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Allied Health Science / Summer and health
« on: March 15, 2020, 04:21:03 PM »
Here are some of the most common illnesses during summers that you need to guard against and here are some useful tips to do just that:

Heat Stroke

Heat stroke is a severe form of hyperthermia and is caused due to excessive absorption of heat by the body. A highly common phenomenon during the summers, heat stroke can increase the body temperature to 40°C. With rise in body temperature, nausea, vomiting and headaches occur frequently. All these are possible signs of a person suffering from a heat stroke. A person suffering from a heat stroke must be immediately taken to a cool place, excess clothing removed and efforts need to be made cool the person down by spraying cold water or placing them in a tub of cold water.
Plums can help avoid heatstroke
Plums can help avoid heatstroke

How to Avoid Heat Stroke: Wear clothes which are light in weight and fit loosely so that there’s enough air circulation. Drinking plenty of fluids is a must for everyone during the summers to keep the body hydrated and allow it to maintain a normal temperature. Those who work outdoors should drink fluids frequently and rest in cool spots at intervals. Plums, coriander and mint leaf juice and aloe vera juice helps in the prevention of heat stroke.


Dehydration is caused when outgo of fluids from the body is more than the intake. Dehydration is the most common summer ailment as we unknowingly keep losing a lot of water from the body, either due to too much sweating or due to urination. The main symptom of dehydration is thirst, which can go up to unbearable levels at times. Severe dehydration can also cause headaches, vomiting, persistent tiredness and in extreme cases, seizures and diarrhoea.
Coconut water is highly effective in prevention of dehydration
Coconut water is highly effective in prevention of dehydration

How to Avoid Dehydration: The most effective dehydration treatment is to drink plenty of water and fluids. Doctors recommend drinking 2 litres of water every day for adults. Fluids such as onion juice, buttermilk and coconut water are also useful in preventing dehydration.


Sunburns are red, swollen patches of skin caused due to excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. Sunburns can be mild or severe, depending on the duration of exposure to the sun. Sunburns should not be taken lightly, as it is a serious factor for skin cancer. Sunburns can be identified by severely reddened and swollen skin and pain in the affected area. In cases of severe sunburn there are symptoms of fever, chills, nausea and vomiting in the patient.
Sunscreens help prevent exposure to UV rays
Sunscreens help prevent exposure to UV rays

How to Avoid Sunburn: Sunscreens or sunblocks available commercially can be used to avoid the body from getting exposed to harmful UV rays of sunlight. Apply these 15 to 30 minutes before exposure to the sun to avoid sunburns.

Prickly Heat Rash

Prickly heat is an itchy and painful combination of body rashes developed due to excessive sweating and blockage of sweat glands. Prickly heat rashes are common among people who sweat a lot and in children whose sweat glands are not yet developed properly. Prickly heat rashes can interfere with the body’s heat regulating mechanism and cause severe exhaustion.
Talcum powder is effective in preventing prickly heat rashes
Talcum powder is effective in preventing prickly heat rashes

How to Avoid Prickly Heat Rash: To avoid prickly heat rashes, it is advisable to avoid excessive sweating. Hot, humid environments and strenuous physical activities should be avoided. Shower often and apply talcum powder to keep the skin dry, and wear loose clothes made out of cotton.

Foot Infection

Foot fungus is another common ailment affecting people in summers. These are caused due to sweat or bacteria accumulation in the feet, especially near toenails, in summer. Foot fungus not only looks ugly, but if left untreated, may cause infection. Foot fungus also tends to affect one toenail after another, and hence should be treated as soon as the first symptoms are seen.
Clean shoes and socks are a must to avoid feet infection in summer
Clean shoes and socks are a must to avoid feet infection in summer

How to Avoid Foot Infection: Ensure that the feet don’t sweat excessively, especially for those who work outdoors. Clean shoes and socks are a must during summers. Use a shoe sanitiser to clean your shoes regularly and get rid of any germs or bacteria.

Allied Health Science / Heat exhaustion and heatstroke
« on: March 15, 2020, 04:16:25 PM »

Symptoms of heat exhaustion and heatstroke

Symptoms of heat exhaustion are:

    Muscle cramps
    Heavy sweating
    Pale or cold skin
    Weakness and/or confusion
    Nausea or vomiting
    Fast heartbeat
    Dark-colored urine, which indicates dehydration

In addition to these symptoms, warning signs of heatstroke also include:

    Fever of 104°F or higher
    Flushed or red skin
    Lack of sweating
    Trouble breathing

What causes heat exhaustion and heatstroke?

Heat-related illnesses occur when your body can’t keep itself cool. As the temperature rises, your body produces sweat to stay cool. On hot, humid days, the increased moisture in the air slows down this process. When your body can’t cool, your temperature rises and you can become ill.

Hot weather and exercise are the main causes of heat exhaustion and heatstroke. In hot settings, you need to be mindful of the temperature outside. The heat index is not the same as the temperature. It measures the air temperature plus the effects of humidity. A heat index of 90°F or higher calls for extreme caution. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures increases your risk of heat-related illnesses.
How are heat exhaustion and heatstroke diagnosed?

If a person is displaying known heat illness symptoms, take their temperature. A reading of 104°F or more means they probably have heatstroke. You should call 911 and get medical care right away.
Can heat exhaustion and heatstroke be prevented or avoided?

There are many things you can do to prevent heat-related illnesses. Babies, children, and elderly people are more sensitive to heat and require extra attention. You also are at greater risk if you are ill or obese, or have heart disease. People who work outside or in a hot setting also are at risk of heat exhaustion and heatstroke.

Don’t go outside when the temperature and heat index are high. If possible, stay indoors in air-conditioned areas. If you must go outside, take the following precautions.

    Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing.
    Protect yourself from the sun by wearing a hat or using an umbrella.
    Use sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher.
    Drink plenty of water throughout the day. Dehydration and lack of salt contribute to heat-related illnesses. Some sports drinks can help replenish the salt in your body lost through sweating. Drink water or other fluids every 15 to 20 minutes, even if you don’t feel thirsty. If your urine is clear, you are probably drinking enough fluids. Dark-colored urine is a sign that you’re dehydrated.
    Avoid or limit drinks that contain caffeine (such as tea, coffee, and soda) or alcohol.
    Schedule outdoor activities for cooler times of the day — before 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m.
    Take frequent breaks from the heat and outdoor activities.
    Do not stay or leave a child in your car when it is hot outside. Even if you open the windows, the intense heat can be extremely dangerous.

Certain medicines can put you in danger of heatstroke. They affect the way your body reacts to heat. Talk to your doctor if you take any of these or have an ongoing health problem. They can help you manage the heat with your condition. These medicines include:

    Allergy medicines (antihistamines)
    Some medicines used to manage blood pressure, cholesterol, and heart disease (beta-blockers and vasoconstrictors)
    Some medicines that treat mental health problems (antidepressants and antipsychotics)
    Seizure medicines (anticonvulsants)
    Water pills (diuretics)
    Some diet pills
    Prescription acne medicines
    Illegal drugs, such as cocaine (amphetamines)

Heat exhaustion and heatstroke treatment

If you or someone else has heat exhaustion, treat symptoms in the following ways.

    Get out of the heat quickly and into a cool place, or at least shade.
    Lie down and elevate your legs to get blood flowing to your heart.
    Take off any tight or extra clothing.
    Apply cool towels to your skin or take a cool bath. This will help regulate and lower your internal body temperature.
    Drink fluids, such as water or a sports drink. Do not guzzle them, but take sips. Do not drink fluids with caffeine or alcohol.

Allied Health Science / 39 Facts That Will Make You Excited for Summer
« on: March 03, 2020, 11:24:12 AM »
Americans eat enough hot dogs on July 4 to stretch from Washington, D.C., to Los Angeles five times.
secretly hilarious things

That's more than 150 million (!) hot dogs, according to the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council. But that's not all: Between Memorial Day and Labor Day, Americans consume a whopping 7 billion hot dogs, or 818 every second.
The term the "dog days of summer" comes from astronomy.
sirius the dog star

This phrase wasn't inspired by lethargic, overheated pups. The "dog" in question is Sirius the Dog Star, which rises in the sky during late July as a part of the Greater Dog constellation, according to National Geographic. To the Greeks and Romans, the "dog days" indicated the hottest time of the year, a period that was said to bring fever and other types of catastrophe.
The world's largest cruise ship is the length of four football fields.

Cruise Ship South Africa

The world's largest ship, Royal Caribbean's Harmony of the Seas, is composed of 18 decks and is around 1,200 feet long. A football playing field is 100 yards, which is 300 feet, making the ship four times longer than an NFL field!
Humans are scientifically proven to be happier in the summer.
woman laughing on gold background, what do you call jokes

If you notice yourself feeling more chipper in the warmer months, you're definitely not alone. For a 2011 study published in the journal Science, researchers looked at the tweets of some 2.4 million people around the world for two years. They found that when the change in daylight was positive (i.e. in the approach to the summer solstice), people posted significantly happier tweets than they did when the change in daylight was negative (i.e. in the approach to the winter solstice).
The longest barbecue on record lasted 80 hours.
Vegetables Roasting on the Grill Weight Loss Advice

No matter how epic your summer BBQ, it probably couldn't beat the longest one ever. Over the course of 80 hours (or 3.3 days), grillmaster Jan Greef of Columbus, Georgia, cooked up 1,000 hot dogs, 558 burgers, 526 boerewors (South African sausage), 104 pieces of chicken, and 200 pieces of corn. He set the record on April 27, 2014, according to Guinness World Records.
There's an annual Underwater Music Festival in the Florida Keys.

scuba diving hobbies

There are plenty of music festivals to check out in the summer. But if you want to experience something truly unique, then head to the Underwater Music Festival at Looe Key Reef in Florida. Held annually for more than three decades, the festival includes a pre-selected radio playlist that is streamed live from underwater speakers to an audience of snorkelers and divers.
The number of whales spotted near New York City has increased by 540 percent since 2010.
humpback whale, crazy facts

And that's a really, really good thing. Thanks to cleaner waters, which are a result of several environmental policies—including the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and the Marine Mammal Protection Act—the number of whales (mostly humpbacks) spotted in the waters off New York City has risen from just five sightings in 2010 to 272 in 2018, according to the non-profit Gotham Whale.
One of the most stunning meteor showers of the year peaks in mid-August.
meteor streak during purseid meteor shower

If you're an avid stargazer, you'll be excited to learn that the most visible annual meteor shower takes place in the summer, according to NASA. Active between July 14 and August 24, the Perseids shower peaks around mid-August. At that time, up to 100 meteors will streak across the sky every hour at a speed of 37 miles per second. The Perseids are best viewed in the Northern Hemisphere during the pre-dawn hours, so you might want to schedule an early morning adventure!
The Eiffel Tower gets six inches taller in the summer.
surprising copyright trademark
Shutterstock/Tom Eversley

If you want to see the Eiffel Tower in all of its glory, then you might want to head to Paris in the summer. That's because the 1,062-foot monument is more than six inches taller in the heat, thanks to thermal expansion, which causes the iron structure to expand, according to the Los Angeles Times. Even crazier, once the sun sets the tower begins to shrink again.
The biggest bonfire ever was 14 stories tall.

things to be thankful for

It takes skill to build a successful bonfire—or perhaps just a lot of lighter fluid—but you'd need to be a real pro to light one that could top the biggest bonfire ever recorded. On June 25, 2016, after three months of construction, the world's largest bonfire was lit in Ålesund, Norway. It burned for two days and reached a height of 155 feet and 5.9 inches, according to Guinness World Records.
There are more than 300 varieties of watermelon.
slices of watermelon

Did you know there were 30 different types of watermelon, let alone 300?! That's according to the Watermelon Board. The most popular include seeded, seedless, and mini watermelons (all of which feature the familiar pinky-red interior), but there are also yellow and orange ones.
More babies are born in the summer than any other time of year.

Candles on Birthday Cakes

Summer isn't just wedding season—it's also prime time for birthdays. According to 2017 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), August is the most popular birthday month, with 12.7 percent of birthdays occurring then. September, June, and July come in second and third (yep, there's a tie here), with 12.6 percent, 12.1 percent, and 12.1 percent, respectively.
The Lexis Hibiscus Port Dickson resort has a record-setting 643 pools.
pools at the lexis hibiscus port dickson resort

Many hotels offer pools, but the Lexis Hibiscus Port Dickson resort in Malaysia has 643 of 'em! According to research acknowledged by Guinness World Records, which only considered pools larger than 4.9 feet by 6.5 feet, the Lexis Hibiscus boasts the most pools of any resort in the world. That's probably because each villa (pictured above) has its own private place to plunge.
The number of sea turtle nests in Florida has increased more than 85,000 percent in the past 40 years.
baby turtle on its way to the sea

If you head to certain beaches this summer, you'll be able to spot more baby sea turtles than ever before in recent history. That's because these animals' numbers are on the rise—largely thanks to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1979, there were 62 known North Atlantic green sea turtle nests in Florida. By 2017, that number had climbed to 53,102, according to the Center for Biological Diversity.
There's enough water in an Olympic-size pool to take 9,400 baths.

Olympic sized pool

Consider this: Olympic pools contain about 660,000 gallons of water, while the average bath contains about 70. That means if you were to drain an Olympic pool and use it to fill your tub, you'd be set at bath time for the next 25 years (assuming you take one bath a day).
There's a 100-year-old midnight baseball game tradition in Alaska.

Baseball glove

Since 1906, the Alaska Goldpanners of Fairbanks have marked the summer solstice with an annual baseball game. Known as the Midnight Sun Game, the ball play starts at 10:30 p.m. and extends until after midnight. However, there's no need to light the field, since the area experiences nearly 24 hours of daylight during the summer months.
You could spend the night in a historic lighthouse on the ocean's edge.
heceta lighthouse oregon

Anyone who loves the sea might want to book a night or two at the Heceta Head Lighthouse on the Central Oregon Coast (that's a photo of it, above). The lighthouse has been helping mariners navigate the Pacific Ocean since 1894 and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Today, visitors can stay in six different rooms in the lightkeeper's cottages. Outside, they can enjoy a stunning view, as the lighthouse is perched on a cliff some 205 feet above the ocean.
There is a World Margarita Championship held each August in Arizona.

margarita with lime

Plan a trip to Tucson, Arizona, in early August to witness the World Margarita Championship. The event promises to be "an unforgettable evening of spirited cocktail competitions, tastings of world-class Margaritas and tequilas, the cuisine of the southwest, and more." Attendees can vote for their favorite margarita for the "People's Choice Award," but a panel of expert judges chooses the official world champ.
The only way to get to the world's only underwater hotel is to scuba dive.
school of sea fish in the ocean, astonishing facts

Located in the lagoon at Key Largo Undersea Park in Florida, Jules' Undersea Lodge is only accessible to divers. Thankfully, the hotel offers training to anyone who wants to visit their unusual accommodations, which sit 21 feet underwater on the lagoon floor. Once you're submerged in your suite, you'll enjoy a lounge area, a fully stocked kitchen, and bedrooms that boast views of the fish outside.
The world's largest surfboard collection includes about 650 boards.
surfboard fence in hawaii

For some surfers, the thrill is all about catching the waves. But for Donald Dettloff of Maui, the surfboards are just as exciting. In 2009, Dettloff set the world record for the largest collection of surfboards, according to Guinness World Records. Even better? You can visit them. Dettloff wires each of his 647 boards to a fence at his home (that's a piece of it, above), a practice he started in 1990 to keep them from blowing away in a hurricane.
There was once a year without summer.
volcano errupting

You might appreciate the warm and sunny weather a little more when you find out that two centuries ago, there was a "year without summer," according to USA Today. In 1816, after a massive volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia produced enough dust, ash, and sulfur dioxide to partially cloud the Earth's atmosphere, the entire planet experienced a drop in temperature as well as other winter-like conditions, such as snow in June and frost in August.
Popsicles were invented by accident.

Fruit pops

If an icy popsicle is your summer treat of choice, you have an 11-year-old boy to thank. According to NPR, the snacks were invented by accident, courtesy of young Frank Epperson of San Francisco in 1905. As the story goes, Epperson had mixed some sugary soda powder with water and left it out overnight.

The mixture froze—and it didn't take long for Epperson to realize he made a delicious mistake. He began selling "Epsicles" around his neighborhood and then to a nearby amusement park in 1923. He finally applied for a patent in 1924. The rest, as they say, is history.
Each summer, we outdo ourselves at the movies—breaking box office records year after year.
marvel's the avengers highest-grossing summer movies

Action-packed films like Avengers: Infinity War, Deadpool 2, and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom kept moviegoers on the edge of their seats in 2018, which is why audiences spent 11 percent more seeing summer blockbusters last summer than they did the summer before, according to Variety.

In 2019, blockbuster buffs are expected to top thanks to a stellar summer lineup, including Dark Phoenix (June 7), Men in Black: International (June 14), Toy Story 4 (June 21), Spider-Man: Far From Home (July 2), The Lion King (July 19), and Fast & Furious Presents: Hobbs & Shaw (August 2).
The world's largest inflatable pool toy was a swan that stood 70-feet tall.
inflatable pool toy, swan in a pool

These days, it's hard to scroll through your Instagram feed without seeing tons of pool floats. The water toys aren't just for kids anymore; they come in a range of shapes, from lobsters and ducks to avocados and pizza. However, the largest float ever was a blue swan. In 2017, AT&T and iHeartRadio created the largest inflatable pool toy ever, which measured 70.52 by 50.31 by 54.41 feet, according to Guinness World Records.
A special type of firefly lights blue as opposed to white.
Synchronous fireflies Great Smoky Mountains National Park Surreal Places in the U.S.

Spotting fireflies is one of the highlights of summer. But if you happen to be in the Southern Appalachians, you might be able to catch a glimpse of a ghost firefly—and you'll know it if you see it because it will glow a unique blue-green shade.
It's possible to visit all 30 Major League Baseball stadiums in 30 days.
LA dodgers baseball stadium

If you don't mind spending a lot of time in the car, you could feasibly visit all 30 Major League Baseball stadiums in one 30-day road trip. To help people plan their trips, Harvard analyst Ben Blatt created an algorithm that takes teams' schedules into account to find the shortest possible route. When schedules aren't considered, the fastest possible trip starts with a visit to the Los Angeles Dodgers, moves south through Texas, then up the East Coast and back west toward Los Angeles to see the Los Angeles Angels.
Adults can attend a four-day sleepaway camp for just a few hundred dollars.


If you want to relive the fun of sleepaway camp as an adult—or if you missed out in your younger years—you totally can! For $410, you can attend the weeklong New England Adult Music Camp. Or, if you'd prefer a more outdoorsy experience, you can attend the four-day Camp Throwback for $320. There, you can participate in archery, arts and crafts, campfires, s'mores, and field day.
The record for the most people making sand angels simultaneously is 1,387.

Bora Bora

You may have made a snow angel during the winter, but have you ever made a sand angel during the summer? On June 10, 2017, 1,387 people did just that on Stearns public beach on Lake Michigan when they set a world record for the most people making sand angels simultaneously, according to Guinness World Records.
The world's longest lazy river is nearly a mile long.
lazy river with inflatable tube

Want to do a lap around the world's longest lazy river? You'll need to set aside approximately an hour. That's how long it takes to complete the 3/4-mile loop at BSR Cable Park in Waco, Texas.
Hawaii hosts the largest international ukulele festival.


Since it began in 1971, the Ukulele Festival Hawaii has attracted approximately 20,000 people each year. And it's not just Hawaiians who participate—ukelele artists from around the world attend and perform at the festival to keep the art of the ukelele alive. The centerpiece of the celebration is a ukelele band of more than 800 musicians!
Tug-of-war was once an Olympic sport.

Tug of War Amazing Facts

If someone at your next summer barbeque suggests playing tug-of-war, you can tell them that the game was once featured in the Olympics. "Appearing for the first time at the Paris Games in 1900, the tug-of-war survived on the program up to and including the Antwerp Games of 1920," according to Time. "Official rules stipulated that an eight-man team had to pull their opponents six feet to win." Apparently, the Brits were the team to beat; they won two golds and a silver medal in the years the sport was played.
The hottest days of the year occur between July 15 and July 31 in the U.S.
Fan blowing at the window, home problems

Different parts of the country experience different types of weather. But one thing most regions have in common is the time of year they see their most sweltering days. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, most locations in the contiguous U.S. experience their warmest days between July 15 and July 31.
Spending time in nature is proven to boost your mood.

couple on a hike - free date ideas

Another reason you're probably happier in summer? There are a lot more opportunities to get out in nature. One 2015 study published in the journal Landscape and Urban Planning found that when people took a 50-minute walk in a natural environment (as opposed to an urban one), they felt happier and experienced decreased levels of anxiety. So go ahead, use the warmer weather as an excuse to head out to your nearest park or green space for a mood-boosting stroll.
Americans drink billions of glasses of iced tea a year.

Long Island Iced Tea, Gin and Tea, cocktails

According to the Tea Association, Americans consumed 3.8 billion gallons of tea in 2018—and approximately 75 to 80 percent of that was of the iced variety. Iced tea became popular in the U.S. after the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis. That was the year tea-maker Richard Blechynden put his hot tea over ice to help cool off overheated fair attendees.
There is a national registry of impressively large trees.
birch tree forest, most common street names

In 1940, the American Forestry Association (now American Forest) launched a campaign to locate the largest trees in the country. They asked the public to nominate large trees in their area and added those trees to the National Register of Champion Trees. Today, that register still exists. You can search it to find a large tree near you, or nominate one that you think is worthy.
The busiest water park in the country attracts the same number of people each year as the population of Houston, Texas.

Disney Typhoon Lagoon water park

In 2013, Typhoon Lagoon at Walt Disney World in Florida attracted more people than any other park, according to the Global Attractions Attendance Report. Their total visitor count, 2.1 million, is just a tiny bit short of the entire population of Houston, Texas (2.3 million).
The longest line of garden flamingos featured 1,500 birds!

plastic flamingo

Those who appreciate a kitschy outdoor aesthetic will likely be thrilled by the longest line of garden flamingos ever assembled. On June 21, 2018, Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy in Buffalo, New York, set up 1,500 of the fabulously flamboyant faux birds.

After the record was achieved, all of the flamingos were "available for adoption." Those that didn't find new homes were picked up by a recycling company that intended to melt them down and turn them into benches for local public parks.

Fruit gets way cheaper in the summer.
Fruit Basket in the Kitchen Transform Small Kitchen

Fresh fruit is quite a bit cheaper once the temperatures rise. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, strawberries cost around $3.17 per pound in December 2018 and just $1.94 per pound in June; similarly, lemons cost $2.40 in December 2018 and just $2.12 in June. Fruits like apricots, blueberries, melon, cherries, and corn are also in season (and often cheaper) in the summer months.

You could enjoy the summer nearly all year round thanks to different hemispheres.
families with kids having a picnic outside, outdoor games memorial day weekend

That's right, the fun doesn't have to end! The Northern Hemisphere experiences summer between June and August (with it sometimes stretching into September) while summer in the Southern Hemisphere starts in December and lasts until March. That means, if you're willing and able to relocate every few months, you could feasibly enjoy summer nearly all year round! And for the things you probably dislike about the warmer weather, check out 30 Worst Th

Allied Health Science / Adenoids in children
« on: March 02, 2020, 11:15:09 AM »
What Are Adenoids?

Adenoids are a patch of tissue that sits at the very back of the nasal passage. Like tonsils, adenoids help keep the body healthy by trapping harmful bacteria and viruses that we breathe in or swallow.

Adenoids (AD-eh-noyds) do important work as infection fighters for babies and young children. But they become less important as a child gets older and the body develops other ways to fight germs. In kids, adenoids usually begin to shrink after about 5 years of age and often practically disappear by the teen years.
What Are Enlarged Adenoids?

Because adenoids trap germs that enter the body, adenoid tissue sometimes temporarily swells (becomes enlarged) as it tries to fight an infection. Allergies also can make them get bigger.

The swelling sometimes gets better. But sometimes, adenoids can get infected (this is called adenoiditis). If this happens a lot, a doctor might recommend they be removed. Often, tonsils and adenoids are surgically removed at the same time.
What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Enlarged Adenoids?

Kids with enlarged adenoids might:

    have trouble breathing through the nose
    breathe through the mouth (which can lead to dry lips and mouth)
    talk as if the nostrils are pinched
    have noisy breathing ("Darth Vader" breathing)
    have bad breath
    stop breathing for a few seconds during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea), which can lead to disturbed sleep. This in turn can cause learning, behavioral, growth, and heart problems, and sometimes bedwetting.
    have frequent or chronic (long-lasting) nose or sinus infections
    have ear infections, middle ear fluid, and hearing loss

How Are Enlarged Adenoids Diagnosed?

The doctor may ask about and then check your child's ears, nose, and throat, and feel the neck along the jaw. To get a really close look, the doctor might order X-rays or look into the nasal passage with a tiny telescope.

For a suspected infection, the doctor may prescribe different types of medicine, like pills or liquids. Nasal steroids (a liquid that is sprayed into the nose) might be prescribed to help reduce swelling in the adenoids.
What Is an Adenoidectomy?

An adenoidectomy (ad-eh-noy-DEK-teh-me) is the surgical removal of the adenoids. It's one of the most common surgical procedures done on children, along with the removal of tonsils.

If swollen adenoids bother your child and don't respond to medicine, a health care provider may recommend an adenoidectomy.
What Happens Before the Adenoidectomy?

A child with obstructive sleep apnea might need an X-ray or a sleep study (polysomnogram) before the procedure. This lets doctors see how much nasal blockage there is. An ear, nose, and throat (ENT) doctor might look inside the nose with a light or a camera.

adenoidectomy illustration

Your health care provider will let you know if your child should stop taking any medicines in the week or two before the surgery. You'll also learn about what and when your child can eat and drink before the surgery, since the stomach must be empty on the day of the adenoidectomy.

You can help prepare your child by talking about what to expect during the adenoidectomy.
What Happens During the Adenoidectomy?

An ENT surgeon will do the surgery in an operating room. Your child will get general anesthesia. This means an anesthesiologist will carefully watch your child and keep him or her safely and comfortably asleep during the procedure.

The surgery is done through your child's open mouth — there are no cuts through the skin and no visible scars.
Can I Stay With My Child During the Adenoidectomy?

You can stay with your child until the anesthesiologist gives medicine, and then you will go to a waiting area until the surgery is over.
How Long Does an Adenoidectomy Take?

An adenoidectomy usually takes about 20 to 30 minutes, though it can take a little longer.
What Happens After the Adenoidectomy?

Your child will wake up in the recovery area. In most cases, kids can go home the same day as the procedure. Some may need to stay overnight for observation.

The typical recovery after an adenoidectomy often involves a few days of mild pain and discomfort, which may include sore throat, runny nose, noisy breathing, or bad breath.

In less than a week after surgery, everything should return to normal and the problems caused by the adenoids should be gone. There are no stitches to worry about, and the adenoid area will heal on its own.
Are There Any Risks From Adenoidectomy?

Most kids have no serious side effects or problems from an adenoidectomy. But there are risks with any surgery, including infection, bleeding, and problems with anesthesia. Talk to your child's doctor before the procedure about its risks and benefits.

Allied Health Science / Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus
« on: March 01, 2020, 06:43:32 PM »

There is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus. However, as a reminder, CDC always recommends everyday preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory diseases, including:

    Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
    Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
    Stay home when you are sick.
    Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
    Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.
    Follow CDC’s recommendations for using a facemask.
        CDC does not recommend that people who are well wear a facemask to protect themselves from respiratory diseases, including COVID-19.
        Facemasks should be used by people who show symptoms of COVID-19 to help prevent the spread of the disease to  others. The use of facemasks is also crucial for health workers and people who are taking care of someone in close settings (at home or in a health care facility).
    Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom; before eating; and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
        If soap and water are not readily available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Always wash hands with soap and water if hands are visibly dirty.


There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms. For severe cases, treatment should include care to support vital organ functions.

People who think they may have been exposed to COVID-19 should contact their healthcare provider immediately.

The ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat diet that shares many similarities with the Atkins and low-carb diets.

It involves drastically reducing carbohydrate intake and replacing it with fat. This reduction in carbs puts your body into a metabolic state called ketosis.

When this happens, your body becomes incredibly efficient at burning fat for energy. It also turns fat into ketones in the liver, which can supply energy for the brain.
Ketogenic diets can cause massive reductions in blood sugar and insulin levels. This, along with the increased ketones, has numerous health benefits.

Different Types of Ketogenic Diets

There are several versions of the ketogenic diet, including:

    Standard ketogenic diet (SKD): This is a very low-carb, moderate-protein and high-fat diet. It typically contains 75% fat, 20% protein and only 5% carbs (1Trusted Source).
    Cyclical ketogenic diet (CKD): This diet involves periods of higher-carb refeeds, such as 5 ketogenic days followed by 2 high-carb days.
    Targeted ketogenic diet (TKD): This diet allows you to add carbs around workouts.
    High-protein ketogenic diet: This is similar to a standard ketogenic diet, but includes more protein. The ratio is often 60% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbs.

However, only the standard and high-protein ketogenic diets have been studied extensively. Cyclical or targeted ketogenic diets are more advanced methods and primarily used by bodybuilders or athletes.

Foods to Avoid

Any food that is high in carbs should be limited.

Here is a list of foods that need to be reduced or eliminated on a ketogenic diet:

    Sugary foods: Soda, fruit juice, smoothies, cake, ice cream, candy, etc.
    Grains or starches: Wheat-based products, rice, pasta, cereal, etc.
    Fruit: All fruit, except small portions of berries like strawberries.
    Beans or legumes: Peas, kidney beans, lentils, chickpeas, etc.
    Root vegetables and tubers: Potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, parsnips, etc.
    Low-fat or diet products: These are highly processed and often high in carbs.
    Some condiments or sauces: These often contain sugar and unhealthy fat.
    Unhealthy fats: Limit your intake of processed vegetable oils, mayonnaise, etc.
    Alcohol: Due to their carb content, many alcoholic beverages can throw you out of ketosis.
    Sugar-free diet foods: These are often high in sugar alcohols, which can affect ketone levels in some cases. These foods also tend to be highly processed.

Foods to Eat

You should base the majority of your meals around these foods:

    Meat: Red meat, steak, ham, sausage, bacon, chicken and turkey.
    Fatty fish: Such as salmon, trout, tuna and mackerel.
    Eggs: Look for pastured or omega-3 whole eggs.
    Butter and cream: Look for grass-fed when possible.
    Cheese: Unprocessed cheese (cheddar, goat, cream, blue or mozzarella).
    Nuts and seeds: Almonds, walnuts, flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds, etc.
    Healthy oils: Primarily extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil and avocado oil.
    Avocados: Whole avocados or freshly made guacamole.
    Low-carb veggies: Most green veggies, tomatoes, onions, peppers, etc.
    Condiments: You can use salt, pepper and various healthy herbs and spices.


While most of us have to worry about limiting our intake of fried foods, bacon, eggs, or anything that we’re told is on the “cholesterol-raising list” of the moment, a few people can eat all these things and more without fear. In fact, no matter what they consume, their “bad cholesterol” (blood levels of low-density lipoprotein, associated with heart disease) remains virtually non-existent.

These people were born with a genetic mutation. More specifically, they lack working copies of a gene known as PCSK9, and while it’s usually unlucky to be born with a missing gene, in this case, it seems to have some positive side effects.

After scientists discovered the relationship between this gene (or lack thereof) and cholesterol about 10 years ago, drug companies have worked frantically to create a pill that would block PCSK9 in other individuals. The drug is close to getting FDA approval. In early trials, patients who have taken it have experienced as much as a 75-percent reduction in their cholesterol levels.

So far, scientists have only found the mutation in a handful of African Americans, and those with it have the benefit of a 90-percent reduced risk of heart disease.

Resistance To HIV

All sorts of things could wipe out the human race—asteroid strikes, nuclear annihilation, and extreme climate change, just to name a few. Perhaps the scariest threat is some type of super-virulent virus. If a disease ravages the population, only the rare few who are immune would have a chance of survival. Fortunately, we know that certain people are indeed resistant to particular diseases.

Take HIV, for example. Some people have a genetic mutation that disables their copy of the CCR5 protein. HIV uses that protein as a doorway into human cells. So, if a person lacks CCR5, HIV can’t enter their cells, and they’re extremely unlikely to become infected with the disease.

That being said, scientists say that people with this mutation are resistant rather than immune to HIV. A few individuals without this protein have contracted and even died from AIDS. Apparently, some unusual types of HIV have figured out how to use proteins other than CCR5 to invade cells. This type of resourcefulness is why viruses are so scary.

Folks with two copies of the defective gene are most resistant to HIV. Currently, that includes only about 1 percent of Caucasians and is even more rare in other ethnicities.

Malaria Resistance

Those who have an especially high resistance to malaria are carriers of another deadly disease: sickle cell anemia. Of course, no one wants the ability to dodge malaria only to die prematurely from malformed blood cells, but there is one situation where having the sickle cell gene pays off. To understand how that works, we have to explore the basics of both diseases.

Malaria is a type of parasite carried by mosquitoes that can lead to death (about 660,000 people per year) or at the very least make someone feel at death’s door. Malaria does its dirty work by invading red blood cells and reproducing. After a couple days, new malaria parasites burst out of the inhabited blood cell, destroying it. They then invade other red blood cells. This cycle continues until the parasites are stopped through treatment, the body’s defense mechanisms, or death. This process causes a loss of blood and weakens the lungs and liver. It also increases blood clotting, which can spark a coma or seizure.

Sickle cell anemia causes changes in the shape and makeup of red blood cells, which makes it difficult for them to flow through the blood stream and deliver adequate levels of oxygen. However, because the blood cells are mutated, they confuse the malaria parasite, making it difficult for it to attach and infiltrate the blood cells. Consequently, those who have sickle cells are naturally protected against malaria.

You can get the anti-malaria benefits without actually having sickle cells, so long as you’re a carrier of the sickle cell gene. To get sickle cell anemia, a person has to inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent. If they only get one, they have enough abnormal hemoglobin to resist malaria yet will never develop full-fledged anemia.

Because of its strong protection against malaria, the sickle cell trait has become highly naturally selected in areas of the world where malaria is widespread, with as much 10–40 percent of people carrying the mutation.
7Tolerance For Coldness


Vitiligo causes the skin, hair, and even nails to lose color. There is no treatment, but it can be slowed down. Winnie Harlow, pictured above, is a model who has vitiligo. She is known for the white patches on her skin, and she is proud of them. We agree — they are beautiful. One of the most well-known cases of vitiligo was Michael Jackson, who lost 100% of his skin pigmentation.

 Mixed twins

No matter how strange it might sound, these 2 girls are identical twins. The genetic work behind this mutation is very complex. Yet it may result in “same-egg” kids looking completely different. Imagine the parents’ surprise when they saw their babies for the first time!



A lock of white hair in newborns and adults — if you’ve seen one, they are most likely to have piebaldism. This is a rare genetic condition where a person is missing cells called melanocytes. It causes a white patch of skin to appear (mostly on the forehead) along with white hair. We think it looks unusual and magical, as if a person arrived from a fantasy story.


This is probably the most well-known syndrome in the world. Albinism affects people of all ethnic groups. Albinos not only look different but also have a set of different health conditions such as deafness, vision impairment, and the like. In some parts of the world, such as Africa, albinos face life-threatening conditions on a daily basis. Some African peoples believe that, if captured, their body parts can be used in witchcraft to bring luck and prosperity. Sometimes albinos’ unique looks play a bad game on them.

 Waardenburg syndrome

Waardenburg syndrome is a mutation in human genes that results in a person having blue eyes but also deafness and other unpleasant conditions. Not all genetic disorders that lead to attractive characteristics in the appearance are pleasant. As you can see, Waardenburg syndrome is one of them.

Distichiasis or double eyelashes

Elizabeth Taylor, one of the most renowned actresses in the world, had double eyelashes. This condition that made her eyes look even more attractive is a genetic mutation called distichiasis. Very few people have this condition, and it doesn’t always look that pretty as lashes can grow unevenly, making the bearer get rid of them surgically.

 Heterochromia iridum or multiple colors in eyes

If you have friends or family with different eye colors or multiple colors, then they have heterochromia iridum. This mutation causes the eyes to be different colors or the pigmentation to be sparse across the iris. Imagine having one blue and one brown eye — there is something very cool about it.


This is probably the most unlikely mutation that can be considered beautiful. Gigantism, especially in its worst forms, is a very serious condition that results in many illnesses and early death. But there is the positive example of Elisany da Cruz Silva. This Brazilian girl, despite having had a pituitary gland tumor, grew to be 6′ 9″ tall and even took on a modeling job. Luckily, the tumor was removed in time, and Elisany stopped growing.

Cleft chin

Some people believe that a cleft chin shows a person’s strong character, but, in reality, it is the result of the failed fusion of the chin bones during an embryo’s development. Simply, a gene that helps the bones to fuse together is missing in that embryo. So next time you say someone has a “butt chin,” think about how unfortunate he or she is to not have that gene.

 Red hair in people of African descent

Albinism, and also the mutation in the MC1R gene inherited from parents or grandparents of different ethnicity, may cause people of African and Asian origin to have auburn hair, freckles, or blue eyes. The Australian aborigines have had a similar mutation for hundreds of years.

 Ocular albinism

Ocular albinism, a rare genetic condition, affects only the eyes, causing pigment to disappear from the iris. When we see children from a primarily dark-eyed family having blue or green eyes, they are most likely ocular albinos. Now, this might be a mutation to dream about if you are brown-eyed and wish to have a child with blue or green eyes!

Genetics and genomes are fascinating and have meant a lot for human health and understanding our makeup. To celebrate this amazing part of science and being a living organism, we at Genolevures would like to share a few interesting facts. There are so many interesting things about genetics and genomes that we had a hard time choosing the best ones. We hope you enjoy our end-selection.

    The structure of the DNA molecule was discovered decades ago. In 1953, the structure of the DNA molecule was discovered by James D Watson and Francis Crick. This means that the journey to discover genetics and DNA started more than 50 years ago.
    The human genome is amazing. We all know we have 46 chromosomes as humans. However, did you know that those 46 chromosomes are made up of 3 200 million base pairs? Yes, that is a fact – the human genome is made up of 3 200 million base pairs.
    Only a small number of cancers are genetic-related. Most of the cancers originate because of environmental factors. The rest (approximately 5 to 10%) is a result of genetic heritance. So, while genetics can definitely play a part and should be considered, your environment and what you eat, drink and do play a bigger part.
    We may be genetically programmed not to live longer than 120 years. In theory, scientists think that us humans have the genetic coding that prevents us from getting older than 120 years of age. This is due to a limited amount of times that cells can divide.
    We share more genetic material than you may think. Two people can share as much as 99.9% of the same genetic material. That is a mind-blowing fact. Just think about it. The person sitting next to you could be made up of almost the exact same genetics as you.
    Europeans are HIV resistant. The plagues that plagued European countries in the middle ages have made a small percentage of Europeans resistant to the HIV virus. This is because of a genetic mutation caused by the plagues. Approximately 10% of Europeans carry this mutation and are resistant to HIV.
    We share genetic similarities with several unexpected species. Humans and chimpanzees share 98% of the same genetic material. We also share 21% of our genetic makeup with mice and 7% with E. coli bacteria. How’s that for mind-boggling?

Nutrition and Food Engineering / Observable Human Characteristics
« on: November 29, 2018, 03:16:29 PM »
Earlobe attachment

If earlobes hang free, they are detached. If they connect directly to the sides of the head, they are attached. Earlobe attachment is a continuous trait: while most earlobes can be neatly categorized as attached or unattached, some are in-between.

Although some sources say that this trait is controlled by a single gene, with unattached earlobes being dominant over attached earlobes, no published studies support this view. Earlobe attachment and shape are inherited, but it is likely that many genes contribute to this trait. As such, its pattern of inheritance is difficult to predict.
Earlobe attachment
Tongue Rolling

Some people can curl up the sides of their tongue to form a tube shape. In 1940, Alfred Sturtevant observed that about 70% of people of European ancestry could roll their tongues and the remaining 30% could not.

Many sources state that tongue rolling is controlled by a single gene. However, as Sturtevant observed, people can learn to roll their tongue as they get older, suggesting that environmental factors—not just genes—influence the trait. Consistent with this view, just 70% of identical twins share the trait (if tongue rolling were influenced only by genes, then 100% of identical traits would share the trait).
Tongue Rolling

Dimples are small, natural indentations on the cheeks. They can appear on one or both sides, and they often change with age. Some people are born with dimples that disappear when they’re adults; others develop dimples later in childhood.

Dimples are highly heritable, meaning that people who have dimples tend to have children with dimples—but not always. Because their inheritance isn't completely predictable, dimples are considered an “irregular” dominant trait. Having dimples is probably controlled mainly by one gene but also influenced by other genes.


Handedness describes our preference for using either our left or right hand for activities such as writing and throwing a ball. Overall, about 10% of people are left-handed, but the number varies among cultures from 0.5% to 24%.

Some have reported that handedness is controlled by just one or two genes, but this is not the case. Multiple studies present evidence that handedness is controlled by many genes—at least 30 and as many as 100—each with a small effect; many are linked to brain development. Environment also plays an important role: some cultures actively discourage left-handedness.

Freckles are small, concentrated spots of a skin pigment called melanin. Most fair-skinned, red-haired people have them.

Freckles are controlled primarily by the MC1R gene. Freckles show a dominant inheritance pattern: parents who have freckles tend to have children with freckles.

Variations, also called alleles, of MC1R control freckle number. Other genes and the environment influence freckle size, color, and pattern. For example, sun exposure can temporarily cause more freckles to appear.
Curly hair

Round hair follicles make straight hair, flattened or c-shaped hair follicles make curly hair, and oval hair follicles make wavy hair. Hair texture is a continuous trait, meaning that hair can be straight or curly or anywhere in between.

Curly hair is influenced by genes much more than by the environment. While curly hair runs in families—people with curly hair tend to have children with curly hair—its inheritance patterns are often unpredictable.

Multiple genes control hair texture, and different variations in these genes are found in different populations. For instance, curly hair is common in African populations, rare in Asian populations, and in-between in Europeans. Straight hair in Asians is mostly caused by variations in two genes—different genes from the ones that influence hair texture in Europeans. And different genetic variations make hair curly in African and European populations.
Curly Hair
Hand clasping

Without thinking about it, fold your hands together by interlocking your fingers. Which thumb is on top—your left or your right?

One study found that 55% of people place their left thumb on top, 45% place their right thumb on top, and 1% have no preference. A study of identical twins concluded that hand clasping has a strong genetic basis (most twins share the trait), but it doesn’t fit a predictable inheritance pattern. It is likely affected by multiple genes as well as environmental factors.
Hand Clasping
Red/Green Colorblindness

Red-green colorblindness is caused by a single gene located on the X-chromosome. This gene codes for a protein in the eye that detects certain colors of light. When this gene is defective, the eye cannot differentiate between red and green.

You need at least one working copy of the gene to be able to see red and green. Since boys have just one X-chromosome, which they receive from their mother, inheriting one defective copy of the gene will render them colorblind. Girls have two X-chromosomes; to be colorblind they must inherit two defective copies, one from each parent. Consequently, red-green colorblindness is much more frequent in boys (1 in 12) than in girls (1 in 250).

Red-green color blindness follows a very predictable recessive, sex-linked inheritance pattern. A woman with one defective copy of the gene and one functional copy, even though she is not colorblind herself, is known as a "carrier." She has a 50% chance of passing the defective copy to each of her children. Half of her sons will be colorblind, and half of her daughters will be carriers.
Hairline shape

If your hairline forms a point at the center of the forehead, you have a widow's peak. If not, you have a straight hairline. While some sources say that widow’s peak is a dominant trait controlled by one gene, no scientific study supports this claim. Complicating the question of heritability is the fact that the trait is continuous: some people have just a slight suggestion of a peak.

Widow's peak is likely controlled by genes rather than the environment. But while hairline shape tends to run in families, its pattern of inheritance is usually unpredictable, suggesting that multiple genes are involved.
PTC tasting

To about 75% of us, the chemical PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) tastes very bitter. For the other 25%, it is tasteless. The ability to taste PTC is controlled mainly by a single gene that codes for a bitter-taste receptor on the tongue. Different variations, or alleles, of this gene control whether PTC tastes bitter or not.

PTC tasting follows a very predictable pattern of inheritance. Tasting is dominant, meaning that if you have at least one copy of the tasting version of the gene, you can taste PTC. Non-tasters have two copies of the non-tasting allele.

Nutrition and Food Engineering / Re: 10 Unusual Genetic Mutations in Humans
« on: November 29, 2018, 03:15:18 PM »
6. Lesch–Nyhan Syndrome
LNS is a genetic disorder that affects one in every 380,000 births, nearly all of them boys. It results in an overproduction of uric acid — a waste product of normal chemical processes that’s found in blood and urine. But individuals with Lesch-Nyhan release excess uric acid through their blood which builds up under the skin causing gouty arthritis. It can also cause kidney and bladder stones.

The disease also affects neurological function and behavior. Individuals exhibit involuntary body movements, like tensing muscles, jerking movements, and flailing limbs. Self-mutilating behaviors are also common, including head banging, and lip and finger biting. Individuals can be given allopurinol to help with the gout, but treatments for the neurological and behavioral aspects of the disease remain out of reach.
7. Ectrodactyly

Formerly known as “lobster claw hand, ”individuals with this disorder have a cleft where the middle finger or toe should be. These split-hand/split-foot malformations are rare limb deformities which can manifest in any number of ways, including cases including only the thumb and one finger (typically the little finger or little finger). It’s also associated with hearing loss. Genetically speaking, it’s caused by several factors, including deletions, translocations, and inversions in chromosome
8. Proteus Syndrome

In conjunction with neurofibromatosis type I, this is the disease that likely afflicted Joseph Merrick, the so-called Elephant Man. It’s a condition in which bones, skin, and other tissues are overgrown. Individuals typically have organs and tissues that grow out of proportion with the rest of their body, and because the overgrowth varies and exhibits no apparent order, it can result in strange and imbalanced features. Signs of the disorder don’t usually appear until about 6 to 18 months after birth. The severity of proteus syndrome varies from individual to individual, and it occurs in less than one in one million people. And in fact, only a few hundred documented cases have ever been reported.

The disorder results from a mutation in the AKT1 gene (which regulates cell growth), causing mosaicism; as cells grow and divide, some cells exhibit the mutation while others do not. The resulting mixture of normal and abnormal cells is what causes the overgrowth.
9. Trimethylaminuria

This genetic disorder is so rare that its rate of incidence is not even known. But it’s very obvious when someone with trimethylaminuria is standing next to you. Individuals with the condition, because they cannot break down the naturally occurring — but pungent smelling — trimethylamine, literally smell like rotting fish, rotting eggs, garbage, or urine. It’s for this reason that it’s also called the Fish Odor Syndrome. Trimethylaminuria is found in sweat, urine, exhaled breath, and other bodily secretions. But for individuals with this disorder, typically women (for unknown reasons) it shows up in abnormal amounts. The severity of the odors seem to peak just before and during menstrual periods and after taking oral contraceptives; there may be a link to female sex hormones like progesterone or estrogen.
10. Marfan Syndrome

While unusual in its manifestations, this genetic disease is fairly common. Marfan syndrome is a disorder of the connective tissues, and it appears in about one in every 10,000 to 20,000 births. Interestingly, nearsightedness (or myopia), is a common form of the disease. But it’s more renowned for the way it causes bones to overgrow and create loose joints. People with Marfan Syndrome tend to have long and thin arms and legs. Overgrown ribs can cause the chest bone to bend inward or push outward. Spinal curvature is another problem.

It’s a myth, by the way, that Lincoln had it (he probably had Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B). But other famous people with Marfan include Sergei Rachmaninoff, Robert Johnson, and Bradford Cox of Deerhunter/Atlas Sound fame (featured in image at left). Javier Botet, the actor who recently spooked audiences as the bendy ghost in Mama, also has Marfan syndrome.

Nutrition and Food Engineering / 10 Unusual Genetic Mutations in Humans
« on: November 29, 2018, 03:13:29 PM »
1. Progeria

This genetic disorder is as rare as it is severe. The classic form of the disease, called Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria, causes accelerated aging.
Most children who have progeria essentially die of age-related diseases around the age of 13, but some can live into their 20s. Death is typically caused by a heart attack or stroke. It affects as few as one per eight million live births.

The disease is caused by a mutation in the LMNA gene, a protein that provides support to the cell nucleus. Other symptoms of progeria include rigid (sclerotic) skin, full body baldness (alopecia), bone abnormalities, growth impairment, and a characteristic “sculptured” nasal tip.
2. Uner Tan Syndrome
Uner Tan syndrome is a somewhat controversial condition, whose most obvious property is that people who suffer from it walk on all fours. UTS is a syndrome that was proposed by the Turkish evolutionary biologist Üner Tan after studying five members of the Ulaş family in rural Turkey. These individuals walk with a quadrupedal locomotion, use primitive speech, and have a congenital brain impairment (including “disturbed conscious experience”). The family was featured in a 2006 BBC2 documentary called, "The Family That Walks On All Fours." Tan describes it like this:

    The genetic nature of this syndrome suggests a backward stage in human evolution, which is most probably caused by a genetic mutation, rendering, in turn, the transition from quadrupedality to bipedality. This would then be consistent with theories of punctuated evolution.

The new syndrome, says Tan, “may be used as a live model for human evolution.” Some experts think this is bunk, and that genetics may have very little to do with it.
3. Hypertrichosis

Hypertrichosis is also called “werewolf syndrome” or Ambras syndrome, and it affects as few as one in a billion people; and in fact, only 50 cases have been documented since the Middle Ages.
People with hypertrichosis have excessive hair on the shoulders, face, and ears. Studies have implicated it to a rearrangement of chromosome 8. It happens due to a disruption of the “crosstalk” between the epidermis and the dermis as hair follicles form in the 3-month fetus at the eyebrows and down to the toes. Normally, signals from the dermis send the messages to form follicles. As a follicle forms, it sends signals to prevent the area around it from also becoming a follicle, which results in the equal spacing of our five million or so follicles. Most of our body parts ignore the messages to form follicles, which explains why most of us are relatively hairless.

4. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis
Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is an extremely rare disorder that makes people prone to widespread human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. This infection causes scaly macules and papules (cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas) to grow on the hands, feet, and even face. These skin “eruptions” appear as wart-like lesions — and even wood-like and horn-like growths — with reddish-brown pigmented plaques. Typically, the skin tumors start to emerge in people between the age of 20 and 40, and the growths tend to appear on areas exposed to the sun. Also called Lewandowsky-Lutz dysplasia, there is no known cure, though treatments to scale back the growths are possible.

The disorder was brought to the public’s attention in November 2007 when a video of a 34-year-old Indonesian man named Dede Koswara appeared on the internet. In 2008, he underwent surgery to have 13 pounds (6 kg) of the warts removed. After the lesions and horns were extracted from his hands, head, torso, and feet, his hands were grafted with new skin. In all, about 95% of the warts were removed.

5. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder (SCID)
The disease was made famous by virtue of the 1976 film, The Boy in the Plastic Bubble, a story inspired by the lives of David Vetter and Ted deVita. In the movie, a boy is forced to live in plastic isolation for fear of exposure to unfiltered air and the introduction of life-threatening pathogens. In real life, Vetter lived in this condition for 13 years, but he died in 1984 following an unsuccessful bone marrow transplant (a failed attempt to help him fight infections).

And indeed, the disorder is caused by a number of genes, including those that cause defects in both T and B cell responses — which has a downstream negative effect on the production of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell). SCID is also thought to arise due to the lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA). Interestingly, SCID was the first human illness treated by human gene therapy in 1990, and is increasingly being used to treat children. Image: Baylor College of Medicine Archives.

More than 99 percent of your genetic information is exactly the same as every other person on the planet. Your genes determine your skin colour, sex, and hair colour and whether or not you have certain genetic diseases.

But it's in that less than 1 percent that things get interesting. Specific genetic variations allow some of us to acquire certain - dare we say super - qualities. Here are the ways our genes can predispose us to have special abilities.

ACTN3 and the super-sprinter variant

We all have a gene called ACTN3, but certain variants of it help our bodies make a special protein called alpha-actinin-3. This protein controls fast-twitch muscle fibres, the cells responsible for the speedy tensing and flexing of the muscles involved in sprinting or weight-lifting.

This discovery, which happened around 2008 when geneticists studying elite sprinters and power athletes found that very few among them had two defective ACTN3 copies, is what led to the gene being dubbed the 'sports gene'.

Among the general population, however, some 18 percent of us are completely deficient in the speedy-muscle-contracting protein - we inherited two defective copies of ACTN3.

hDEC2 and the super-sleeper mutation

Imagine if you could feel totally energised on just 4 hours of sleep each night. Some people are naturally that way.

These people are called 'short-sleepers', and scientists are only recently uncovering what exactly predisposes them to be this way.

For the most part, researchers believe that the capabilities are connected to specific genetic mutations, and have publicly identified one on the hDEC2 gene.

That means that short-sleeping habits can run in the family, and scientists hope to one day learn how to harness this ability so it can be used to help people switch up their sleeping routines.

TAS2R38 and the supertaster variant

About a quarter of the population tastes food way more intensely than the rest of us.

These 'super tasters' are more likely to put milk and sugar in bitter coffee, or avoid fatty foods. The reason for their reaction, scientists think, is programmed into their genes, specifically one called TAS2R38, the bitter-taste receptor gene.

The variant responsible for super tasting is known as PAV, while the variant responsible for below-average tasting abilities is known as AVI.

LRP5 and the unbreakable mutation

Brittle bones pose a big problem. Researchers have identified a genetic mutation on the LRP5 gene that regulates bone-mineral density, which can cause brittle, weak bones.

So far, scientists have identified multiple mutations to the LRP5 gene that appear to be linked with bone conditions, including juvenile primary osteoporosis and osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome.

But a different type of mutation on the same gene could also have the opposite effect, giving some people extremely dense bones that are practically unbreakable.

The malaria-protecting variant

People who are carriers for sickle-cell disease - meaning that they have one sickle gene and one normal haemoglobin gene - are more protected against malaria than those who are not.

Though blood disorders are not necessarily 'super', this information may influence more innovative malaria treatments down the road.

CETP and the low-cholesterol mutation

Although environment - including what we eat - can influence cholesterol levels, genetics play a big role, too.

Mutations in a gene responsible for producing a protein called cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) result in a deficiency of that protein. CETP deficiency is linked with having higher levels of 'good' HDL cholesterol, which helps carry cholesterol to the liver so it can be removed from the body, resulting in lower cholesterol levels.

Studies have also found a lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in people with the deficiency-causing mutation.

BDNF and SLC6A4 and the super coffee-drinker variants

There are at least six genes associated with how your body processes caffeine.

Some variants, near the genes BDNF and SLC6A4, influence the rewarding effects of caffeine that make you want to drink more.

Others are linked to how the body metabolises caffeine - those who break caffeine down more quickly may be more likely to drink more of it because the effects wear off faster.

Others still help explain why some people are able to fall asleep at night after their daily morning coffee while others have to cut out the habit altogether to get a good night's sleep.

ALDH2*2: The super-flusher variant

Do your cheeks go rosy shortly after having a single glass of wine? A mutation on the ALDH2 gene may be the culprit.

One such mutation interferes with the ability of a liver enzyme called ALDH2 to convert the alcohol byproduct acetaldehyde into acetate.

When acetaldehyde builds up in the blood, it opens up the capillaries, causing what we see as a flush or glow.

But there's another dangerous component of acetaldehyde - it's a carcinogen in people, and research suggests that people who flush when they drink alcohol may have the mutation and may also be at a greater risk of esophageal cancer.

Clinical Nutrition / HungerFree: 10 surprising facts about hunger
« on: August 11, 2018, 10:28:26 AM »

    Hunger is the world’s number one health risk; it kills more people every year than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined. (World Food Program)

    Some 925 million people are malnourished in the world today. (World Food Program)

    One in seven people in the world will go to bed hungry tonight. (World Food Program)

    Children whose development is stunted by hunger and malnutrition lose 5 to 10 percent in lifetime earnings. (World Food Program)

    If we spent U.S. $11.8 billion a year, we could reach 90 percent of stunted children in the 36 highest-burdened countries. This would cost less than the $13.6 billion U.S. consumers spend per year on potato and tortilla chips. (World Vision Child Health Now report)

    Worldwide, 115 million children under the age of 5 are underweight. (World Health Organization)

    Asia and the Pacific region is home to over half the world’s population — and nearly two-thirds of the world’s hungry people. (Food and Agriculture Organization)

    Supplementation with vitamins can reduce risk of child mortality from all causes by 23 percent. (2009 UNICEF report: Tracking Progress on Child and Maternal Nutrition)

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent form of malnutrition worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Eradicating iron deficiency can improve national productivity levels by as much as 20 percent. (World Health Organization)

    Some 1 million babies’ lives could be saved if all mothers were encouraged and supported to exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of life. (World Vision Child Health Now report)

Clinical Nutrition / 20 facts you may not know about Global Hunger
« on: August 11, 2018, 10:27:15 AM »
1) Hunger and malnutrition kill more people every year than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined.

2) Every five seconds a child dies because he or she was hungry.

3) There are more than 800 million people around the world who know what it is like to go to bed hungry.

4) The world produces enough food to feed everyone but still these 800 million remain chronically hungry.

5) In Sub-Saharan Africa alone, there are 198 million hungry people.

6) More than 2 million people are likely to be dependent on food aid in the Darfur region of western Sudan by next year.

7) Almost 10 million people are killed around the world each year by hunger and malnutrition. That is more than the total number of people who died in World War I.

8) One out of every three people in Sub-Saharan Africa suffers from hunger.

9) Almost a quarter of the world's hungry people live in Africa.

10) Good nutrition helps prolongs the life of HIV sufferers.

11) Africa has already lost more farmers to AIDS (7 million) than there are farmers in Europe and North America.

12) By 2020, HIV is expected to have killed 20% of southern Africa's farm workers.

13) HIV and hunger work together. Malnutrition accelerates the progress of HIV. HIV worsens malnutrition.

14) There are 11 million AIDS orphans in sub-Saharan Africa. Most never learnt how their parents grew or prepared food.

15) 10 pence a day is all it takes to feed a hungry child at school.

16) Hunger is inherited. Each year 17 million children are born underweight because their mothers are malnourished.

17) Providing pregnant mothers with nutritionally balanced food can reduce the likelihood of an underweight baby by 32%.

18) In the 1990s, global poverty dropped by 20% but the number of undernourished people around the world increased.

19) The World Food Programme devotes a larger proportion of its assistance (on average half) to Africa than any other UN agency or individual government donor.

20) Food aid from the World Food Programme has reached 1.2 billion of the world's poor over the past 4 decades - that's almost the equal to the population of India.

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