros (10100). At the same time he coined the term googolplex for the number 1 followed by a googol zeros (10googol = 1010100). Physicists believe that there are only about 1080 particles in the entire universe, considerably less than a googol. The Internet search engine "Google" originated from a misspelling of "googol" and "Googleplex " is the Google company headquarters.

Science Discussion Forum / The Car and the goat problem
« on: June 24, 2012, 04:42:01 PM »
"Suppose you're on a game show, and you're given the choice of three doors: Behind one door is a car; behind the others, goats. You pick a door, say No. 1, and the host, who knows what's behind the other doors, opens another door, say No. 3, which has a goat. He then says to you, 'Do you want to pick door No. 2?' Is it to your advantage to take the switch?"(Assuming, of course, that you are after the car, not the goat)?

This popular puzzler created a stir in 1991 when it appeared in the newspaper1 and received a lot of wrong answers from readers, even from some who were mathematicians. How do we think about a problem like this, a¬nd why is it so tricky?

1Tierney, John "Behind Monty Hall's Doors: Puzzle, Debate, and Answer?," New York Times, July 21, 1991.

Further reading
Isaac, R. The Pleasures of Probability, Undergraduate texts in Mathematics, Springer, 1995.

Science Discussion Forum / Does the king have a sister?
« on: June 24, 2012, 04:17:59 PM »
Consider the following problem to test our skills with conditional probability:

The king comes from a family of two children. What is the probability that the other child is his sister?

The sample space for this problem can be considered to be the set S of four pairs (B, B), (B, G), (G, B), (G, G), where B stands for "boy" and G stands for "girl" and the first and second positions in the pair denote first and second born children, respectively. To be able to do the problem some assumptions must be made. Once again, we shall assume each of the four outcomes is equally likely.
This problem is tricky-a lot of people think the answer should be 1/2. If the question had been "what is the probability that a person's sibling is a sister," then the answer would be 1/2. But in the given problem you are sneakily given the information in the wording of the problem that one child, the king, is male, and that information eliminates the outcome (G, G) in the sample space as a possibility. The remaining three outcomes of S become the conditional, or updated, sample space S' of which two outcomes have a B and a G, (B, B), (B, G), (G, B).
Therefore, the probability that the other child is his sister is 2/3.

Further reading
Isaac, R. The Pleasures of Probability, Undergraduate texts in Mathematics, Springer, 1995.

Alan Turing
British Mathematician, Computer Scientist

Alan Turing (1912-1954)

     At the dawn of the computer age, Alan Mathison Turing’s startling range of original thought led to the creation of many branches of computer science, ranging from the fundamental theory of computability to the question of what might constitute true artificial intelligence.
     Turing was born in London on June 23, 1912. His father worked in the Indian (colonial) Civil Service, and his mother came from a family that had produced a number of distinguished scientists. Because his parents were often away, Turing was raised mainly by relatives until he was of school age, and then went as a boarding student to various schools and finally going to Sherborne, a college preparatory school.
     As a youth, Turing showed great interest and aptitude in both physical science and mathematics, although he tended to neglect other subjects. One of his math teachers further observed that Turing “spends a good deal of time apparently in investigations of advanced mathematics to the neglect of elementary work.”
     When he entered King’s College, Cambridge, in 1931, Turing’s mind was absorbed by Einstein’s relativity and the new theory of quantum mechanics, subjects that few of the most advanced scientific minds could grasp. At this time, he also encountered the work of mathematician JOHN VON NEUMANN, a many-faceted mathematical genius who would also become a great computer pioneer. Meanwhile, Turing pursued the study of probability and wrote a well-regarded thesis on the Central Limit Theorem.
     Turing’s interest then turned to one of the most perplexing unsolved problems of contemporary mathematics. Kurt Gödel had shown that in any system of mathematics there will be some assertion that can be neither proved nor disproved. But another great mathematician, David Hilbert, had asked whether there was a way to tell whether any particular mathematical assertion was provable.
     Instead of pursuing conventional mathematical strategies to tackle this problem, Turing reimagined the problem by creating the Turing Machine, an abstract “computer” that performs only two kinds of operations: writing or not writing a symbol on its imaginary tape, and possibly moving one space on the tape to the left or right. Turing showed that from this simple set of states, any type of calculation could be constructed. His 1936 paper “On Computable Numbers,” together with ALONZO CHURCH’s more traditional logical approach, defined the theory of computability. After publishing this paper, Turing then came to America, studied at Princeton University, and received his Ph.D. in 1938.
     Turing did not remain in the abstract realm, however, but began to think about how actual machines could perform sequences of logical operations. When World War II erupted, Turing returned to Britain and went into service with the government’s secret code-breaking facility at Bletchley Park. He was able to combine his previous work on probability and his new insights into computing devices, such as the early special- purpose computer COLOSSUS, to help analyze cryptosystems, such as the German Enigma cipher machine, and to design specialized code breaking machines.
     As the war drew to an end, Turing’s imagination brought together what he had seen of the possibilities of automatic computation, and particularly the faster machines that would be possible by harnessing electronics rather than electromechanical relays. In 1946, after he had moved to the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington, England, he received a government grant to build the Automatic Computing Engine, or ACE. This machine’s design incorporated such advanced programming concepts as the storing of all instructions in the form of programs in memory without the mechanical setup steps required for machines such as the ENIAC. Another of Turing’s important ideas was that programs could modify themselves by treating their own instructions just like other data in memory. However, the engineering of the advanced memory system ran into problems and delays, and Turing left the project in 1948 (it would be completed in 1950). Turing also continued his interest in pure mathematics and developed a new interest in a completely different field, biochemistry.
     Turing’s last and perhaps greatest impact would come in the new field of artificial intelligence. Working at the University of Manchester as director of programming for its Mark 1 computer, Turing devised a concept that became known as the Turing test. In its best-known variation, the test involves a human being communicating via a Teletype with an unknown party that might be either another person or a computer. If a computer at the other end is sufficiently able to respond in a humanlike way, it may fool the human into thinking it is another person. This achievement could in turn be considered strong evidence that the computer is truly intelligent. Since Turing’s 1950 article, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” computer programs such as ELIZA and Web “chatter bots” have been able to temporarily fool people they encounter, but no computer program has yet been able to pass the Turing test when subjected to extensive, probing questions by a knowledgeable person.
     Turing also had a keen interest in chess and the possibility of programming a machine to challenge human players. Although he did not finish his chess program, it demonstrated some relevant algorithms for choosing moves, and led to later work by CLAUDE E. SHANNON, ALLEN NEWELL, and other researchers—and ultimately to Deep Blue, the computer that defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997.
     However, the master code breaker Turing himself held a secret that was very dangerous in his time and place: He was gay. In 1952, the socially awkward Turing stumbled into a set of circumstances that led to his being arrested for homosexual activity, which was illegal and heavily punished at the time. The effect of his trial and forced medical “treatment” suggested that the coroner was correct in determining Turing’s death from cyanide poisoning on June 7, 1954, a suicide.
     Alan Turing’s many contributions to computer science were honored by his being elected a Fellow of the British Royal Society in 1951 and by the creation of the prestigious Turing Award by the Association for Computing Machinery, given every year since 1966 for outstanding contributions to computer science.
     In recent years, Turing’s fascinating and tragic life has been the subject of several autobiographies and even the stage play and TV film Breaking the Code.

Excerpt from the book
1.     Henderson, H. A to Z of Computer Scientists, Facts on File, Inc. 2003.

2.     Alan Turing’s Automatic Computing Engine The Master Codebreaker’s Struggle to Build the Modern Computer
Edited by B. Jack Copeland, Oxford University Press, 2005

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