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Messages - nfe fouzia

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Nutrition and Food Engineering / Lathyrism
« on: July 28, 2013, 01:47:33 PM »
Lathyrism or neurolathyrism is a neurological disease of humans and domestic animals, caused by eating certain legumes of the genus Lathyrus. This problem is mainly associated with Lathyrus sativus (also known as  Kesari Dhal, Khesari Dhal ) and to a lesser degree with Lathyrus cicera, Lathyrus ochrus and Lathyrus clymenum containing the toxin ODAP. The lathyrism resulting from the ingestion of Lathyrus odoratus seeds (sweet peas) is often referred to as odoratism or osteolathyrism, which is caused by a different toxin (beta-aminopropionitrile) that affects the linking of collagen, a protein of connective tissues.


The consumption of large quantities of Lathyrus grain containing high concentrations of the glutamate analogue neurotoxin β-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP, also known as β-N-oxalyl-amino-L-alanine, or BOAA) causes paralysis, characterized by lack of strength in or inability to move the lower limbs. A unique symptom of lathyrism is the atrophy of gluteal muscles (buttocks). ODAP is a poison of mitochondria leading to excess cell death, especially in motor neurons.


This disease is prevalent in some areas of Bangladesh, Ethiopia, India and Nepal, and affects more men than women. The reason for this is unclear. Female hormones have been suggested to offer a measure of protection, but also less food allocation and less oxidatively stressful activity are plausible.


Recent research suggests that sulfur amino acids have a protective effect against the toxicity of ODAP.

Food preparation is also an important factor. Toxic amino acids are readily soluble in water and can be leached. Bacterial (lactic acid) and fungal fermentation is useful to reduce ODAP content. Moist heat (boiling, steaming) denatures protease inhibitors which otherwise add to the toxic effect of raw grasspea through depletion of protective sulfur amino acids.

The underlying cause for excessive consumption of grasspea is a lack of alternative food sources. This is a consequence of poverty and political conflict. The prevention of lathyrism is therefore a socio-economic challenge.

Nutrition and Food Engineering / Eating Out
« on: November 18, 2012, 02:18:48 PM »

    Have a plan. Eat a light dinner if you ate a big lunch that day. Or if you know ahead of time that you're going to a restaurant, cut back on calories during other meals that day.
    Knowing menu terms and cooking basics makes ordering easier, especially if you need to control calories, fat and other nutrients. Look for foods that are steamed, broiled, baked or grilled, and limit fried and sautéed items or foods described as "crispy," "rich" or "au gratin."

Choosing a Restaurant:

    Think ahead. Consider meal options at different restaurants and look for places with a wide range of menu items.


    Balance your meal by including foods from all the different food groups: meat, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and grains. Look for freshly made entrée salads that give you "balance in a bowl." For example, entrée salads with chicken, cheese or almonds provide protein along with fiber and vitamins. If you are counting calories, use a low-fat dressing or skip some of the extras, like croutons.

    For sandwich toppings, go with low-fat options like lettuce, tomato and onion; use condiments like ketchup, mustard or relish; and low-fat for fat-free dressings.

    Round out your meal by ordering healthy side dishes, such as a side salad with low-fat or fat-free dressing, baked potato or fruit. Boost the nutritional value of your baked potato by topping it with vegetables, salsa or chili.

    Substitute. Ask for a side salad with low-fat dressing to replace fries in a combination meal.

    Many restaurants honor requests, so don't be afraid to be assertive, ask menu questions and make special requests to meet your nutritional needs.

    Many restaurants serve huge portions, sometimes enough for two or three people. Order menu items that contain fewer calories and eat a smaller portion. Bring leftovers home for another meal.


    Eat slowly. It takes about 20 minutes for your brain to get the message from your stomach that you are no longer hungry. Fast eaters often are overeaters, while slow eaters tend to eat less and are still satisfied.

Eating Out with Kids:

    Choose a restaurant that caters to children and has a healthy children's menu that includes smaller portion sizes and meals designed to provide ample nourishment for smaller bodies.

    For kids' meals, opt for milk as a beverage and fruit for dessert.

    Order kids plain foods with sauce on the side.

    Substitute healthier "sides" in place of fries, like carrots or apple slices.

    Choose two or three suitable menu items, then let your child pick one.

    Let kids order their familiar favorites when they eat out. For new foods, offer a bite or two from your order.

    Calcium is important at all ages, but especially for growing bones. To get more calcium, drink low-fat or fat-free white or chocolate milk or add a slice of cheese to their sandwich. Choose dairy-based treats like yogurt, a milkshake or frozen dairy dessert.

Restaurants may be intimidating to people trying to stick to a healthy diet, but with preparation and confidence, you can enjoy your restaurant meal without abandoning healthy eating.

good one

Nutrition and Food Engineering / Healthful Vegetarian Meal Ideas
« on: November 18, 2012, 02:04:48 PM »
A vegetarian diet can include just as many tasty varieties as one including meat. Don't hesitate to get creative in the kitchen. Try these healthful, vegetarian meal ideas:


    Cereal with milk (soymilk if vegan)
    Whole-wheat toast with margarine or jelly and a piece of fresh fruit
    Instant oatmeal with nuts, raisins and (soy)milk


    Vegetable sandwich (tomatoes, peppers, onions, avocado) with or without (soy)cheese on whole-grain bread
    Vegetable soup with a piece of whole-grain toast
    Vegetable burger or falafel with (soy)cheese, mushrooms and tomato on whole-grain bread
    Pita bread filled with vegetables or peanut butter
    Chili with beans, textured vegetable protein and (soy)cheese.


    Tofu stir-fry with brown rice
    Whole-grain pasta with tomato sauce plus vegetables (mushrooms, tomatoes, eggplant, peppers and onions)
    Tacos or burritos filled with beans, textured vegetable protein, tofu or tempe
    Pizza with or without cheese and topped with vegetables, tofu or meat substitute.


    Dried fruits
    Trail mix
    Rice cakes
    Smoothies made with calcium fortified rice milk, soymilk or cow's milk
    Bagels with nut butter
    Instant soups.

Nutrition and Food Engineering / A scary list of health risk of obesity
« on: November 18, 2012, 01:57:04 PM »
Nutrition and health science is constantly evolving; still the obesity poses an alarming threat to the whole human being. In fact over the last decades, a wide array of independent studies has tended to confirm some conclusions about the relationship between excess body fat and associated health risks.  But what we can conclude is that anyone who is considerably overweight is at higher risk for a number of potential health problems. Heart condition, high blood pressure, diabetes, colon cancer, liver damage, gallstones and others are the condition which you must aware of. Type 2 diabetes is the other risk factor of obesity. This disorder will keep your blood sugar is above normal, as a result of which can park other health problems like stroke, kidney disease, and coronary heart disease.

Cardiovascular problem:
Obese people are more toward s the cardiovascular disease, in this condition the individual’s heart is not capable of pumping enough blood to the different body organs. As a result of which they cannot carry on with their normal physiological functions. However in some case the people get enlarged heart which is usually caused by the thickening of the heart muscle.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome:
Especially women those who are obese have a threat towards the Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.  Once you get affected with the ovarian syndrome your ovaries will develop cysts due to high levels of the male hormone Androgen which is secreted in high amounts. In fact it has been noticed that some of women develop fibroids, benign growths, in the muscles of the uterus as a result of which menstrual cycle gets disturbed, causing pain and heavy bleeding. Hence it is always advisable for women to live a happy and active life style.

Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease:
 Obese people develop G E R D syndrome and spontaneously and cause the stomach contents of the stomach, including its digestive juices, to rise up. They will start feeling severe heart burn as well as several medical complications.

Fatty Liver Diseases:
This disease is characterized by the accumulation of fat can cause liver damage, inflammation and the formation of fibrous tissue in this vital organ. Finally this condition leads to sclerosis and sometimes it may be fatal also.  Hence it is advised to eat healthy food, drink adequate amounts of water and be physically active.
Choleithiasis, Colorectal Cancer, chronic renal failure, memory loss, diabetes and depression are the other risk associated with obesity which you must aware of it.

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