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Topics - hasanmahmud

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Software Engineering / What is Linked Data?
« on: July 15, 2017, 10:26:28 AM »
The Semantic Web is a Web of Data — of dates and titles and part numbers and chemical properties and any other data one might conceive of. The collection of Semantic Web technologies (RDF, OWL, SKOS, SPARQL, etc.) provides an environment where application can query that data, draw inferences using vocabularies, etc.
However, to make the Web of Data a reality, it is important to have the huge amount of data on the Web available in a standard format, reachable and manageable by Semantic Web tools. Furthermore, not only does the Semantic Web need access to data, but relationships among data should be made available, too, to create a Web of Data (as opposed to a sheer collection of datasets). This collection of interrelated datasets on the Web can also be referred to as Linked Data.
To achieve and create Linked Data, technologies should be available for a common format (RDF), to make either conversion or on-the-fly access to existing databases (relational, XML, HTML, etc). It is also important to be able to setup query endpoints to access that data more conveniently. W3C provides a palette of technologies (RDF, GRDDL, POWDER, RDFa, the upcoming R2RML, RIF, SPARQL) to get access to the data.

Many people don't have a clear idea of what the Semantic Web is. The best informal definition is maybe found in the May 2001 Scientific American article "The Semantic Web" (Berners-Lee et al.), that says "The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation." People who work on the Semantic Web have a more detailed idea of what this broad statement means, and base their work on the famous "semantic web tower", a product of Tim Berners-Lee's inspiring drawing on whiteboards. Even if you are not a geek, you might have read some article on the semantic web, or followed some presentation, and then you will surely have met the tower, which is a drawing like this

The article or presentation might have then continued by explaining what the "layers" of this tower are, starting from the basic bricks (Unicode and URIs), up to XML, and then up to more and more sophisticated layers like RDF, Ontology and so on.

Now, you might have understood how things work, and have been eagerly awaiting for the realization of this plan. Or, you might not have understood this quite, and have been waiting for someone to show you better what they meant. In fact, the plan as shown in the picture is rapidly taking place: many of the slots are filling up (RDF, RDF Schema, Ontology, Digital Signature). So, the picture as shown is getting completed. Still, most of the people are awaiting, and the Semantic Web has not yet taken off. What's the matter here

Various Useful Links / Codeigniter Tutorial
« on: March 29, 2014, 09:30:26 PM »
   Lets Start ..............Developing

Various Useful Links / Laravel - The PHP framework for web artisans.
« on: March 29, 2014, 09:28:43 PM »
Lets Start ...Developing with most popular PHP framework

IT Forum / Software Testing Interview Question
« on: March 29, 2014, 04:17:50 PM »
1)      What is the difference between the QA and software testing?

The role of QA (Quality Assurance) is to monitor the quality of the process to produce a quality of a product. While the software testing, is the process of ensuring the final product and check the functionality of final product and to see whether the final product meets the user’s requirement.

2)      What is Testware?

Testware is the subset of software, which helps in performing the testing of application.  It is a term given to the combination of software application and utilities which is required for testing a software package.

3)      What is the difference between build and release?

Build: It is a number given to Installable software that is given to testing team by the development team.

Release: It is a number given to Installable software that is handed over to customer by the tester or developer.

4)      What are the automation challenges that QA team faces while testing?

    Exploitation of automation tool
    Frequency of use of test case
    Reusability of Automation script
    Adaptability of test case for automation

5)      What is bug leakage and bug release?

Bug release is when software or an application is handed over to the testing team knowing that the defect is present in a release.  During this the priority and severity of bug is low, as bug can be removed before the final handover.

Bug leakage is something, when the bug is discovered by the end users or customer, and missed by the testing team to detect, while testing the software.

QA Interview Questions

6)      What is data driven testing?

Data driven testing is an automation testing part, which tests the output or input values. These values are read directly from the data files. The data files may include csv files, excel files, data pools and many more. It is performed when the values are changing by the time.

7)      Explain the steps for Bug Cycle?

    Once the bug is identified by the tester, it is assigned to the development manager in open status
    If the bug is a valid defect the development team will fix it and if it is not a valid defect, the defect will be ignored and marked as rejected
    The next step will be to check whether it is in scope, if it is happen so that, the bug is not the part of the current release then the defects are postponed
    If the defect or bug is raised earlier then the tester will assigned a DUPLICATE status
    When bug is assigned to developer to fix, it will be given a IN-PROGRESS status
    Once the defect is repaired, the status will changed to FIXED at the end the tester will give CLOSED status if it passes the final test.

8)      What does the test strategy include?

The test strategy includes introduction, resource, scope and schedule for test activities, test tools, test priorities, test planning and the types of test that has to be performed.

9)      Mention the different types of software testing?

    Unit testing
    Integration testing and regression testing
    Shakeout testing
    Smoke testing
    Functional testing
    Performance testing
    White box and Black box testing
    Alpha and Beta testing
    Load testing and stress testing
    System testing

10)   What is branch testing and what is boundary testing?

The testing of all the branches of the application, which is tested once, is known as branch testing.  While the testing, which is focused on the limit conditions of the software is known as boundary testing.

11)   What are the contents in test plans and test cases?

    Testing objectives
    Testing scope
    Testing the frame
    The environment
    Reason for testing
    The criteria for entrance and exit
    Risk factors

12)   What is Agile testing and what is the importance of Agile testing?

 Agile testing is software testing, which involves the testing of the software from the customer point of view.  The importance of this testing is that, unlike normal testing process, this testing does not wait for development team to complete the coding first and then doing testing. The coding and testing both goes simultaneously.  It requires continuous customer interaction.

It works on SDLC ( Systems Development Life Cycle) methodologies, it means that the task is divided into different segments and compiled at the end of the task.

13)   What is Test case?

Test case is a specific term that is used to test a specific element.  It has information of test steps, prerequisites, test environment and outputs.

14)   What is the strategy for Automation Test Plan?

    The strategy for Automation Test Plan
    Preparation of Automation Test Plan
    Recording the scenario
    Error handler incorporation
    Script enhancement by inserting check points and looping constructs
    Debugging the script and fixing the issues
    Rerunning the script
    Reporting the result

15)   What is quality audit?

The systematic and independent examination for determining the quality of activities is known as quality audit.  It allows the cross check for the planned arrangements, whether they are properly implemented or not.

16)   How does a server or client environment affect software testing?

As the dependencies on the clients are more, the client or server applications are complex.

The testing needs are extensive as servers, communications and hardware are interdependent. Integration and system testing is also for a limited period of time.

17)   What are the tools used by a tester while testing?

    YSlow for FireBug
    Web Developer toolbar for firebox

18)   Explain stress testing, load testing and volume testing?

    Load Testing: Testing an application under heavy but expected load is known as Load Testing.  Here, the load refers to the large volume of users, messages, requests, data, etc.
    Stress Testing: When the load placed on the system is raised or accelerated beyond the normal range then it is known as Stress Testing.
    Volume Testing:  The process of checking the system, whether the system can handle the required amounts of data, user requests, etc. is known as Volume Testing.

19)   What are the five common solutions for software developments problems?

    Setting up the requirements criteria, the requirements of a software should be complete, clear and agreed by all
    The next thing is the realistic schedule like time for planning , designing, testing, fixing bugs and re-testing
    Adequate testing, start the testing immediately after one or more modules development.
    Use rapid prototype during design phase so that it can be easy for customers to find what to expect
    Use of group communication tools

20)   What is a ‘USE’ case and what does it include?

The document that describes, the user action and system response, for a particular functionality is known as USE case.  It includes revision history, table of contents, flow of events, cover page, special requirements, pre-conditions and post-conditions.

21)   What is CRUD testing and how to test CRUD?

CRUD testing is another name for Black Box testing.  CRUD stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete.

22)   What is validation and verification in software testing?

In verification, all the key aspects of software developments are taken in concern like code, specifications, requirements and document plans.  Verification is done on the basis of four things list of issues, checklist, walkthroughs and inspection meetings. Following verification, validation is done, it involves actual testing, and all the verification aspects are checked thoroughly in validation.

23)   What is thread testing?

A thread testing is a top-down testing, where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

24)   What is configuration management?

It is a process to control and document any changes made during the life of a project.  Release control, Change control and Revision control are the important aspects of configuration management.

25)   What is Ad Hoc testing?

It is a testing phase where the tester tries to break the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality.  It can include negative testing as well.

)      What is data-base testing? Data base testing is segmented into four different categories.

    Testing of Data Integrity
    Testing of Data Validity
    Data base related performance
    Testing of functions, procedure and triggers

2)      In database testing, what do we need to check normally?

Normally, the things that we check in database testing are:

    Constraint Check
    Validation of a Field size
    Stored procedure
    Matching application field size to database
    Indexes for performance based issues

3)      Explain what is data driven test?

In a data-table, to test the multi numbers of data, data-driven test is used.  By using this it can easily replace the parameters at the same time from different locations.

4)      What are joins and mention different types of joins?

Join is used to display two or more than two table and the types of joins are:

    Natural Join
    Inner Join
    Outer Join
    Cross Join

The outer join is divided again in two:

    Left outer join
    Right outer join

5)      What are indexes and mention different types of indexes?

Indexes are database objects and they are created on columns. To fetch data quickly they are frequently accessed. Different types of indexes are:

    B-Tree index
    Bitmap index
    Clustered index
    Covering index
    Non-unique index
    Unique index

Database Testing

6)      While testing stored procedures what are the steps does a tester takes?

The tester will check the standard format of the stored procedures and also it checks the fields are correct like updates, joins, indexes, deletions as mentioned in the stored procedure.

7)      How would you know for database testing, whether trigger is fired or not?

On querying the common audit log you would know, whether, a trigger is fired or not. It is in audit log where you can see the triggers fired.

8)      In data base testing, what are the steps to test data loading?

Following steps need to follow to test data loading

    Source data should be known
    Target data should be known
    Compatibility of source and target should be checked
    In SQL Enterprise manager, run the DTS package after opening the corresponding DTS package
    You have to compare the columns  of target and data source
    Number of rows of target and source should be checked
    After updating data in the source, check whether the changes appears in the target or not.
    Check NULLs and junk characters

9)      Without using Database Checkpoints, how you test a SQL Query in QTP?

By writing scripting procedure in VBScript, we can connect to database and can test the queries and database.

10)   Explain how to use SQL queries in QTP ?

In QTP using output database check point and database check, you have to select the SQL manual queries option. After selecting the manual queries option, enter the “select” queries to fetch the data in the database and then compare the expected and actual.

11)   What is the way of writing testcases for database testing?

Writing a testcases is like functional testing. First you have to know the functional requirement of the application. Then you have to decide the parameters for writing testcases like

    Objective: Write the objective that you would like to test
    Input method: Write the method of action or input you want to execute
    Expected: how it should appear in the database

12)    To manage and manipulate the test table what are the SQL statements that you have used in Database testing?

The statements like SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE are used to manipulate the table, while ALTER TABLE, CREATE TABLE and DELETE TABLE are used to manage table.

13)   How to test database procedures and triggers?

To test database procedures and triggers, input and output parameters must be known. EXEC statement can be used to run the procedure and examine the behaviour of the tables.

    Open the database project in solution explorer
    Now in View menu, click the database schema
    Open the project folder from schema View menu
    Right click on the object that has to be tested, and then click on the dialog box that says Create Unit Tests
    After that create a new language test project
    Select either a) Insert the unit test or b) Create a new test and then click OK
    Project that has to be configured will be done by clicking on the Project Configuration dialog box.
    Once it configured click on OK

14)   How you can write testcases from requirements and do the requirements represents exact functionality of AUT (Application Under Test)?

To write a testcases from requirements, you need to analyse the requirements thoroughly in terms of functionality. Thereafter you think about the appropriate testcases design techniques like Equivalence partitioning, Black box design, Cause effect graphing etc. for writing the testcases.
Yes, the requirements represent exact functionality of AUT.

15)    What is DBMS?

DBMS stand for Database management system, there are different types of DBMS

    Network Model
    Hierarchical Model
    Relational Model

16)   What is DML?

DML stands for Data Manipulation Language, It is used to manage data with schema objects. It is a subset of SQL.

17)   What are DCL commands? What are the two types of commands used by DCL?

DCL stands for Data Control Language, it is used to control data.

The two types of DCL Commands are:

Grant: By using this command user can access privilege to database

Revoke: By using this command user cannot access the database

18)   What is white box testing and black box testing?

Black box testing means testing the software for the outputs on giving particular inputs.  This testing is usually performed to see if the software meets the user’s requirements.  There is no specific functional output expected for running this test.

The white box testing is done to check the accuracy of code and logic of the program.  This testing is done by the programmer who knows the logical flow of the system.

19)   How does QTP evaluate test results?

Once the testing is done, QTP will generate a report.  This report will show the checkpoints, system message and error that were detected while testing.  The test results window will show any mismatches encountered at the checkpoints.

20)   Explain the QTP testing process?

    QTP testing process is based on following steps:
    Creating GUI (Graphical User Interface) Map files : Identifies the GUI object which has to be tested
    Creating test scripts:  Test scripts are recorded
    Debug tests: Test should be debugged
    Run tests: Testcases should be run.
    View results: The results reflects the success or failure of the tests
    Report detects: If the test is failed, the reasons will be recorded in the report detect file

21)   What is load testing and give some examples of it?

To measure the system response, load testing is done.  If the load exceeds the users pattern it is known as stress testing.  Examples of load testing are downloading the set of large files, executing multiple applications on a single computer, subjecting a server to large number of e-mails and allotting many tasks to a printer one after another.

22)   How to test database manually?

Testing the database manually involves checking the data at the back end and to see whether the addition of data in front end is affecting the back end or not, and same for delete, update, insert etc.

23)   What RDBMS stands for and what are the important RDMBS that SQL use?

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management Systems that use SQL, and the important RDBMS that SQL uses are Sybase, Oracle, Access ,Ingres, Microsoft SQL server etc.

24)   What is performance testing and what are the bottlenecks of performance testing?

Performance testing determines the speed of the computer system performance. It includes the quantitative tests like response time measurement. The problem in performance testing is that you always need a well-trained and experienced man power also the tools you use are expensive.

25)   What is DDL and what are their commands?

To define database structure, DDL is used.  DDL stands for Data Definition Language.  The various DDL commands include Create, Truncate, Drop, Alter, Comment and Rename.

What is the difference between Functional and Non-functional testing?

Functional Testing covers:
•   Unit Testing
•   Smoke testing / Sanity testing
•   Integration Testing (Top Down, Bottom up Testing)
•   Interface & Usability Testing
•   System Testing
•   Regression Testing
•   Pre User Acceptance Testing(Alpha & Beta)
•   User Acceptance Testing
•   White Box & Black Box Testing
•   Globalization & Localization Testing

Non-Functional Testing covers:
•   Load and Performance Testing
•   Ergonomics Testing
•   Stress & Volume Testing
•   Compatibility & Migration Testing
•   Data Conversion Testing
•   Security / Penetration Testing
•   Operational Readiness Testing
•   Installation Testing
•   Security Testing (Application Security, Network Security, System Security)

Hi All,
      According to me
                             Functional Testing:Functional testing is what a system is supposed to do?
      e.g. interoperability

                              Non-Functional Testing means How a system is supposed to do?

           e.g. Eficiency,accuracy.

I will give an example regarding both functional and non-functional testing.Suppose you send an email to an user .Here the functional testing is to check the email is going to the proper email tht you have specified or not.But the non-functional testing is to how the system send the email to the specified address,what are the protocols used to send an email..

I think you will get a fair idea about functional and non-functional testing.
Software testing Phases:
Software testing has various different phases such as
1) Test plan
2) Testing Requirement
3) Testing Design
4) Test Execution
5) Test Reporting
6)Maintenance testing
he Testing phases are as follows:

1. Requirements Analysis
2. Test Designing
3. Test Planing
4. Test Development
5. Test Execution
6. Test Reporting
7. Test Result Analysis
8. Defect Retesting
9. Regression Testing
10. Test Closure

The Testing phases are as follows:

1. Requirements Analysis
2. Test Case Designing
3. Test Planing
4. Test Development
5. Test Execution
6. Test Reporting
7. Test Result Analysis
8. Defect clustering
9. Regression Testing
11. Test Closure Activities

Testing is a process that involves many activities. These activities can be grouped into following step:

Test planing and control.
Analysis and design.
Implementation and Execution
Evaluating Exit Criteria and Reporting.
Test Closure.

Tips on Localization Testing
Do you know:

A little care at pre release stage of a localized Software product can save precious dollars !!

Software Localization Services is as important as software development. We at QA InfoTech understand that Testing software in a particular language necessarily entails providing all inputs in that language. By entering data in localized characters, a tester cleanses the process to a great extent and ensures the end user doesn’t waste time over possible errors.
At QA InfoTech, we have ample experience of localized testing of software. We have a partnership with universities and experienced linguists who help us understand the subtle differences in the languages and cultures.

- Our Globalization experts analyze the product code to establish its existing internationalization level and validated by our testing experts who run manual or script based tests as well.
- Our aim is to validate products so that they offer proper functionality across different languages. Proper functionality ensures that the internal design of the product is such that it performs the same functions regardless of international environment settings or cultures/locales and the correct representation of data.
- Expertise on Localization Testing of bi-directional languages.

Our functional and cosmetic checks ensure that the product is validated and verified in the local language and issues if any are successfully regressed. For more info, please visit:

Localization is the process of adapting a globalized application to a particular culture/locale. Localizing an application requires a basic understanding of the character sets typically used in modern software development and an understanding of the issues associated with them. Localization includes the translation of the application user interface and adapting graphics for a specific culture/locale. The localization process can also include translating any help content associated with the application.

Localization of business solutions requires that you implement the correct business processes and practices for a culture/locale. Differences in how cultures/locales conduct business are heavily shaped by governmental and regulatory requirements. Therefore, localization of business logic can be a massive task.

Localization testing checks how well the build has been translated into a particular target language. This test is based on the results of globalized testing where the functional support for that particular locale has already been verified. If the product is not globalized enough to support a given language, you probably will not try to localize it into that language in the first place.
Localization Testing in the software testing process for checking the localized version of a product (e.g., Japanese product for Japanese user). Localization Testing checks the quality of a localized version for a particular that culture/locale setting. Localization Testing is based on the results of Globalization Testing which verifies the functional support for that particular culture/locale setting. We should invite the local staff to help our localization testing by checking the quality of translation as well.

Source : Internet

ICT / GSM Interview Question
« on: March 29, 2014, 04:14:59 PM »
1. What are the three services offered by GSM? Explain each of them briefly.
2. Which uplink/downlink spectrum is allocated to GSM-900?
3. Which uplink/downlink spectrum is allocated to DCS-1800?
4. How many carrier frequencies are there in GSM-900/DCS-1800? How much is the separation between the carrier frequencies?
5. What is Ciphering? Why do we need it? Name the algorithm(s) used in it?
6. What is Authentication? Why do we need it? Name the algorithm(s) used in it?
7. What is equalization? Why do we need it?
8. What is interleaving? Why do we need it?
9. Explain Speech Coding?
10. What is channel coding?
11. What do you mean by Frequency re-use?
12. What is Cell Splitting?
14. Name the interfaces between a) BTS and MS b) BTS and BSC c) BSS and MSC?
15. What are LAPD and LAPDm?
16. What is WPS?
17. What is MA?
18. What is MAIO? Mobile Allocation
19. What is the difference between Synthesized Frequency Hopping and Base Band Frequency Hopping?
20. What is Cycling Frequency Hopping?
21. What is HSN? How do we apply it?
22. What is DTX? Why is it used?
23. What is DRX? Why do we need it?
24. What is the gross data rate of GSM?
25. What is Erlangs? What is meant by GoS?
26. We use two different bands for GSM/DCS communications; GSM900 and DCS-1800. Which one is the better of the two in terms of coverage?
27. What is TA? Why do we need TA?
28. What is meant by Location Area?
29. What is location update? Why do we need location update?
30. What is meant by IMSI, TMSI, IMEI and MS-ISDN? Why they are needed?
31. What is ARFCN?
32. Explain Power Control?
34. What is an extended cell? How does it impact the system? Channels and TDMA structure?
35. Why do we use Multiple Access Schemes? What is the difference between FDMA, TDMA and CDMA?
36. Which channel(s) is used for SMS?
37. Which channel is used by MS to request access to the network?
38. What is AGCH?
39. Why do we need SDCCH?
40. What is a physical channel? How do we differentiate between physical and logical channels?
41. What are TDMA frames, multiframes, superframes and hyperframes?
42. Why do we need FCCH, SCH and BCCH?
43. Why do we need SACCH?
44. What is the purpose of PCH and CBCH?
45. Do we keep BCCH on a hopping radio? Give the reason to support your answer.
46. How much delay is present between downlink and uplink frames? Why do we need this delay?
47. Explain the structure of a Traffic Multiframe. Why do we need SACCH and Idle bursts in a traffic multiframe?
48. How is a FACCH formed? When is a FACCH used?
49. What are bursts? Explain various types of bursts, Radio Propagation and Antennas?
50. What is VSWR? Why do we need it?
51. What do you mean by EIRP?
52. What is Polarization? What are the types of polarization?
53. What is fading?
54. What is Rayleigh Fading?
55. What is multipath fading?
56. How can we minimize multipath fading?
57. What are the different types of diversity?
58. Explain various types of Antenna Diversity?
59. Explain Frequency Diversity.
60. Explain Time Diversity.

Career Opportunity / Internship
« on: March 29, 2014, 04:02:47 PM »

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