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Law / Rental Discrimination and Women!
« on: December 21, 2013, 02:30:18 PM »
No room for women?
Tribeni Chakma

No room for women?It’s an uphill task for single women, who want to live on their own or with siblings or friends, to find a home in the capital. Almost always, the first criterion to rent a house is that you must have a family. Some house owners would even decline to rent out their houses to young, childless couples.

This is discrimination. But such discrimination is pervasive, so much so that it is all evident in most of the to-let notices across the city.

Not that single girls have no place to live. They do manage to find a room or two for themselves. But when they do, they cannot invite their friends of the opposite sex.

Take Sabnam (her real name withheld), a print media journalist who lives with her siblings in the city. Before she could find one, she spent months looking for a house at Rajabazar, Indira road, Jahanara Garden, Monipuripara and Tejkunipara.

She had to face unwanted questions from house owners such as who would pay the rent — she or her father — or when she would return home at night. These were already embarrassing questions, but she really was floored when one owner told her that he would rent out his house to her family but not if she were a television journalist.

Failing in all her efforts, she was forced to bring her parents to find one for her and her siblings.
But more often than not, owners would not pay attention even if you told them that you would bring your parents from the village. And although some house owners are indeed willing to rent out their houses to single girls, they cannot often do so in the face of objections from other tenants, who have families.

Then there is the mistreatment: many house owners would misbehave if you are late from work or if you invite guests. Not to mention the unjustifiable yearly rent hike and the advance money of even up to three months. Examples of such exploitation and abuse are not a rarity.


Law / Cycling and Women!
« on: December 21, 2013, 02:15:19 PM »
"This is another girl…this is another girl…this one is also a girl!!!”

“This is the reaction we get from the people when we pass through a village on ‘Bike Fridays’,” says Shabukta, as we roll around laughing.

“I have received mostly positive comments,” says Afroza. “Today, a microbus full of girls started screaming gleefully and giving us thumbs-up while a driver in a private car was saying, ‘Well done!’

“But I live in Mirpur, which is a very conservative area,” says Afroza. “So I have to hear my share of snide comments. Everyday I have to hear things like ‘How terrible, a girl riding a cycle!’”

“Many people have this attitude that if you are a girl, you are not good at cycling,” says Shabukta.

“Some even push or overtake you on the streets to prove their point and if you lose your balance, they will comment that before cycling on the streets, you should learn how to keep your balance. Many boys show a competitive attitude and can start racing with you. However, I just stay calm, stop and let them pass by.”

“Many people give weird looks,” says Rasna. “You just need to ignore these things.”

Shabukta or Dr. Sayeda Shabukta Malik (28) is a dentist and a public health professional while Afroza Sultana (27) is an accountant. Rasna Masud (30) is an education coordinator at Jaago Foundation. These three ladies with diversely different personalities and careers bonded over a common passion — cycling.


Shabukta says, “My father taught me how to ride a bicycle earlier this year and from then onwards, there has been no looking back. I ride my cycle at Hatirjheel every morning, go to office biking, and go for rides in the evening. In the beginning, my family used to get worried because I was cycling so much. Now if I don’t go for one day, they ask me why I didn’t go!”

“I used to cycle a lot when I was a teenager,” says Rasna. “I was in the USA at that time. A year and a half ago, a friend of mine told me about BDCyclists, the main cyclists’ group in Bangladesh. I joined them on their first anniversary. I was a little shaky at first. I even had two or three minor accidents (cuts and scrapes) but those didn’t stop me. It took me a while to get accustomed to cycling on the busy streets of Dhaka. I am the founder of Dhanmondi Bicyclists Club (DBC), the only female founder amongst all the BDCyclists area groups in Dhaka.”

“Initially, my mother was very much against this. She even threatened to break my leg if I went outside on a cycle!” — says Rasna with a grin. “However, the television advertisements, newspaper articles etc. slowly managed to convince her and now she doesn’t worry anymore.”

Why they love cycling

“You get to beat the traffic all the time,” says Afroza. “Earlier, it used to take two and a half hours to go to my office and the same time to come back home. Now, it takes less than an hour per trip! This way, I also get to save a lot of money.”

Shabukta says, “Many of my colleagues comment that I’ll ‘disappear’ if I cycle, since I’m quite thin! However, cycling has increased my appetite and improved my health. And obviously, for those people who need to lose weight, this is a great way to do so. I have made some amazing friends through cycling and all my stress goes away when I go on rides with them.”

“I totally agree!” — says Rasna. “Our usual routes to Mirpur and Uttara are fun but trips to Keraniganj, Bosila bridge or outside Dhaka are the best! Bosila has a rural atmosphere and a cycling trip to Bosila bridge can be very refreshing. Many cyclists love going to Keraniganj nowadays to hang out and feast on yummy kebabs and bakorkhani. However, I would like to tell everyone to exercise caution when going to such places. It’s best to go in groups and before nightfall. Those who are employed find it easier to go for night rides but they should be careful because there have been many incidents of cycles getting robbed. And when it comes to females, it’s best if they go for rides in the daytime and in big groups.”


All three ladies deeply admire Fahmida Khanam, who has completed the Endomondo Challenge of 1000 km in 14 days, something that has not been accomplished yet by any other girl. She is also the second girl to finish 200 km in 1 day. The first girl to reach this milestone is Tanzin Chy, who now lives in Chittagong and cycles there regularly, which in itself is an achievement due to the conservative nature of the city.

“Fahmida apu cycles on a different level altogether,” says Shabukta. “She’s our role model and I would consider it to be one of my biggest achievements in life if I am ever able to reach her level. She and others before us were inspired by Tanzin apu, who has actually cycled in a saree! Fahmida apu is just as passionate about cycling, having cycled in heels! She has a job but still manages to attend races and train. And most importantly, she’s so encouraging that even your smallest achievements seem like huge ones.”

“We in turn try to inspire others,” continues Shabukta, with a smile. “Some of my female colleagues have shown interest in cycling. They say they will probably start now as the weather is cooler and the sun is a little more merciful.”

Bangladesh’s changing cycling scene

“There were only 5 female cyclists when I had started,” says Rasna. “Now there are about 30 or more active female members, which is still a small number. I know that these numbers will increase over time as a new female cyclist comes to me for training in almost every training session.” Despite her extremely busy schedule, Rasna trains beginners at Dhanmondi 4/A at 6:15 am on Saturdays. She has taken the idea from the BDCyclists group, which trains beginners at Abahani field at 7 am on Saturdays.
Male cyclists are also very supportive of their female peers. However, the roads need to be better and safer, especially for female cyclists. If women in Bangladesh can be leaders of the country and climbers of the world’s tallest mountains, why shouldn’t they be cyclists?

Source:Daily star (

Law / Give a little thought: Child Development
« on: December 21, 2013, 01:38:39 PM »
ALL CHILDREN ARE BORN GENIUSES! All Children Have Superb Intuition Ability.

Source:Prothom Alo

Law / Work and thought!
« on: December 21, 2013, 01:03:27 PM »
তরুণেরাই পারবে দেশকে এগিয়ে নিতে
মোশাহিদা সুলতানা, শিক্ষক, ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়

‘সুখি-সমৃদ্ধিময় ও বৈষম্যহীন একটি বাংলাদেশ আমি সব সময় প্রত্যাশা করি। পত্রিকার পাতায় আর কোনো সহিংসতার খবর থাকবে না, জ্বালাও-পোড়াও থাকবে না, থাকবে শুধু সাফল্যের খবর—এমন একটি স্বপ্ন আমি প্রতিনিয়ত দেখি। আশা করি, দেশের তরুণেরা এমন একটি দেশ আমাদের দেবেই।’ কেমন বাংলাদেশ চান? এ প্রশ্নের উত্তরে এভাবেই নিজের স্বপ্নের কথা বলছিলেন মোশাহিদা সুলতানা। ঢাকা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের ডিপার্টমেন্ট অব অ্যাকাউন্টিং অ্যান্ড ইনফরমেশন সিসটেমসের এই সহকারী অধ্যাপক বলেন, ‘এত দিন পর এসে যেমন শহীদদের ঋণ শোধ করতে পারছি, তেমনি এমন স্বপ্নের সোনার বাংলাও গড়া সম্ভব।’
শিক্ষকতা পেশায় থেকে এই স্বপ্নের বীজ আরও বেশি করে ছড়িয়ে দেওয়া যায় বলে তিনি মনে করেন। ‘যারা তারুণ্যে পা দিয়েছে, তাদের সবার আগে আমরা কাছে পাই। তাই ওদের চেতনা তৈরিতে আমরা অনবদ্য ভূমিকা রাখতে পারি। যে যার জায়গা থেকে কাজ করলে অবশ্যই অনেক ভালো কিছু করা সম্ভব।’ তাঁর জায়গা থেকে বর্তমানে কতটুকু দায়িত্ব পালন করছেন? হাসতে হাসতে উত্তর দেন মোশাহিদা সুলতানা, ‘ক্লাসে গিয়ে যতটা পারি দেশ নিয়ে আলোচনা করি। তরুণদের চাওয়াটুকু শুনি। চেষ্টা করি, চারদিকের অবস্থা সম্পর্কে ওদের সজাগ করতে। দেশটাকে এগিয়ে নিয়ে যাওয়ার জন্য অবদান রাখার অনুরোধ করি। আমার মনে হয়, এই সময়ের তরুণেরা এ ব্যাপারে অনেক বেশি সচেতন। তারা তাদের কাজটি সঠিকভাবে সঠিক সময়ে করবেই।’

কথা প্রসঙ্গে তিনি হতাশাও ব্যক্ত করেন, ‘আমরা তরুণদের পাশে আছি বলে বিশ্বাস করি, কিন্তু দেশের অবকাঠামোগত উন্নয়নে কাজ দিচ্ছি বিদেশি প্রতিষ্ঠানকে। এই কাজগুলো যদি দেশের তরুণদের হাতে দেওয়া হয়, আর যদি সঠিক নির্দেশনা দিয়ে পাশে দাঁড়ানো যায়, তাহলে বিদেশিদের চেয়েও অনেক ভালো কাজ তাদের পক্ষে করা সম্ভব।’
মোশাহিদা সুলতানা শিক্ষকতার পাশাপাশি লেখালেখির সঙ্গেও যুক্ত। বিভিন্ন পত্রিকায় নিয়মিত প্রকাশ পাচ্ছে অর্থনীতি ও সামাজিক উন্নয়ন নিয়ে তাঁর লেখা প্রবন্ধ। লেখালেখি সম্পর্কে বলেন, ‘দেশের মানুষকে সচেতন করার আরও একটি মাধ্যম লেখালেখি। আমার লেখা পড়ে দেশ-বিদেশ থেকে অনেকে যোগাযোগ করেন। মতামত প্রকাশ করেন। তখন মনে হয়, লেখালেখি করাটা সার্থক।’

source: Prothom Alo

Wasik Farhan Roopkotha, 7, a Bangladeshi computer whiz kid who was earlier recognised as a "wonder boy" by Ripley's Believe It or Not, is going to write his name in the Guinness World Records as the youngest IT expert in the world.

His first record attempt was held recently at the Creative IT limited office in Dhanmondi, Dhaka, in the presence of IT experts and journalists. Roopkotha again showed his talents and fascinated audiences, including those who had an IT background, reported BSS.

Earlier, Cynthia Farheen Risha, mother of the seven-year-old super genius, had signed an agreement with the authorities of the Guinness World Records.

"Uncountable thanks to the Almighty to fulfil my long-cherished dream, as my son is going to have his name written in the Guinness World Records as the youngest IT expert in the world," said the proud Risha.

Last year, the UK-based globally-acclaimed TV show, Ripley's Believe It or Not, placed Roopkotha in its annual cartoon book as the world's youngest computer programmer.

According to Ripley's, those who have been placed in Ripley's cartoon book are usually included in its annual record book, which publishes bizarre events and items so strange and unusual that readers might question the claims.

The authorities of Ripley's Believe It or Not informed his parents that the Ripley's would include Roopkotha in their new annual record book, which would hit bookshops worldwide in September this year.

Earlier, the Bangladeshi super genius boy hogged headlines in the international media as BBC News, Zee news, World news, New York Herald Tribune, California Observer, Estate News, Children Post and many international websites ran stories on him and recognized him as the youngest computer programmer on the earth.

Roopkotha's amazing story has been included in the Bangladeshi national textbook for class eight, "English for Today."

The story of Roopkotha, Bangla for "fairytale," has overshadowed even a literal fairytale. At the tender age of six, when most children play games with toys, Roopkatha developed his own computer system (with Windows) and ran tags and codes of computer programming like an expert.

The born genius, a resident of Gulshan, Dhaka, unbelievably started computing when he was hardly seven months old, and learned writing on the computer at the age of only two, said Risha.

She said her son's curiosity about computers had started a couple days after his birth. He would look at computer monitor with unblinking eyes and refrained from eating until the computer was switched on.

She said Roopkotha never took IT lessons and learned everything without anybody's help.

Risha said he has already played more than 700 games and completed many complicated games like the Sonic series, Prince of Persia, Terminator 3, Hercules, Air Conflicts, Age of Mythology, Lock On, Azangara, Metal Gear Solid, Mig-29 Fulcrum, the Mario series, Super Mario64, the Need for Speed series, The bugs life, Legend of Zelda, Star Defender, Red Dead Redemption, Lock on Flaming Cliffs, Victoria: An Empire Under the Sun, Flight Simulator lll, Eve Online, Modern Warfare 2, FPS Mechanics, Age of Empires 3, Rise of Legends, Castlevania - Legacy of Darkness.

He knows operating system setup and troubleshooting. And more than 5000 English words are in his store, he can make sentences with the words.

Typing is a very simple matter to him as the boy can type with his tiny fingers as swiftly as any efficient typist without looking at the keyboard.

The computer wizard can perfectly manage games project tools and synchronize any project with other projects. He can also use different complex codes and run them easily.

Roopkotha's businessman father Wasim Farhan and mother Risha hope that their son will become a great programmer in the future and introduce a new episode in the cyber world.


জাতিসংঘের সাধারণ পরিষদের মানবাধিকারবিষয়ক কমিটিতে গত বুধবার রাতে নারী মানবাধিকারকর্মীদের রক্ষায় একটি প্রস্তাব পাস হয়েছে। ভ্যাটিকান সিটি, ইরান, চীন, রাশিয়াসহ বেশ কয়েকটি দেশের বিরোধিতা সত্ত্বেও প্রস্তাবটি পাস হয়।
ওই প্রস্তাবে নারী মানবাধিকারকর্মীদের বিরুদ্ধে যেকোনো সহিংসতার বিরুদ্ধে প্রকাশ্যে নিন্দা জানাতে প্রতিটি দেশের প্রতি আহ্বান জানানো হয়। একই সঙ্গে জাতিসংঘের যেকোনো সংস্থায় নারী মানবাধিকারকর্মীদের অবাধ প্রবেশ নিশ্চিত করতে আইন সংশোধনেরও আহ্বান জানানো হয়েছে।
নরওয়ের নেতৃত্বে মানবাধিকারবিষয়ক কমিটি কয়েক মাস ধরে ওই প্রস্তাব তৈরি করে। আফ্রিকা ও মুসলিম বিশ্বের কয়েকটি দেশসহ ভ্যাটিকান সিটি, ইরান, রাশিয়া ও চীন প্রস্তাবের বিরোধিতা করলেও শেষ পর্যন্ত তা পাস হয়। বিরোধিতাকারীরা দেশের ঐতিহ্য ও আইনের প্রতি শ্রদ্ধা রেখে মানবাধিকারকর্মীদের অধিকার নিশ্চিত করার ওপর গুরুত্বারোপ করেন।
প্রস্তাব পাসের পর নরওয়ে সরকারের পক্ষের প্রধান আলোচক গিয়ার এসজোবার্গ বলেন, ‘এই প্রস্তাব পাসের মধ্য দিয়ে আন্তর্জাতিক সম্প্রদায়ের কাছে একটি সুস্পষ্ট বার্তা পাঠানো হলো। ওই বার্তা হলো নারী মানবাধিকারকর্মীদের বিরু"ে কোনো অপরাধ একেবারেই অগ্রহণযোগ্য।’ এএফপি।


দুষ্কৃতকারীরা দ্রুতগতিতে গাড়ি চালিয়ে পালানোর চেষ্টা করছে। আর তাদের পেছনে ছুটছে নাছোড়বান্দা পুলিশ। তুমুল উত্তেজনা। এ রকম দৃশ্য মারদাঙ্গা (অ্যাকশন) চলচ্চিত্রের কল্যাণে আমাদের খুব পরিচিত। বাস্তবে এমন পরিস্থিতিতে পুলিশের বড় হাতিয়ার হতে পারে বেতার তরঙ্গ। কারণ এটির সাহায্যে দূর থেকেই থামিয়ে দেওয়া যাবে অপরাধীদের গাড়ি।
বেতার তরঙ্গ ব্যবহারে গাড়ি থামানোর প্রযুক্তি তৈরির কাজ পুরোদমে চালিয়ে যাচ্ছে যুক্তরাজ্য ও জার্মানিসহ কয়েকটি দেশের প্রযুক্তিপণ্য নির্মাতা প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো। এ উদ্দেশ্যে সেভলেক নামের একটি প্রকল্পে ৪৩ লাখ ইউরো বরাদ্দও দিয়েছে ইউরোপীয় কর্তৃপক্ষ। জার্মান অ্যারোস্পেস সেন্টার ডিএলআর নামের একটি প্রতিষ্ঠান এ ব্যাপারে গবেষণায় বেশ অগ্রসর হয়েছে। তারা এমন একটি যন্ত্র তৈরি করেছে, যা দূর থেকে গাড়ির ইঞ্জিন বন্ধ করে দিতে সক্ষম। বেতার তরঙ্গে নির্দেশ দেওয়ার মাধ্যমে ওই যন্ত্র নিয়ন্ত্রণ করা যায়। চলমান কোনো যানবাহন বা বস্তু থেকে বেতার তরঙ্গ পাঠানোর যন্ত্রও তৈরি করেছেন ওই গবেষকেরা। পরীক্ষামূলকভাবে এখন ওই প্রযুক্তি ব্যবহার করা হচ্ছে।
সংশ্লিষ্ট গবেষকেরা বলছেন, তাঁদের তৈরি প্রযুক্তিটি নির্দিষ্ট গাড়ির কোনো ক্ষতি না করেই বেতার তরঙ্গের সাহায্যে সেটিকে থামিয়ে দিতে পারবে। তাই নিরাপদ ওই প্রক্রিয়া সামরিক বাহিনী ও পুলিশের অভিযানে ব্যবহার করা যাবে। নিউসায়েন্টিস্ট।

Source: (Accessed 15.12.13)

Law / Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
« on: December 04, 2013, 03:35:07 PM »
Article 1.

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and
conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Article 2.

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any
kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political,
jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be
independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Article 3.

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 4.

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5.

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 6.

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

Article 7.

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All
are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any
incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8.

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the
fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9.

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

Article 10.

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in
the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

Law / BIAC-a center for alternative dispute resolution
« on: November 27, 2013, 10:28:03 AM »
Bangladesh International Arbitration Centre is the first international arbitration institution of the country. It is registered as a not-for-profit organization and commenced operations in April 2011 under a license from the Government. Three prominent business Chambers of Bangladesh, namely, International Chamber of Commerce-Bangladesh(ICC-B), Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry(DCCI) and Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce & Industry(MCCI), Dhaka are sponsors of BIAC. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) – the private sector arm of The World Bank – with funds from UK Aid and European Union, is supporting BIAC in the initial stages under a co-operation agreement. BIAC provides a neutral, efficient and reliable dispute resolution service in this emerging hub of South Asia’s industrial and commercial activity. BIAC introduced its Arbitration Rules in April 2012. These Rules incorporate some of the leading developments in domestic and international arbitration, while conforming to the Bangladesh Arbitration Act 2001. BIAC is renowned for its first-rate, state-of-the-art arbitration facilities, experienced panel of independent arbitrators and excellence in serving its clients. Discover from the following posts why businesses increasingly choose to arbitrate in BIAC.

Law / Law and fun
« on: November 27, 2013, 09:51:29 AM »
Teacher: Right to equality means all persons are equal irrespective of their race, color, sex, language or religion.

Students: Yes teacher.

A student is not attentive which caught the eye of teacher. The teacher told him to stand and he stood up.

Teacher: Tell me, what is 'Right to equality'?

Student smartly said: Teacher, right to equality means 'ALL WOMEN ARE MEN"!

For a second teacher and all the students were silent then all together burst into laughter! :D :D :D

Law / Empowerment
« on: November 26, 2013, 03:31:55 PM »
Empowerment is much spoken, now its time to know the best method to earn it.

Law / Right to water
« on: November 26, 2013, 03:17:24 PM »
When we want to say anything is easy, generally we say 'It is as easy as water'. But is water really very easy? Probably not!

The right to water is not much spoken as compared to the right to food. But without right to water, right to food is quite unimaginable. Like right to food, right to water also requires accessibility, sufficiency and freedom from adverse effects like arsenic and other harmful additives or chemical contents. Without proper right to water, people suffer from water-borne diseases such as, diarrohea etc. By various studies of ICDDRB, we see that every year a huge number of people are suffering from diarrohea and other water-borne diseases and continuous being ill affects proper development of brain and immune systems which is affecting another right i.e. right to health either physically or mentally. Therefore the right 'Right to water' should be equally addressed with the right to food as it is often said that 'Water has an alternative name and that is LIFE'! So the very basic right 'Right to Life' is also endangered if right to water is not properly ensured!

Law / Influential women across the world!
« on: November 26, 2013, 02:03:47 PM »
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( born October 26, 1947) is a former United States Secretary of State, U.S. Senator, and First Lady of the United States. She was the 67th Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, serving under President Barack Obama. She previously represented New York in the U.S. Senate (2001 to 2009). Before that, as the wife of President Bill Clinton, she was First Lady from 1993 to 2001. Also, in the 2008 election, Clinton was a leading candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination.

A native of Illinois, Hillary Rodham was the first student commencement speaker at Wellesley College in 1969. She then earned a J.D. from Yale Law School in 1973. Following a stint as a Congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas in 1974 and married Bill Clinton in 1975. Rodham cofounded the Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families in 1977. Becoming the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978, and the first female partner at Rose Law Firm in 1979, The National Law Journal listed her in 1988 and 1991 as one of the hundred most influential lawyers in America. As First Lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 1983 to 1992 with husband Bill as Governor, she led a task force that reformed Arkansas's education system. During that time, she was on the board of Wal-Mart and several other corporations.

In 1994, as First Lady of the United States, her major initiative, the Clinton health care plan, failed to gain approval from the U.S. Congress. However, in 1997 and 1999, Clinton played a leading role in advocating the creation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Adoption and Safe Families Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. Her years as First Lady drew a polarized response from the American public. The only First Lady to have been subpoenaed, she testified before a federal grand jury in 1996 regarding the Whitewater controversy, but was never charged with wrongdoing in this or several other investigations during the Clinton presidency. Her marriage also endured the Lewinsky scandal in 1998.

After moving to the state, Clinton was elected the first female Senator from New York; she is the only First Lady ever to have run for public office. Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, she supported military action in Afghanistan and the Iraq War Resolution, but subsequently objected to the George W. Bush administration's conduct of the war in Iraq and continued to oppose most of its domestic policies. Senator Clinton was reelected in 2006. Running in the 2008 Democratic presidential primaries, Hillary Clinton won far more primaries and delegates than any other female candidate in American history, but narrowly lost to Illinois Senator Barack Obama who went on to win the national election.

President Obama appointed Clinton as Secretary of State. She was at the forefront of the U.S. response to the Arab Spring, including advocating for the U.S. military intervention in Libya. As Secretary of State, she took responsibility for security lapses related to the 2012 Benghazi attack, which resulted in the deaths of American consulate personnel, but defended her personal actions in regard to the matter. Clinton visited more countries than any other Secretary of State. She viewed "smart power" as the strategy for asserting U.S. leadership and values, by combining military power with diplomacy and American capabilities in economics, technology, and other areas. She encouraged empowerment of women everywhere, and used social media to communicate the U.S. message abroad.

Law / Economic benefits of women empowerment
« on: November 26, 2013, 01:55:29 PM »
Most women across the globe rely on the informal work sector for an income. If women were empowered to do more and be more, the possibility for economic growth becomes apparent. Empowering women in developing countries is essential to reduce global poverty since women represent most of the world’s poor population. Eliminating a significant part of a nation’s work force on the sole basis of gender can have detrimental effects on the economy of that nation.

In addition, female participation in counsels, groups, and businesses is seen to increase efficiency. For a general idea on how an empowered women can impact a situation monetarily, a study found that of fortune 500 companies, “those with more women board directors had significantly higher financial returns, including 53 percent higher returns on equity, 24 percent higher returns on sales and 67 percent higher returns on invested capital (OECD, 2008).” This study shows the impact women can have on the overall economic benefits of a company. If implemented on a global scale, the inclusion of women in the formal workforce (like a fortune 500 company) can increase the economic output of a nation.

Therefore, if women have, and if they are able to use, the right knowledge and skills in their employment, they can also help businesses grow and economies prosper.

Source: (26.11.13)

Law / Right to food
« on: November 26, 2013, 01:31:46 PM »
What is 'Right to food'?

-The right to food, and its variations, is a human right protecting the right for people to feed themselves in dignity, implying that sufficient food is available, that people have the means to access it, and that it adequately meets the individual's dietary needs. The right to food protects the right of all human beings to be free from hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. The right to food does not imply that governments have an obligation to hand out free food to everyone who wants it, or a right to be fed. However, if people are deprived of access to food for reasons beyond their control, for example, because they are in detention, in times of war or after natural disasters, the right requires the government to provide food directly.

The right is derived from the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which has 160 state parties as of May 2012. States that sign the covenant agree to take steps to the maximum of their available resources to achieve progressively the full realization of the right to adequate food, both nationally and internationally. In a total of 106 countries the right to food is applicable either via constitutional arrangements of various forms or via direct applicability in law of various international treaties in which the right to food is protected.

At the 1996 World Food Summit, governments reaffirmed the right to food and committed themselves to half the number of hungry and malnourished from 840 to 420 million by 2015. However, the number has increased over the past years, reaching an infamous record in 2009 of more than 1 billion undernourished people worldwide. Furthermore, the number who suffer from hidden hunger - micronutrient deficiences that may cause stunted bodily and intellectual growth in children - amounts to over 2 billion people worldwide.

Whilst under international law states are obliged to respect, protect and fulfill the right to food, the practical difficulties in achieving this human right are demonstrated by prevalent food insecurity across the world.

source: (26.11.13)

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