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Animals and Pets / THE ULTIMATE GUIDE TO Dog Training
« on: Yesterday at 10:06:45 AM »
THE ULTIMATE GUIDE TO Dog Training

Introduction To Dog Training

Woof, woof, woof-woof, woof! This translates to, “Congratulations, you made it to The Ultimate Guide To Dog Training!” in dog language, of course.

Here you will learn an abundance of tips, tricks, advice; a dog training masterclass that will turn your disobedient and domesticated form of a wolf (aka dog) into an animal with better manners than the Royal Family.

Although I’m not sure you will be able to get your newly trained dog to sit on a throne and wear a crown, but if you do, then please, for the love of mankind, give that dog a well-deserved treat.

So, without further ado, let’s get into the ultimate guide to dog training! Make sure you have a pen and paper ready as you’ll be taking down some vital notes that will improve your dog’s obedience and overall manners in no time.

The Triple Threat: Timing, Consistency, and Motivation
Here we have a great structure known as ‘The Triple Threat,’ consisting of timing, consistency, and motivation. All are just as important as the other, but when combined as one, it becomes a recipe for success!


Timing
So what exactly is meant by the term ‘timing,’ and how should it be considered when training your dog? Well, it’s known that dogs have a short span of 1.3-seconds to instinctively act on a decision, which is critical to remember in dog training.

Any period after the 1.3-second window may cause some confusion for your dog; the more time they have to process something means more time for their mind to run wild with what is going on.

With that said, you have to be quick and extremely observant around your dog, so you can pick up on mistakes and praise-worthy moments while being able to react within this vital 1.3-second window.

This way, it doesn’t give them too much time to think. They feel as though they must respond to whatever has happened in this vital timespan, whether it’s a “good boy moment” or a “bad dog moment.”


Consistency
Now, this one requires discipline from both the dog and the owner, and what I mean is that it’s easy to try new methods in your training phase. You go to the park and hear different tips from other dog-walkers, which causes you to try them all, right? Wrong.

This can confuse your dog as the pattern of commands is ever-changing. By doing this, your dog will never be able to adjust effectively and learn over time, as they simply do not know how to react to an array of different things all at once.

As the saying goes, “quality over quantity.” It’s a huge factor here as it’s about sheer consistency rather than a barrage of mind-juggling commands and actions.

If you don’t want your dog to jump up on you or your furniture, then you have to be consistent and not let them do it AT ALL. That is because if you allow your dog to do it every so often, they will perceive it as being okay to do so.

However, when they do it and you get angry, it causes them grave confusion. You may see them being disobedient or ill-mannered when it relies heavily on consistent reinforcement from the owner.

For example, you’ve had a great day at work and been given praise by your boss (yes, humans enjoy approval as much as dogs), so you go home and let your dog on the furniture for a change as you’re in a great mood.

The next day you go to work and find out they’ve given the vacant promotion to Gary, in the next cubicle, even after yesterday’s praise from the boss. You go home, sit down, and hey-presto your dog jumps on the furniture, but you get angry with it.

Remember, dogs do not speak our language. They act entirely on emotion and commands when it’s been reinforced over time, so without consistency, your dog has a greater chance of staying in a disobedient state.


Motivation
To put it simply, motivation is a universal thing across the animal kingdom and the human one. We see something that we like or have a goal in mind, and it gives us the oomph that we need to achieve this outlined objective. This is no different for our beloved dogs.

When our dogs are doing well, we are supposed to praise and reward them for their efforts. It helps reinforce that those actions are correct and that they should continue to strive for this behavior on a more consistent basis to reap the benefits.

Not only should you repay their great behavior with a treat, but also when they’re able to correct a mistake. This will also highlight that the initial reaction they did was bad, and the correction was the right thing to do.

However, you have to find out what is most rewarding to your dog, as a simple ruffle of the head isn’t exactly a long-lasting perk. The reward has to be good enough in encouraging the dog to achieve it more frequently.

Not only this, but the communication element between you and your dog must be clear, concise, and above all else meaningful.

Another thing, if your dog doesn’t enjoy being cuddled, then don’t reward them with one when they do something good or make a correction. It has to be something they thoroughly enjoy, giving them the motivation to work towards it more often through their good behavior.

 

Four Stages of Learning
When you embark on your dog training journey, you will meet various challenges, and success won’t come overnight, so you must be committed to the cause if you want the best results possible for your pup.

It takes time, patience, and consistency to achieve obedience with your dog. As a rule of thumb, dogs usually need approximately three to six months of constant reinforcement and repetition before they start to form tendencies of well-mannered behavior for long-term success.

Here you will get to grips with the four stages of learning so you can gauge the overall process with a more in-depth understanding. This will help you when integrating daily training methods.

Acquisition – Showing
At this stage, the trainer should always have an idea of how they want the final result to look like when training for a specific objective. To help achieve this, we start with the showing phase. In short, it is a method where you will aid the dog in making the right decisions via visual aids and/or prompts in an environment that has no distractions.

To help show your dog what you want them to do, you need to ensure they are attentive to every move you make, so using aids such as walking leashes, dog treats, a favorite toy, or even your hands, is necessary for gaining your dog’s full attention.

For example, if you want your dog to lie down, you must give the “lie down” command once, then lead them into the wanted position. Once done successfully, they can be rewarded with a treat, so they’re aware what they did was good work.

It’s essential to note you shouldn’t expect your dog to understand what you want them to do right from the get-go, especially if they’ve never been shown this exercise before. Everyone has to learn somewhere with different forms of teaching, and dogs are no different. 

When conducting the showing phase, you must use treats and rewards generously, so the dog is willing to listen and learn to get their well-earned prizes.

Also, this phase requires a large degree of patience and repetition, so when your dog begins to grasp what you want them to do without your helping hand, you can be assured that they’re moving in the right direction.

Automatic – Fluency
In the second stage, the dog gets to showcase his learning and what you have taught him over time. It should be a routine schedule packed with positive reinforcement for correct responses and more training if your dog struggles with the tasks at hand.

You must always be mindful of good timing, too; giving feedback quickly and early will enhance the dog’s fluency. It will increase the speed of their response to trained commands a lot more efficiently.

Once you have a valid success rate of around 80%, your dog should promptly move to the next stage, as they are responding well enough to proceed further.

However, suppose your dog still appears to experience bouts of confusion, scaredness, or is making mistakes more frequently due to not being receptive to trained commands. In that case, you must return to the teaching phase and ensure that they understand what is required before moving forward.

Another thing to mention is that when they respond well, you must start limiting body language prompts, for example, using your hand in a downward motion to get them to lie down.

In addition to this, you should also start using treats as rewards only, instead of using them for both rewards and baiting your dog into a command. This way, the dog will soon learn to reap the rewards of their good behavior.

Application – Generalization to the environment
It is where the learning gets interesting and slightly more complex but hey, who said success was easy, right?

The application stage is where you will begin to apply what you have learned under harder circumstances, such as performing exercises in environments that are riddled with potential distractions for your dog.

The idea is to generalize the environment for your dog, so performing acts, no matter where they are, should be deemed as a normal thing for them. With this in mind, they should only execute these exercises, not out of fun or for the prospect of a reward, but to understand there is a responsibility for them to act in this well-behaved manner at all times.

To do this, you must slowly implement distractions when conducting your chosen exercises. An example may be getting your dog to sit when they see somebody kicking a ball in the local field. Not only will this increase overall obedience, but it will also save you some money as you won’t need to replace 8-year old Timmy’s soccer ball your dog seems to burst every other week. It’s a win-win.

It’s vital to stay strict at this point and only give rewards and praise when you feel moments of the application stage are being met accordingly. Of course, stay on top of mild mistakes so the dog can understand what they have done and make a correction if needed.

With that said, if your dog is still finding it hard to grasp this stage, you may be moving ahead of time. Take it easy and go through the stages at a steady pace until progress is evident.

Always – Maintenance
You made it to the final stage; congrats! It was tough, but you got there, and we’re glad you made it. The final stage is probably the easiest. It’s like being 50m ahead of your opponent in the final moments of a 200m sprint. However, one trip can set you back 25m, so be wary and not get too complacent.

At this stage, your dog will perform their exercises consistently without the need for much, or any, type of prompt or aid as they are aware of what is expected of them despite their environment or circumstances.

But it doesn’t stop there. You also have a responsibility to maintain this behavior by dishing out reinforcement when specific behaviors are present. Keep on track, and remember it isn’t a sprint but a lifelong race.


Part 1: Fundamental Tips For Humans
In Part 1: Fundamental Tips for Humans, we will discuss some important topics that should help you to be more receptive as a trainer. We have included this element as being a trainer can be a difficult, frustrating job. Pay attention to these great tips and jot some ideas down when you feel like you read something that stands out to you.

Tips For Training

Treats
You like them, your dog likes them, everybody likes treats! However, how much should we give to our dog when it comes to treats? Well, depending on size and breed, it could differ, but as a general point of reference, the key is to give them treats that are small enough just so they get a little taste, yet it’s not exactly a small meal.

Also, if you find yourself handing out many treats in one day, this could be a sign that your dog is receptive to the rewarding system you have in place. He might be trying to impress you, or he could be a mastermind and do these things just to ensure he has a treat at all times; either way, it’s a win-win.

Although this is a good method to teach behavior, you should also refrain from giving treats away for nothing. At this point, your dog may start to expect it more often and could become restless if he/she doesn’t get their way. Do not, and I repeat, do not give treats away for free!

Think
As a trainer, you are always thinking, and if you’re not, well, you definitely should be. The idea is to think about how you want your dog to act instead of how you want them not to. If they do something wrong, then tell them it’s bad, and vice versa, if they do something good, reward them for it.

It’s essential to know that all good things from your dog are a byproduct of your teaching and competencies. By thinking and anticipating your dog’s acts, it can significantly improve the likelihood of the desired behavior you want them to act like. Be assertive, consistent, and above all else, a loving companion.

Long Is Wrong and Short Is Sweet
Now think about this one, imagine you being run into the ground for hours upon hours a day until you’re exhausted and bored? Well, it’s no different for your furry friend – except their attention span is about one-tenth of yours.

This means when training, you have to be concise and ensure progress is being made within these smaller stints. The general idea is to train in 5-minutes intervals, at least three times a day, to ensure your dog is learning how to be disciplined and improve.

With this said, even if you happen to complete 5 mins of training three times a day, you must be aware that you are constantly training your dog whenever you are responding to their behavior.

They jump on the furniture, and you say, “DOWN!”—that’s training. They nibble on your smelly toes, and you say, “NO!”—that’s also training. They sit on your toilet and read the Daily Dog, and you say, “Please use the garden outside.”—yep, that’s training too.

Groom To Avoid Doom
This is an underrated one for me; many dog owners seem to forget how important grooming their dog is. Now, it’s essential to ensure your dog is well looked after by providing them with the necessary clean and care they deserve. Just because you may be scruffy doesn’t mean your dog has to suffer too.

You should clean their teeth, at the very minimum, several times a week and ears once every seven days. Please bear in mind that different dogs have different sensibilities and always use pet-related items that a vet has preferably certified.

Giving them a thorough bath wouldn’t go amiss either, ideally once every three months would be fine, but no less than this. Of course, this also depends on what breed of dog you have, so consult with a vet before making these kinds of decisions. If you have a dog that molts, I would advise giving them a good brush every day or so and maybe a trip to the doggy barbers every few months, so their coat gets the treatment it deserves.


Strategies To Fix a Naughty Pup Prevent The Event
One thing to consider as humans is avoiding problems for your dog before they even happen. Now, the likelihood of preventing every problem before it comes to fruition is very, very low. Unless, of course, your name is Cesar Millan, or better yet, you have a mystic ball. Both, again, are very unlikely.

However, we can put things in place to limit the number of problems before they arise by implementing careful strategies your dog will recognize over time if done correctly. Many of these problems stem from generic social issues and common living environments such as: trimming nails, walking by busy streets, or even stumbling across the mailman now and then.

To combat such examples, you need to teach your pup that these situations aren’t scary and are a part of their everyday dog life. Implementing treats, gifts, and love at certain times will help them get used to such events in no time!

But let’s not forget one crucial ingredient—communication. For me, communication is the most essential skill in all walks of life. It’s what helps humans and animals collectively understand one another.

By using communication to teach your dog that calmness is a behavior well rewarded, you will be able to prevent problems before they present themselves.

Keeping your dog’s surroundings and environment convenient for them is an important aspect too. They need to be challenged accordingly while also being able to socialize with other dogs. This shows them quickly what normal behavior should be like under these circumstances, especially when they’re being corrected.

Em’bark’ing On A Solution
If you ask what are the most common problems with dog owners and their companions, the chances are they will always be a list of likewise problems such as; pulling, barking, nipping, not using the toilet in the right places. This is entirely normal and should be expected early on as these issues are embedded in our dog’s DNA.

Dog’s aren’t born trained, but you can find out how smart they are if you teach them correctly. Over time, they have to be taught how to act under specific events to help develop their obedience. With this said, here are some vital steps to consider when looking for solutions to bad behavior and why your dog may be acting the way they are:

Firstly, let’s look at their environment and health. Are they getting the exercise they need? Do they have a good sleep pattern? Is their diet sufficient? Are there any medical issues?

We must consider all aspects of our dog’s life. If any of these examples aren’t ticked, we must consider them to be a cause of their inappropriate behavior until proven otherwise.

Avoid incoming misbehavior until you’ve had time to teach them proper obedience. Try and anticipate oncoming misbehavior and attempt to avoid things that encourage them to act out. It may seem complicated, but when you pay close attention, you will start to realize certain things may provoke your pup.

Ensure you aren’t accidentally handing out rewards left, right, and center, as this could indirectly influence your dog in thinking certain things are rewards when they aren’t. If they are acting out, simply place them into a 5-minute break where they have time to compose themselves again.

Try and give rewards in place of misbehaving tendencies. For example, attempt to teach your dog to sit when they’re barking for attention. This is when you should be asking your dog to perform the action you want to promote good habits instead of bad ones..
To cement this method into your dog’s daily obedience, you must show that the reward they receive is more worthwhile than the misbehaving act they are putting forth.

Routinely practice the behaving substitute that has taken the place of the misbehaving actions. Ensure you provide rewards for correctness, but ignore errors and start with challenges easy to grasp before implementing ones more complex over time.
If fear is why your dog is acting out, you must couple the things they’re scared of with something they love and get excited about. For example, your dog gets scared by the milkman, quickly teach them that his visit is rewarded with a treat or toy. By doing this, it will eventually condition them to look forward to seeing the milkman as they know they will be treated for it.
Be loving, compromising, and patient.

Turning Your Dog Into a Social Butterfly
Socializing your dog is vital as it can be a prime factor in their behavioral development. Here are some great tips to consider when looking to turn your dog into the most popular canine in the park.


Start Early
This doesn’t mean only young pups will benefit from socializing; on the contrary, all dogs will see big improvements from it, but it’s easier to help implement with a younger dog than an older one. This is because younger dogs, or animals in general, for that matter, are more receptive to absorbing new information and events.

Once they develop and age, they quickly become more alert around things that appear to be unfamiliar. The pinnacle age to integrate socialization is typically between three and 16 weeks old, so bear this in mind when starting early.

Familiarisation
The general objective is to create a positive attitude towards as many new encounters and experiences as possible. Encourage your dog to listen and be around things that are usually loud and initially off-putting for them, such as vacuums, cars, planes, lawnmowers, etc.

Allow your dog to try out different textures on surfaces like grass, sidewalks, sand, and mud, so it becomes familiar instead of something new and scary. The same goes with smells, too; the more, the better!

Of course, you shouldn’t take your pup for walks until they’ve had their vaccinations. Still, you can implement alternatives like putting your puppy in a stroller, so it can experience its surroundings before taking its first steps outside. Yes, I know this may be quite Paris Hilton-esque, but it’s a method that works and works well.


Meeting New People
For all dog owners out there, this one is always a cautious topic as we never truly know how our dogs will react when they meet new people. Whether it’s a rage-fuelled bark or a rapid wag of the tail, sometimes we just have to test the waters first and foremost.

A way to ease them into meeting new faces and bigger groups of people is, like always, to start slow and gradually allow them to see more and different people, the better they respond. It’s always a great starting point to trial this with family, as they will be the ones to see your dog the most. It’s only right to make them familiar with those faces.

Once they’ve nailed that, you can take it to the next level by going to the park and letting individuals, or friends they’ve never met, give them the love they deserve.

To make this a success, I would also advise introducing your dog to people who have different appearances too. They may have never seen somebody wearing a hat, and the second they will see one, it could send them into an uncomfortable state.

Rewards Are a Dog’s Best Friend
Remember, the world is a huge and scary place for us humans, so imagine how your dog must feel. With this in mind, you should always, and I mean ALWAYS, remember to give them lots of love, treats, and praise as they start to discover new experiences.

By doing this, you are associating new experiences as being positive, so, by nature, your dog should recognize this pattern and continue to do so to get some well-deserved rewards.


Puppy School
Before sending your pup on their way to puppy school, not only should you hold back those tears, but you need to ensure they’ve started their vaccinations, as they will be mixing with lots of other dogs from different households.

Puppy school is a great way to help your dog learn the basic training methods via specific commands. The schools are designed to assist your dog with learning commands and socialize with more dogs and more people. It’s a double-whammy!

The World Is Your Oyster
As soon as your pup has a sense of familiarity around its usual surroundings and groups of people, it’s time to make “the leap of faith” and start introducing it to newer, more adventurous environments that have larger groups of people.

As soon as they’ve completed their vaccination stages, you can finally start making some new and hopefully long-lasting puppy friends at the local doggy park!


Part 2: Fundamental Tips For Teaching Your Dog
Right, we’ve finally covered some fundamental tips for us humans. Now, it’s time to take some dog-friendly notes down for teaching our much-beloved canines!

Name Recognition
Name recognition, initially, isn’t as bad as you may think. It’s probably the first thing your dog will learn themselves.

After hours, days, or even weeks of deciding what insanely cool, yet different to everyone else’s, dog name to give them, you will repeat it relentlessly to make sure they become familiar almost immediately.

Basics
As always, to begin any learning process, dogs must be in an environment where it’s peaceful, with no distractions that can cause them to veer off the task at hand. Once they have more of a foothold, or paw-hold, on their name, you can start to implement noisier environments, so they become more accustomed.

The Harder You Practice, The Luckier You Get
There was once an old saying, from a famous golfer by the name of Gary Player, which was “The harder I practice, the luckier I get.” It always resonated with me, not only because I’m a huge golf fan but also because it’s a very wise saying when you further dissect it. It tells us that the more we practice something, the better we get at it. I’m sure it can be relevant to everything and anything we do in life.

So why have I linked golf with name recognition training for a dog? It’s simple, the more you practice name recognition, the better your dog will become!

A great way to practice this with your dog is using their name at least 10 times per day while standing between two to six feet away from them. When your dog looks at you after hearing their name, reward this behavior with a treat or lots of praise. This incentive is what drives dogs to learn quicker and better.

Retain Focus
Ensure you do not offer a reward for anything other than making eye contact with you when you say their name. It’s important to be strict at this point and only offer a treat or praise when the objective has been achieved.

Be mindful that they may do things such as sit or lie down, but you must not reward them in this instance as they must distinguish the difference from commands to name recognition.

The Name Game
Start in an environment that limits distractions but is also familiar to your dog. A place of playfulness.
Throw a piece of their daily food, or a treat, around one meter away from where they are.

Once they finish eating this small piece of food, naturally, they should turn back with those puppy dog eyes that are saying, “Really? Is that it?”. This is where you offer them another treat for looking back.

When your dog is turning back frequently, it is the moment you begin to say their name just before they turn around and offer another reward.

Make it fun and playful! An idea is to leave a treat on the floor, and as soon as they’ve devoured it, as they so often do, you quickly say their name, run backward, and when they follow, you can then reward them with a treat or praise.

Finally, repeat the process a few times a day, and they will get to know their name in no time!

Loose Leash Walking and Heeling Effectiveness of Loose Leash Walking

When we take our dogs for a walk, it helps provide them with the daily exercise they need, and in most cases, it also gives us that much-needed exercise too. Additionally, walks are also great for socializing and meeting the mental needs that dogs carry.

Suppose your dog isn’t meeting its physical expectations. In that case, you can expect a lot of disruption, which can be projected in various ways such as destructiveness, going through garbage, hyperactiveness, attention-seeking behavior, episodes of barking, and the list goes on.

Why Do Dogs Pull and Chase?
In short, there’s no particular reason why dogs pull and chase; it is due to various factors. Dogs that are typically more excited and playful tend to pull their owners down the street while gravitating towards things that appeal to them or make them curious.

Now, when you attempt to pull backward in hopes of restraining your dog, they will usually counteract this action by pulling with more intensity, as most dogs tend to fight against this type of pressure.

Certain dogs with specific characteristics will pull differently, too. Dogs that are more forceful and aggressive to things such as children, other dogs, cyclists, or runners, will usually pull forward to chase down their target. On the other hand, dogs that can be rather timid and worried to leave home may pull forward on their way back home instead of during the walk.

The general objective for using the “walking on a loose leash” exercise is to teach your dog how to pay attention to you instead of other factors causing them to pull hard. Ideally, like a finely tuned outcome, your dog will very rarely pull on your leash, no matter what distraction is forced upon them, and will stay on a loose leash as they walk beside you. This won’t come easy, and it relies on consistent training, so be ready to put the work in!

Ditch The Tight Leash
Consider a tight leash as a vacuum cleaner. Yes, this is a strange analogy but hear me out first. When we use a vacuum cleaner, and the wire is loose, it works perfectly fine and can freely suck up any dirt. However, when we try to take the vacuum too far around the house, and the lead isn’t long enough, it then becomes tight, and before you know it, the plug has fallen from the socket—the vacuum is unable to do its job. A tight leash acts in a very similar way.

A tight leash prevents dogs from learning freely and halts them from making key decisions on their own, which of course, is essential for a dog learning the ropes. Loose leashes are also an important prerequisite for off-leash progression. Be mindful of this if you eventually want your dog to wander freely off their leash while trusting them to do so.

Accomplishing Walking on a Loose Leash
Like with any great results, accomplishment requires dedication and consistency. Learning to walk on a loose leash is certainly no exception. Here are a few steps to consider trying out when training your dog to walk gracefully on a loose leash:

Firstly, loosen that leash and do so with confidence.

Hold the end of your leash in one hand while gripping the handle with your opposite hand at around two to three feet.
When your dog becomes preoccupied with a distraction and starts to pull, call their name and walk in the opposing path of the distraction.

Your dog will turn around and wonder what you’re doing and why you aren’t paying them the usual attention by tightening the leash. This is when you implement the reward system so that they can associate this act as good behavior.

As this happens more frequently, your dog will soon realize that they will earn a reward if they can avoid the typical distractions. This is where consistency will matter most.

Finally, your dog now knows he must pay you attention instead of the other way around. That should stop with tight leashes and drastic pulling.

To progress this even further, you can start replacing his name with commands such as “here,” “come,” or “to me.”
The Three Top Commandments: Sit, Down, and Place

Before we get down and dirty, you should ensure you have a clicker and some rewards at the ready. Especially the rewards—you’re going to need them. A lot of them.

Anyway, a clicker is a brilliant piece of equipment that every dog owner should be using during training. It is a small device that lets out a short, distinctive “click” sound which tells your dog they’re doing the right thing. When you couple this with eye-bulging incentives, it becomes an effective means of training, and your dog should learn in no time. Clicker training doesn’t have to be used just for a specific command but across all types of exercise that require instruction of some sort.

Command
The sit command is fairly straightforward in terms of the objective, but it’s more how to implement a process to achieve the goal that matters most.

With that said, it doesn’t mean the results come as easy as understanding the task itself. Nevertheless, if you stick to the following information, you’ll have your pup sitting with ease in no time.

Teaching The Sit Command
First and foremost, you need to ensure your dog is on your left-hand side as you hold your loose leash in the opposite hand, accompanied by a treat or piece of their favorite food.

Secondly, you instruct the all-important command, for example, “Busta, sit,” before guiding the dog up towards their treat in your right hand.

While this is happening, you should be simultaneously guiding your dog’s butt downwards to the floor. As soon as contact is made, you must provide all the love and praise they crave and desire. Kind of like a small celebration in your dog’s honor. Don’t worry; you won’t be the first.

Be mindful that those are early stages, so don’t expect too much too soon, or as they say, “Bite off more than you can chew”. All we’re looking for at this stage is to get your dog to place his butt on the ground. When they achieve this, you can release them right away.


Sit and Stay, What’s The Difference?
The answer? Not an awful lot.

Stay, in a way, is a progression for the sit command. To initiate the staying phase, you must ensure your dog is ready in the sit position. Following this, you promptly issue a “sit” command from two steps away before taking a step forward, towards the front of your dog, with one foot and retreating immediately with one step back.

Repeat the sit command once again, but this time you will pivot, without breaking a bone, directly in front of your dog. At this point, just ensure you have your leash and hand at the ready in case they break their position, and you can revert them to where they originally were.

Timing has to be impeccable. As we mentioned before, you have a 1.3-second window to make the desired command so they can register what is going on without any distraction.

Not only is timing important here, but so is consistency. If your dog is breaking the command one after another without proper reinforcement, how on earth will they know what you want them to do? It could be just as annoying for them as it is for you.

They will only know that sit also means stay if you are consistent with the exercise, and before you know it, you’ll be getting them to stay from 10 feet away.

However, let’s not sprint before we can crawl. To get to this stage, it takes a lot of training and progression, so be prepared to put the work in.

From a Distance – Sit
Once you get to a competent stage, you will start performing the exercise under harder constraints such as leaving your leash on the floor or going further away in distance. When doing so, you must be extra careful with the 1.3-second rule; this will apply more than ever here.

If your dog happens to break the exercise, you will quickly intervene by saying something like, “No, no, no” or “Wrong” before walking back to them and starting them in their position before the break.

Let’s Go Downtown!
Teaching the down command has striking similarities to the sit command. However, the only notable difference is the change in direction of the guidance you’re giving.

Additionally, the down command is a little more challenging due to the nature of the act being a more submissive action. That can cause dogs to become restless and potentially resist. Don’t let this scare you, though, as all good things come to those that wait.

Teaching The Down Command
Firstly, your dog must be in a sitting position before all else. Then, you say your “Down” command while visually showing them what it is you mean.

To do this, I advise grasping the leash with a treat in one hand, around 6-8 inches from their mouth, before gently utilizing it to guide them down to the ground.

At the same time, your other hand will be placed on the dog’s shoulders to assist them in carefully placing them down. As soon as your dog hits the deck, you do what they love most – lots of praise, lots of love, and lots of treats!

Stay and Down, What’s The Difference?
Stay is a staple aspect amongst most commands, as we want our dogs to achieve an objective and stay there.

To teach the aspect of stay in the down command, you must ensure they are already in the down position before anything else. Next, you must repeat your down command before taking a step towards your dog and then a step back, exactly like the sit command. Again, once this has been achieved, we must use the almighty, yet dangerous (to some), pivot right in front of your dog.

Remember, you must have your leash at the ready, just in case they choose to break the exercise, so you’re able to put them back into position. Do not forget the 1.3-second rule! This applies to pretty much every time a dog needs to think and act on a specific command.

From a Distance – Down
The same applies here to the sit command. You must perform this exercise like a set of stepping stones that lead to a pot of gold. You must be sure you can make the next step without falling off track, or you will lose the objective at hand.

If your dog breaks the exercise once you start implementing it from afar, you will say, “No, no, no” or “Wrong,” and guide them back into the correct position and start again.

It’s The Place To Be
We all have our ideal place. Mine is a beach with some clear water, coupled with an ice-cold drink and some blistering sunshine.

Dog’s are no different, except we never really know what their ideal place is; however, imagine it would be a field full of toys and food. Anyway, what I’m trying to say is that dogs must have a place too, but you can actually give them one when they need some downtime.

An example of a dog’s place could be their bed. When the place command has been issued, the dog will promptly go to their bed with no questions asked. This, of course, is the end goal but, I’m going to show you how to reach that end goal.

Teaching The Place Command
From the onset, you will need a dog-sized bed that fits perfectly for your pup and has obvious boundaries. Secondly, you will need a slightly elevated surface, such as a low table. The risen surface helps your dog understand that their hind legs are there to be used and used for moments like this. However, if you don’t have this, you needn’t worry; the exercise can still be taught correctly, but it may take a little longer, that’s all.

Without using the bed at this point, you must ensure that your dog is confident and comfortable with getting onto the elevated place platform. Next, you will issue a “Place” command and guide them up to the risen surface until all four paws are secure in their place. Once you have mastered the exercise in their elevated position, you may then progress to using the bed instead.

Once this is done, can you guess what happens next? Yep, lots of praise, lots of love, and lots of rewards—my favorite. As soon as you’ve handed out the praise, carefully instruct them off of the place with a command such as “Free” or “Go” and recycle this process until familiarization has been achieved.

Once your dog is in its place, you must start to implement more boundaries, such as keeping close while facing them and acting as a barrier to avoid any sudden jumps. You will then slowly walk around the place as your dog tries to follow you with excitement.

The reward system for the place command is straightforward to adhere to, but it does require consistency along with everything else. Your dog should only receive a reward or praise if, and only if, they stay in their place. After they do so, you can prompt them with a release command such as “Go” and repeat the exercise all over again.

However, it should be noted that if your dog happens to break the exercise before the release command is given, you must say, “No, place!” before redirecting them back to their place position again.

Place Reinforcement
Initiate by walking around the place as you grasp your leash at around 3-4 feet away. If you’re able to walk around the place without your dog breaking the exercise, you may reward them with a treat, praise, or both. I tend to go for both because, why not? It helps them recognize what they are doing is good behavior. If they happen to break the exercise, as mentioned above, you must tell them what they did was wrong and guide them back into their place position.

The goal here is to teach your dog to a point where they make their own decisions without the need for your prompt. It helps enforce the difference between what should be expected vs. what’s not expected. Once you’ve made good progress from 3-4 feet away, it’s time to be adventurous and attempt a 6 footer while holding the end of the leash. Wait for the right time before you drop the leash and walk around them. If they stay in place, you can then dish out the much-needed love that they deserve.

Drop It and Leave It
Drop it and leave it are two very beneficial commands, which will come in handy throughout the entirety of your dog’s life. They’ll be many times when you need to use them, especially when playing a lighthearted game of catch or if your dog is about to go near something dangerous and needs to be alerted. As soon as you nail these two, teaching your dog is a walk in the park. Pardon the pun.

Teaching Your Dog To Drop It
We all need to teach our dogs to drop things, especially from the stage where they’re young, cute, and worryingly curious about everything they stumble across. Puppies are a nightmare for having something dangerous or important in their mouths. It is why teaching them to drop is more than essential to you and your dog.

The end goal is to eventually say the command, “Drop” or “Drop it,” and your dog will do so almost immediately, but getting to this stage requires a lot of leverage, and when I say leverage, I mean rewards.

 Over time, your dog will realize that dropping it upon command will result in a reward, so it makes sense for them to comply. Just think about it; imagine getting food every time you dropped something? Dog’s live the high life, don’t they?

The Step-By-Step Process

Gather a number of your dog’s favorite items they enjoy chewing on, along with your clicker and some tasty treats.

Grab a tasty treat in one hand as you prompt your dog to chew on a specific object. As soon as their mouth is on the object, push the piece of food near their nose and command, “Drop.” You must then use the clicker once they open their mouth before offering them a treat as you grab the object with your other hand.

Ideally, you should repeat this exercise approximately ten times a day for them to become familiar with it at a quicker rate.

This is where progression takes place. Once you’ve completed ten successful repetitions, you will refer back to point two above, yet this time, you won’t have a treat in your hand close to their nose.

How dare you?! I know, a little bit crafty, but it’s all for a good cause. It is to get them used to drop objects without the need for a treat.
Once you’ve reached this point, you must now use a hard chew. Grasp the chew in your hand and leave enough room for your dog to chew on the other side while you’re holding it tightly. As soon as their mouth grips on the chew, you must say, “Drop.” If they do this correctly, you can give them three of their tastiest treats along with the chew – this will make them love you even more!

Finally, you will repeat the above step, but we’re going to challenge the determined pup! The next step is to have the chew and tasty treats at the ready once more, but this time you will offer them the chew and let go immediately once they have a grip of it. You will then command, “Drop.” If done successfully, you can give them ten treats and the chew! – you will be putting them in a doggy utopia. However, if they decide not to drop the object, you can offer a small treat now and then as you progress to this level.

After they’ve mastered this, you can move onto objects they’re not supposed to chew, such as pens, pillows, socks, etc. Practice makes perfect, so ensure you’re putting in the work, and you will see results in no time!

Teaching Your Dog To Leave It
The end goal for this exercise is to steer your dog’s attention away from something they shouldn’t be next to, like roadkill, for example, just by instructing them to “Leave it.” This exercise is essential when around small, yet disastrous, objects such as medication, or food that could potentially harm them.

The Step-By-Step Process
Ensure you have some tasty treats in both your hands, not for you, but your dog. You’d be surprised at how many people pick up their favorite chocolate bar in two hands whenever I say this.

Next, you will let your dog smell one of your fists, so they pick up a scent. This is the moment when you will click and treat when they move away from your fist and offer the treat with your opposite hand. You should recycle this exercise until your dog is no longer interested in the treat that you initially present to them.

Offer the treat in an open palm but quickly close it if they try to steal it from you. While doing this, you must be mindful of your dog and their temperament, as aggressive dogs could cause injury. If this is the case, I advise covering it with something big and soft like a pillow as an alternative.  You will repeat this step until they decide to disregard the treat when your palm is open as you click and treat with your opposite hand.

This should be repeated every time until they consistently disregard your “decoy” treat. You may also use the command “Leave It” for every repetition you make when using the decoy treat.

Place one of those delicious incentives on the ground, and if your dog tries to make a sneak grab, you must quickly cover it with your hands. It’s worth mentioning that if you have slow reactions, your dog might be choosing your hand as a tasty snack instead, so make sure you’re quick! Again, be wary of your dog’s personality and use something soft and big to cover it if you want to play it safe. You should click and treat the second they look away from it and recycle the exercise until they no longer attempt to make a lunge every time you command, “Leave It.”

If progress is being made, it is where it starts to formulate a little easier. Step four is when you set the treat on the floor and command “Leave It” as you’re standing up. Shelter the treat with your foot or something that’s soft and shields it well if they attempt to make a snatch but click and treat if they disregard it and repeat it several times.

The next step is to attempt the exercise but with the aid of a leash. You should walk past the treat while holding the leash as you command, “Leave It.” If they try and go for a treat, you will pull back on the leash to signal that they aren’t listening. However, if they disregard the decoy treat, you can implement a click and treat right away for their hard work.

Once your dog is more than competent with the above steps, you can start to get creative with the exercises by placing treats on their paws or even gradually increasing the wait time length before they’re allowed to have the treat. Be fun; dogs like having fun even more than humans!

Finally, you will eventually get to a point where you are implementing the “Leave It” command with everyday objects instead of treats. If your dog can disregard general living room items after your command, you have achieved the end goal. Well done!

Recall

Ah yes, the almighty recall. Debatably the most important exercise to teach your dog in its entire lifetime. This command can bring your dog back before they imminently destroy the local kid’s ball at the park or keep them away from any type of danger that may hurt them.

The end goal is to walk in the opposite direction to your dog as they are preoccupied with something and shout their name, followed by the word, “Come.” If taught correctly, they will sprint quicker than a speeding bullet before applying the brakes and sitting still directly next to you.


Teaching The Recall
To start this exercise, you need a leash that is approximately 6 feet in length. You must ensure that the leash is loose at all times while your dog has their attention on something that’s in front of you. After this, you will say the command, “Come” or “Here” as you administer a gentle tug on their leash in your direction.

It also helps to back up as you’re now presenting yourself as a moving target for your dog to focus on, so when they do begin to walk back in your direction, ensure they are rewarded for their efforts.

Another excellent method to implement is to have somebody hold your dog (preferably not a stranger that likes to steal dogs) on a leash as you walk away in the distance before giving out the “Come” or “Here” command.

They will usually wonder where you’re going and follow you instantly, but if you find that they are hesitant, a great way to overcome this is to bend/kneel with open arms as you encourage them to come to you.

As usual, it’s only fair we reward our canine friends with a reward whenever they master this exercise, whether it’s on or off the leash. We want them to think that coming back to us from a recall is in their favor, and they are getting something out of it. This is what will give them the motivation to learn this exercise.

As you progress the recall, you will begin to expand your distance over time. With this in mind, it may be an idea to acquire a few leashes of different sizes so you can get the very best from this recall exercise.

Distractions During Recall
As you begin to improve the recall by moving further away, the potential for distractions is higher, as the gap between you and your dog allows more time for them to appear. In short, the recall must be direct, and you need to avoid your dog getting distracted by other variables, such as birds, balls, dogs, or stopping to smell and go to the toilet.

If your dog happens to get distracted from the task at hand, you should always have your trusty leash at the ready, so you’re able to gently provide that light pull and direct them back into your path. Now, if your dog struggles to grasp the recall, you should think about making it more enjoyable so they want to grasp it. Try offering more treats, toys, and praise if this is the case.


Part 3: Solving Common Problems
Welcome to the final part of the e-book! Here we will discuss some common problems and how to correct them in your day-to-day life. Although there’s many to choose from, we decided to include, what we thought, were the most important ones to solve early on in the training stages.

Housetraining Avoiding Mistakes Is a Priority
Firstly, this section is more applicable to puppies as opposed to adult dogs. However, that’s not to say these tactics wouldn’t work with adult dogs who have been poorly housetrained. On the contrary, you can also implement them freely with dogs of all ages if needed.

In aid of housetraining dogs, you must be aware that dogs, in general, are very particular about where they venture to. It’s vitally important for them to build solid foundations in their everyday habits.

With that said, it’s also just as important to anticipate potty accidents before they arise. Every time your dog feels the need to go to the toilet inside the house, it is actually due to them having a soft spotted preference for that area. In other words, if your dog takes a monstrous leak in the corner of the freshly cleaned kitchen, please don’t blame them, but instead, look in the mirror and take accountability. When you were a baby and you used to pee everywhere, was that your fault? I think not.

If your dog hasn’t learned to use nature’s big outdoors to relieve themselves just yet, you must ensure they are being monitored at all times. I’ve been there myself where I’ve been distracted for 15 seconds, took a step to my right, and then I’m knee-deep in a pool of dog relief. It’s not a nice feeling.

Lucky for you, there are some telltale signs to look out for when anticipating an oncoming toilet break. If your dog happens to be circling or sniffing along the floor, the likelihood of them going to the toilet is high. If you see this behavior, you should get them outside immediately.

Once they’ve done the deed, why not reward them with a small treat? This will help associate that going to the toilet outside will earn them some goodies. I would encourage you to take your dog outside, especially if they’re a pup, within 15 minutes after every meal. However, if accidents are frequent at the beginning you should consider adding more breaks between these meals so it becomes a familiar process for them. Another thing,  if you take them out and they don’t let the river flow, don’t sweat, simply take them back in for around 10-15 minutes then try again.


Keep a Routine
Taking your dog out often throughout the day is an essential part of training them and even more so after eating, playing, or sleeping. You should aim to feed your dog approximately 2-3 times per day while leaving it around 15 minutes in total for any food to digest properly. Of course, the quantity of food will depend on the size and breed of your dog, and also their age bracket too. I would advise contacting your vet regarding this as they will be able to offer more accurate recommendations for you.

Now, a great indicator for telling how long a dog can hold themselves is considering their age in months + one hour, but never exceeding the 8-hour mark as an adult. Three hours for a two-month-old puppy, six hours for a five-month-old one, etc.

The key here is to get them outside for as much as possible, in short stints, as it drastically limits the number of potential mistakes. However, on the other hand, it also increases the number of rewards for your dog. It’s a win-win!

Jumping Unprovoked
Jumping up is a very common problem for dogs, and it’s a reason why many owners tend to ignore them before ultimately sending them to the backyard. Although jumping up can be annoying, it’s probably best not to send them to a place where they can cause more mess in an excited state.

The backyard can be subject to excessive barking and biting things they aren’t supposed to, amongst many other things.

Why Do Dogs Jump Unprovoked?
Great question. Believe it or not, it’s a way of them being extra friendly to you. They see us, humans, standing on two legs. Dogs being dogs, they want to greet us by jumping up to try and get on our level. This can be due to them wanting to say “Hi!”, “Bye!”, or maybe they’re just overly excited about your presence.

Preventing Dogs From Jumping Up
The primary goal here is to ensure consistency at all times, regardless of how you decide to train your dog. If you let your dog jump on you after a hard day of work on the building site while in your dirty uniform, chances are they won’t see a problem with jumping on you 5 minutes before you leave for a black-tie event at the local country club.

You have to remember that dogs can’t distinguish the difference between good or bad clothes. You must be mindful that letting them jump up when you deem it okay may be setting a bad precedent for them. Here are some tips to help deal with your bouncing pup:

Get Them to Sit: The sit command makes your life a whole lot easier the earlier it’s implemented. It’s one of, if not the most, fundamental commands every pup should be taught.
Every moment your dog decides to turn into a pogo stick, tell them to sit immediately. Once they’ve done this successfully, you can reward them with praise. This will show them that jumping up is bad, and if they don’t do so, they will receive love and attention.

Fetch!: This is perfect if you have an over-excited pup, and telling them to sit just doesn’t work. It makes it a great chance to burn off this extra energy and excitement with a game of fetch. So once you’ve played for a fair amount of time and they’re all burnt out, attempt to calm them down and request them to sit so regain some normality.

Show Them Your Back: Now, this one depends on how persistent your dog is. You may need to turn your back on them for 15 seconds or 10 minutes. Regardless of how long it takes, it always falls to consistency, so make sure you stick to your guns and outwait them no matter how long.

Unless you’re standing there for 24 hours—at that point, I would probably call a dog therapist.


Barking
8 Reasons Why Your Dog Is Barking
There’s an array of reasons why dogs bark, and sometimes it’s going to be hard to tell which is which, so I’ll break down eight simple reasons why your dog may be barking. Here we go:

Barking = Greeting: You probably know this already, but some dogs get over-excited when they see a certain somebody or maybe their friends from the local park. It’s common for them to wag their tail while they bark or even let out an enormous whining noise as a friendly greeting.

It’s a Territory Thing: Barking over territory often occurs when a dog sees a stranger, such as a mailman who’s encroaching on the dog’s turf. Because they aren’t familiar with this person, it causes them to go into defense mode and bark them away.

They’re Scared: This is quite similar to territory barking only due to the defensive nature of the bark. However, instead of them barking at a stranger, this time they could be barking at an unusual sound or sight within their environment. They will instinctively bark because they don’t know what it is.

They Want Fun: In some cases, dogs will bark because they just want some attention. If they’re in the living room with all the family and start to bark, there’s a good chance that all they need is some treats or playtime!

Separation Anxiety: Dogs can often feel very anxious when their owners leave them for a while, which is why they may bark excessively over a prolonged period. They just miss you when you’re gone!

Trying To Be Social: Another reason for them barking could be down to social elements. For example, if they see or hear another dog barking, this could ultimately trigger a barking response back at them.

Frustration: Dogs can get frustrated just like us humans! Except they don’t pay bills as we do, so what on earth can they be stressed about? Well, they can become restless when they’re tied to a leash, and they want the freedom to play. They will express their frustration through means of barking.

In Discomfort or Pain: The worst-case scenario for your dog barking is that they are in some kind of discomfort or pain due to sickness or an injury. Typically, in this case, they would let out a distinct whine and bark. If you notice this, please take them to a veterinarian as soon as possible to seek medical attention.


7 Tips To Stop Your Dog Barking
Now we’ve covered the reasons why our dogs may bark, let’s move on and discuss seven stellar tips for training your dog to stop excessive barking, so it can improve their overall behavior:

Finding a Cause: It should be noted that not all types of barking are an indicator of poor temperament. With this in mind, it’s vital to highlight the cause of your dogs barking before training them to be quiet. You must identify the initial cause from where or when the barking seems to happen, and after you’ve determined this, you can put training in place to prevent it from persisting.

Cut Out The Catalyst: If, for example, your dog is barking for territorial purposes, you must analyze the environment and quickly remove or block out the sound or sights provoking your dog’s barking episodes.

Divert Attention: When you’re out walking your dog, or even sitting down outside a cafe with them, and they’re excessively barking at every passerby they come across, you need to divert their attention right away. Ensure you have a pocket full of dog treats, and if they succeed in not barking when somebody walks by, you may offer them a reward. Place command is also a great way of diverting their attention when at home. For example, if somebody is approaching the front door.

Ignorance Is Bliss: Sometimes, dogs have an annoying habit of barking for sheer attention. However, a way to reverse this is to simply ignore them. Yep, you heard correct. Ignore them till they’re all barked out.

You must not make any type of interaction, whether this is eye contact or reprimanding them. When your dog finally reads your body language and stops, you may then reward them for their efforts accordingly.

Fix Their Confinement: Barking issues may arise from their confined environments, such as being locked in a cage for too long. If you find your dog stays inside their cage way too often and they’re excessively barking, they may just want to go outside and roam the great outdoors.

We mustn’t forget that dogs need exercise and mental relaxation just like us humans. Let them do what they love.

Pump Up The Speakers: Playing music when your dog is having a barking episode is another great way to distract them—especially when they can hear construction or other dogs barking outside. Get some relaxing music on and turn it up to a decent volume; this should stop your dog barking in no time.
Behavior Training: Instilling some training to improve your dog’s overall obedience is essential. It helps throughout many occasions, but being able to teach your dog to sit and stay also stimulates control, which can help avoid barking incidents.
Nipping
Do you know that moment when you’re first acquainted with those beautiful beady puppy eyes? That moment where you discover unfathomable amounts of joy and love as you run your hands through their soft puppy fur? That moment when you tell yourself how amazing this puppy is…and then they take a good old nip from your hand.

Yeah, we’ve all been there. However, you can act early to prevent your pup from making this a bad habit as they grow into adulthood.


Teething vs. Nipping
As you may notice from the dents in your skin, puppies start their journey with 30 small needle-like teeth in their mouths. As they become adults, these teeth are eventually replaced by 40 fully-grown ones, but this is no painless road.

It is a constant battle for them to suppress teething’s pain, so they feel the need to bite, nip, and pretty much chew anything they can get their mouths on—pretty much like our own human babies.

The main difference between teething and nipping is usually quite easy to distinguish, as a teething puppy will often gnaw or gently nibble on your hands, feet, or some subcutaneous skin on your arm or legs. In comparison, nipping will typically occur when your puppy is excited and very playful.

Appropriate Measures If They Nip or Bite
If your pup begins to nip at you, it’s imperative to put a stop to it right away but correctly. For example, if it’s playtime with your pup and they take a gentle nip at your foot, peacefully express this via a neutral sound such as an “ouch” before you instantly put a halt to any further playtime. You should then ignore them until they’ve settled down and are no longer in a nipping state.

If they do this correctly after reading your body language, reward them with a treat and praise as this will establish that nipping during playtime means no more playtime. This is greatly effective with pups; all they want to do is play, so if you take that from them, they will soon fix up and realize that the fun stops if they do it again. The same intervention also applies when your dog is gnawing or teething.

One thing I must reaffirm is that you must never shout or hit your puppy. This can hurt the results you’re trying to achieve by forcing your dog to be scared of you and, in the long run, could exacerbate your dogs biting tendencies but in a more aggressive nature.

Conclusion
I hope you learned a thing or two from the above information. It was great to put this together for all dog-lovers across the globe to help them teach their dog in the very best way possible.

If I were to give you one more piece of advice, it would be to take it slowly but surely. Remember, this is a marathon, not a sprint. Take it one step at a time and use progression and regression to your advantage. You’ll both see results in little to no time. Sometimes your pup will get it wrong, but I can guarantee you will get it wrong more. This is normal, as, in theory, you’re both learning the ropes, so be inventive, be fun, be consistent, and above all else, be loving!

Source: https://stayyy.com/ultimate-guide-to-dog-training/

2
Law of Bangladesh / New Traffic Rules & Fine List 2021
« on: March 25, 2021, 12:01:46 PM »
New Traffic Rules & Fine List 2021

RULES TO BE AWARE OF REGARDING THE ROAD SAFETY LAW & FINES

The government of Bangladesh has recently implemented New Traffic Rules. Traffic is one of the issues that everyone is facing on a daily basis. Traveler’s and foot traveler’s safety in the roads is currently a burning issue in Bangladesh. Traffic crowding differs during the day, requiring planning and longer trips; this impacts productivity, cutting across the social and economic status.

Although walking is a major travel mode of the low-income majority, pedestrian needs are ignored in transport planning. New Traffic Rules are implemented to reduce accident rates on the streets. Almost 80 percent of traffic sufferers in Dhaka are pedestrians struck by a fuel-based vehicle. Let’s see what the new rules of Bangladesh traffic 2021 are.

New Traffic Rules 2021 in Bangladesh:



The Government imposed the new rules on the roads and highways were seen as being lenient on travelers, and pedestrians. Police were present at the busy intersections, and roundabouts – but not all of them. BRTA who is the head of the transport sector enlisted instruction to support the new law’s implementation. Mostly unskilled drivers are not following rules, creating chaos and facing fatal accidents.

Without any proper and full proof guidelines, the traffic of Bangladesh can’t be controlled. The authorities also lack the technical support required to track random dope tests on drivers. To maintain the traffic rules, the Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) drafted a fine chart for all types of vehicles. The Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP) has set up a fine chart to support the execution of the new law.

According to the old rule, the highest penalty for traffic law violation was two years’ imprisonment, while the minimum jail term was one month. The maximum fine is Taka 5,000, and the minimum Tk100. On the other hand, under the Road Transport Act, 2018, the maximum fine is as much as Tk5 lakh, and the minimum fine is Taka 5,000. Following the new fine chart, the number of collected fines will increase significantly, if the number of traffic rule violations remains the same.

Fine List for Breaking Traffic law:
Many people still don’t know about the new amount of fine or the punishment they need to pay according to the New Traffic Rules 2019. For your convenience a full chart is given below:

Fine List for Breaking Traffic law

From when the new rules will be applicable From 1.11.2019 this new traffic rule 2019 will effective. Aside from a few exceptional cases, most people are expressing a positive feeding towards the new law.


Bangladesh New Traffic Rules 2021 (BRTA Act 2018 update)

As the long-awaited Road Transport Act, 2018 went into effect across Bangladesh on Friday, Dhaka saw a lax first day of the law’s enforcement. Members of the Traffic Division of Dhaka Metropolitan Police (DMP), who enforce the new law on the streets, were seen being lenient on commuters, and pedestrians. Sergeants were present at the busy intersections, and roundabouts – but not all of them.

Hopefully, these New Traffic Rules of Bangladesh will serve their purpose and cut down the number of traffic accidents by a huge margin, and improve the overall traffic conditions of Bangladesh.

Source: https://www.turbinebd.com/rules-to-be-aware-of-regarding-the-road-safety-law-fines/

3
Bangladesh at the centre of regional communication

For over a decade, various initiatives have been taken to enhance regional connectivity between Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Bhutan. In addition to increasing people to people communication, new routes have been introduced through river, road, railway and airways for easy freight transport.

Due to its geographical location, Bangladesh is at the centre of building this four-nation regional communication system. Bangladesh is being given priority in almost all routes - bilateral and multilateral.

Bangladesh has already provided transit and transshipment facilities though river routes and roads to the northeastern states of India. Chattogram port has also been opened to India for transportation of its goods. Discussions with India on increasing trade and commerce started after the present government came into power in the first term.

India has been interested in the transit route through Ashuganj port regularly since 2011 after importing heavy equipment from Tripura’s Palatana power plant with special facilities. This route was officially launched in 2016 with a duty charges. Later, new trade routes were introduced between the two countries by river, road and sea. Besides, an agreement has been signed between Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN) for free movement of vehicles.

Several routes have been introduced between India and Bangladesh for direct passenger transport such as Khulna-Kolkata railway, Dhaka-Agartala by bus, Dhaka-Guwahati flight, to increase people to people communication. The Dhaka-Siliguri passenger train is scheduled to be launched this month. Discussions on launching freight and passenger transport are also at the final stages. Buses on Dhaka-Siliguri-Gangtok and Dhaka-Kathmandu routes have also been piloted.

Distinguished fellow of non-government research organisation Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), Mustafizur Rahman told Prothom Alo that some agreements and infrastructure- elated to the connectivity with India and other neighbouring countries have been developed. These initiatives are positive and should be implemented immediately.

According to him, investments should be increased in parallel to transport and business should be facilitated by removing tariff and non-tariff barriers. Only after this, the complete success of regional connectivity including transit and transshipment will be achieved. He further thinks that trade and commerce would expand further, if the freight trucks could cross the borders of India, Nepal and Bhutan easily and move freely.

The World Bank (WB) has conducted a study on how much India and Bangladesh could benefit from the increased inter-country connectivity between the two countries. The study of the WB published on 9 March states that the national revenue of Bangladesh will increase by 17 per cent if an uninterrupted transport system could be introduced between India and Bangladesh. This will raise the revenue of India by 8 per cent. The actual income will increase by 67 per cent in Dhaka and 59 per cent in Chattogram. Overall, the actual income of the eastern districts of Bangladesh and some western districts will increase by 25 to 40 per cent. Bangladesh's exports to India could increase by about 300 per cent if a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is signed by the two countries and uninterrupted vehicular movement could be ensured.

Maitri bridge is giving hope
The Bangladesh-India Maitri bridge over the Feni river near the border between Ramgarh area of Khagrachhari in Bangladesh and Sabroom of South Tripura in India was inaugurated on 8 March. This bridge is being referred as the “gateway” to the east of South Asia, because it will be easy to transport goods to seven northeastern states of India including Assam and Tripura via Chattogram port.

During British period, there was a railway line along Moulvibazar stretching up to Dharmanagar in Karimganj, Assam. Around the year 2015, the railway line was extended from Dharmanagar in Karimganj, Assam to Agartala in Tripura. Now the construction of the railway from Agartala to Sabroom is also nearing completion. With the launch of this railway, it will be possible to transport passengers and goods from Tripura's Sabroom to Guwahati in Assam via Agartala. From there a railway line is connected to Kolkata via New Jalpaiguri. Another railway line runs from Guwahati to Dibrugarh, a border town near Arunachal Pradesh.

This railway is now being considered as the lifeline or economic corridor of seven northeastern states including Assam, Tripura, Arunachal and Mizoram. There are roadways too. A direct road connection has been introduced with Sabroom through Ramgarh Maitri Bridge in Khagrachhari. The shipment of goods will reach Sabroom by crossing only 100km of roads from Chattogram port via Sitakunda and Mirsarai.

New waterways are opening up
In the last 10 years, at least four new waterways have been launched between Bangladesh and India. One of these is transit and three are bilateral trade routes. From Kolkata to Ashuganj by water and from Ashuganj to Agartala via Akhaura by road — this route is basically a transit route. Consignments of stone and iron for the construction of railways in Tripura have gone this way.

Last November, transport of transit freight started in another route, from Karimganj in Assam to Ashuganj via Zakiganj in Sylhet by river routes and later by road to Agartala. About 21,000 tonnes goods  have so far been transported to India through Ashuganj port. A jetty and warehouse have already been constructed at the Ashuganj port. Work is underway to upgrade the 48 km road from Ashuganj to Akhaura into four lanes with loan from India.

A route from Daudkandi to Sonamura in Sipahijala district of Tripura via Cumilla through the Gomati river and later a road to Agartala was officially launched last August. This has been done to expand bilateral trade. There is a navigability crisis in this route. The Bangladesh Inland Water transport Authority (BIWTA) is now looking into find where the navigability crisis lies. BIWTA will soon start dredging to resolve the navigability crisis. Besides, trade has started between Kurigram and Dhubri in Assam through the Brahmaputra river.

Large boulders are being transported in this route. Last September, BIWTA approved the transportation of goods from Sultanganj in Godagari upazila of Rajshahi to Maya river port in Murshidabad. It is now awaiting clearance from the customs department.

BIWTA director Rafiqul Islam told Prothom Alo that the cost of transporting products by river route is much less. So in the last few years multiple river routes have been launched between India and Bangladesh. If these river routes are fully operational, Bangladesh's exports to northeast India will increase. Indian traders will be able to import products from Bangladesh by river route in the fastest time at low cost too. He said dredging is already underway on the Zakiganj river route. Various initiatives have been for dredging and to make Gomati and other rivers suitable for movement at night.

Transportation of products increased on river routes
There have has export and import between the two countries under the Trade Agreement Protocol of 1972. Within four years, transportation of goods  increased by more than 100,000 tonnes. In the 2016-17 fiscal year, the total import and export by river routes was about 2.6 million (26 lakh and six thousand) tonnes. It increased to 2.7 million (27 lakh and two thousand) tonnes in 2018-19 fiscal year. In the last fiscal year, this  was 2.3 million (23 lakh and seven thousand) tonnes. However, due to the pandemic, the river routes were closed for about three months.

Passenger transport from Kolkata to Guwahati in Assam via Khulna-Chandpur-Nagarbari-Sirajganj-Kurigram in Bangladesh  started from 2019. Two Indian vessels  and one Bangladeshi vessel are transporting passengers. However, passenger transport is not regular.

Chattogram port being used
In November 2018, an agreement was reached in Delhi between the two countries to transport products to the northeastern states of India via the port of Chattogram. In October of the following year, the Standard of Procedure (SOP) was signed on the method of transporting products on this route. In July 2020, India imported a test consignment via Chattogram port for the first time. A consignment of four containers of steel and consumer products came by a ship from Kolkata to Chattogram port and later from Chattogram to Agartala via Cumilla and Akhaura. However, transportation of products via Chattogram port is still to be regularised.

In this route, Indian goods will be unloaded at the Chattogram port and will be transported to Tripura in India by road and railways. The consignment of products will be transported from Chattogram port to Agartala via Comilla and Gangasagar area in Kashba. Construction of 11 km railway line from Gangasagar area to Agartala is in full swing. Besides the Ramgarh-Sabroom Maitri Bridge, Indian traders will also be able to import products by road via Bibirbazar in Comilla and Akhaura in Brahmanbaria.

Dhaka-Kolkata-Kathmandu on the same string
In order to increase people to people communications as well as to facilitate the transportation of products, an initiative was taken six to seven years ago to simultaneously increase regional connectivity between Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Bhutan, known as BBIN.

In June 2015, under the auspices of the BBIN, an agreement was signed between the four countries in Bhutan’s capital Thimphu for the free movement of motorised vehicles. But the upper house of Bhutan’s parliament has not yet approved the agreement in fear of environmental damage. For the time being, initiatives have been taken to implement the free movement agreement excluding Bhutan.

A consignment of Vodafone Company’s equipment was transported from Kolkata to Agartala via Akhaura in Bangladesh under a pilot consignment in November, 2015. Nepal and Bhutan have been granted to use their lands to reach Bangladesh. Nepal and Bhutan have been asking for permission to use the Mongla port. This too will be easier now. Apart from that, Bangladesh has already permitted Bhutan to use the Syedpur port.

Regarding this issue, commerce secretary Md Jafar Uddin told Prothom Alo that our business will expand if our inter-connectivity  with the neighbouring countries increases. For this, investments should be increased along with infrastructural development. Apart from solving the navigability crisis, facilities at the ports are also being increased. The opportunities for trade assistance are increasing gradually.

*This interview appeared in the print and online editions of Prothom Alo and has been rewritten in English by Ashish Basu

Source: https://en.prothomalo.com/business/bangladesh-at-the-centre-of-regional-communication

4
Post-pandemic: What skills will you need to thrive?

'The pandemic has delivered 10 years' worth of anticipated change, in less than 10 months'

Digital transformation is profoundly changing the nature of work and forward-thinking leaders recognise we’re living in the midst of ‘The Great Acceleration’. Whilst HR leaders have been planning for the future of work for some time the COVID pandemic has greatly accelerated these trends. Developments that seemed far-off have suddenly arrived as leaders scrambled to formulate new business models and approaches.

Vicky Knight, associate dean of international programmes at BPP Education Group, in her recent presentation at The Digital Leadership ‘Asian Futures’ Series, noted that the impact of the pandemic has delivered 10 years’ worth of anticipated change, in less than 10 months.

The World Economic Forum’s (WEF) 2020 Future of Jobs Survey has estimated that by 2025, 85 million jobs will be displaced by shifting the division of labour between humans, machines and algorithms. But the news is not all bad – their research also identified a potential 97 million new roles that will emerge as a result of deepening technological integration.

These new roles are creating a growing demand for new skills and capabilities across the workforce, with technological adoption driving the need for technical skills to harness the opportunities of digital transformation, but at the same time, people skills are an increasingly important part of the 2025 skills agenda.

To unlock the benefits of transformation and thrive in an era of disruption, workforces must adopt new skills and capabilities. BPP’s own research supports these findings. Knight comments: “We recently surveyed 1,500 professionals and asked them to identify the skills they think people in their profession need to develop now and over the next five years.

“The results found that as technical integration deepens and the need for technical skills increases, so too does the need for skills that can’t be replicated by machines or algorithms. In-demand technical skills include digital fluency, big data and analytics, AI and automation. And people skills include active learning, leadership and social influence, creativity, ideation and originality. The global pandemic is also driving a new skills agenda, with a focus on resilience, optimism and well-being.”

How to develop a successful culture of learning
For many organisations, skills gaps are hampering transformation and leading to a loss of competitive advantage. The WEF recognise that skills gaps will remain the most significant challenge to deliver digital transformation in the age of disruption with 50% of employees globally needing re-skilling by 2025.

As for those who remain in their current roles, 40% of the core skills needed will shift. McKinsey recently reported that although 78% of leaders recognise that capability building is very or extremely important, only 16% have begun to build priority capabilities.

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Forward-thinking digital leaders are accelerating their capability analysis, scoping their capability priorities and creating cultures of ongoing learning. As digital leaders build the organisation of the future, they must work to instil an end-to-end cultural focus on learning, from the top of the organisation to its bottom.

Creating a true learning organisation not only requires a shift in thinking to ensure that learning is core to both business strategy and organisational culture, but also depends upon developing the key building blocks of learning organisations:

a supportive learning environment concrete learning practices and leadership behaviour that reinforces the learning agenda.
Traditional approaches to learning are no longer agile or impactful enough to meet the enormous talent challenges ahead. When organisations need more and more new skills that are refreshed often, what becomes important aren’t just skills but enduring capabilities and the ability to learn, apply and adapt them.

To be fit for the future learning must be personalised, relevant, convenient and social, and learners need support to apply their capabilities in the ‘flow of work’. More than ever, L&D professionals recognize that mindset and behaviour changes need a different approach – a longer and deeper engagement than traditional one-off training can deliver better results.

COVID-19 has revealed resilience and adaptability of the workforce, but the challenge now is to sustain the momentum gained and discover new ways to thrive in the long term. Leaders must seize the opportunity of the crisis response to design the future of work by employing the lessons, practices, and goodwill they have engendered. The pace and scale of organizational development must simultaneously keep up with radical change, ‘business as usual’ and preparations for the future.

More than ever, leaders must create new opportunities to ensure staff can deliver on new business strategies, develop a flexible, agile, and digitally-enabled workforce, and encourage a learning culture to futureproof their people and their organizations.

“Now is not the time to pull back on workforce development efforts, but to double down on the commitment from business leaders to invest in building agile and resilient organizations fit for the future,” says Knight.

About BPP
BPP is a global education provider delivering a full-range of qualifications for professionals at every stage of their career. This includes professional qualifications, university degrees, apprenticeships, work-based learning, and accredited short courses. Established for over 40 years, we deliver courses in law, accountancy, technology, management, nursing and more. Our education is delivered to be as real-world, relevant and innovative as possible.

Source: https://www.hcamag.com/asia/specialisation/learning-development/post-pandemic-what-skills-will-you-need-to-thrive/249491

5
লিংকডইনে নিজেকে যেভাবে তুলে ধরবেন

বিভিন্ন সামাজিক যোগাযোগমাধ্যমে উপস্থিতি কিন্তু পেশাজীবন কিংবা চাকরির ক্ষেত্রে খুব গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। পেশাজীবীদের জন্য যোগাযোগমাধ্যম লিংকডইন বিশ্বব্যাপী জনপ্রিয় একটি প্ল্যাটফর্ম। পেশাজীবনে উন্নতি কিংবা নতুন চাকরি সন্ধানে কিন্তু লিংকডইন বেশ কার্যকর। এখন অনেক নিয়োগের ক্ষেত্রেই লিংকডইন প্রোফাইল সংযুক্ত করতে হয়। ধীরে ধীরে লিংকডইনের ব্যবহার অনলাইন মাধ্যমে বাড়ছে।


লিংকডইনের প্রোফাইল পেশাদারদের নতুন সংযোগ ও নতুন কাজের সুযোগ পেতে বেশ সহায়তা করে। ফেসবুকের মতো সামাজিক যোগাযোগমাধ্যম নয় বলে লিংকডইন ব্যবহারের ক্ষেত্রে পেশাদার আচরণ করতে হবে। যেসব বিষয়ে খেয়াল রাখবেন:

১.
লিংকডইন প্রোফাইলে আপনার সার্টিফিকেটের নাম, নিজের সম্পর্কে লেখা, শিক্ষাগত স্বীকৃতি, পেশাদার অভিজ্ঞতা, স্বেচ্ছাসেবামূলক কাজের অভিজ্ঞতা, প্রশিক্ষণ, পুরস্কার এবং দক্ষতার বিস্তারিত সংযুক্ত করতে হবে। আপনার জীবনবৃত্তান্তে যেসব তথ্য আছে, তার সঙ্গে তথ্যের কোনো ফারাক থাকা যাবে না। ভুল তথ্য যাতে কোনোমতে না যায়, সেটা খেয়াল রাখতে হবে। বাড়িয়ে লেখা যাবে না।

২.
প্রোফাইলের ছবিটি চেষ্টা করুন পেশাদার রাখতে। সেলফি কিংবা ফেসবুকের মতো সাধারণ ছবি দেওয়া যাবে না। অনেক পেশাজীবী সঠিক ছবি ছাড়া লিংকডইনে কাউকে যুক্ত করে না।

৩.
লিংকডইনের কভার ছবিটি আপনার সম্পর্ক ও কাজে আগ্রহ তৈরি করে—এমন করে যুক্ত করুন। কোনো সেমিনারে অংশগ্রহণ কিংবা কোনো প্রেজেন্টেশন বা কোনো অর্জনের ছবি যুক্ত করতে পারেন।

৪.
লিংকডইনে বিভিন্ন বিষয়ে লেখার সময় বানান ও ব্যাকরণ সম্পর্কে সতর্ক থাকা উচিত। পেশাদার বাক্য ও যোগাযোগের ধরন প্রয়োগে গুরুত্ব দিন।

৫.
ব্যক্তিগত বা রাজনৈতিক মতামত লিংকডইনে এড়িয়ে চলুন।

প্রতিষ্ঠানের নতুন কাজের সুযোগ কিংবা অর্জন লিংকডইনে নিয়মিত প্রকাশ করুন
প্রতিষ্ঠানের নতুন কাজের সুযোগ কিংবা অর্জন লিংকডইনে নিয়মিত প্রকাশ করুনছবি: সংগৃহীত

৬.
লিংকডইনে আপনার প্রোফাইলটির বিশেষ ওয়েব ঠিকানা থাকা উচিত, যা আপনার নামের সঙ্গে মেলে।

৭.
লিংকডইনে যা লিখছেন বা প্রকাশ করছেন কিংবা নিজের কোনো কাজের তথ্য প্রকাশ করলেন, তা বিভিন্ন নিয়োগকারী প্রতিষ্ঠানের মানবসম্পদ বিভাগের কর্মীরা যাচাই করতে পারেন, সে ক্ষেত্রে ভুল তথ্য পরিহার করুন।

যারা লিংকডইনে নবীন
বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়–জীবন থেকেই লিংকডইনকে নেটওয়ার্ক তৈরির মাধ্যম হিসেবে ব্যবহার করা শিখতে হবে। যাঁরা কর্মজীবনে নবীন, কিংবা প্রথম চাকরি খুঁজছেন, তাঁরা লিংকডইনকে বেশ কার্যকর উপায়ে ব্যবহার করতে পারেন।

১.
আপনার বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ে যেসব কোর্স করছেন বা শেষ করেছেন, তা যুক্ত করুন। বিশেষ কোনো কোর্সে অংশগ্রহণ বা কোনো আলোচিত শিক্ষকের তত্ত্বাবধানে কাজ করলে তা যুক্ত করুন।

২.
বিশেষ কোনো কর্মশালা কিংবা প্রশিক্ষণ নিলে তা যুক্ত করুন।
৩.
সৃজনশীল ও এক্সট্রা কারিকুলার অ্যাকটিভিটিস সংযুক্ত করুন।

৪.
কোনো বিষয়ে জানার আগ্রহ থাকলে লিংকডইনের বিভিন্ন গ্রুপে সংযুক্ত হোন। এ ছাড়া কোনো কিছু পোস্ট করলে কার্যকর হ্যাশট্যাগ ব্যবহার করুন।

৫.
যে ক্ষেত্রে বা যেসব প্রতিষ্ঠানে কাজ করতে আগ্রহী, তা অনুসরণ করুন। তাদের কর্মসংস্কৃতি বোঝার চেষ্টা করুন।

৬.
আপনার নেটওয়ার্কে যাঁরা যুক্ত হবেন, তাঁদের বিভিন্ন পেশাসংশ্লিষ্ট পোস্টে আপনার পেশাসংক্রান্ত মত লিখে নিজের কথা প্রকাশের চেষ্টা করুন।

৭.
লিংকডইন থেকে নিজের পেশাদার সংযোগ তৈরির জন্য কার্যকর যোগাযোগ কৌশল শিখুন, যা পরবর্তী সময়ে পেশাজীবনেও কাজে আসবে।

৮.
আপনার পেশা কিংবা শিক্ষাসংশ্লিষ্ট বিভিন্ন বিষয়ে নোট প্রকাশ করে নিজের লেখার দক্ষতা ও সৃজনশীল ভাবনার কথাও প্রকাশ করতে পারেন।

ব্যক্তিগত বা রাজনৈতিক মতামত লিংকডইনে এড়িয়ে চলুন

পেশাজীবীদের জন্য লিংকডইন
যাঁরা এরই মধ্যে পেশাজীবনে অনেক সময় কাটিয়েছেন, লিংকডইন তাঁদের জন্য নতুন সংযোগ, নতুন দক্ষতা সম্পর্কে জানার সুযোগের ক্ষেত্র কিন্তু। এ ক্ষেত্রে নিজের গুরুত্ব বাড়ানোর দিকে মনোযোগ দিন।

১.
গুণগত অবস্থান বনাম সংখ্যা: কয়েক হাজার অপ্রাসঙ্গিক সংযোগের চেয়ে কিছু উচ্চ মানের কার্যকর কম সংখ্যায় সংযোগ থাকা ভালো। লিংকডইনে জনপ্রিয়তার প্রতিযোগিতা নয়।

২.
সংযোগ: যেহেতু লিংকডইন তারকা কিংবা সেলিব্রিটিদের কার্যকর কোনো প্ল্যাটফর্ম নয়, তাই লিংকডইনে সংযুক্ত হওয়ার চেষ্টা করতে হবে। নিজের পেশা কিংবা শিক্ষাসংশ্লিষ্ট বিষয়ে আলোচনায় অংশ নেওয়ার চেষ্টা করুন। নিজে শিখুন, নিজের সহকর্মী বা সংযুক্ত মানুষের কাছ থেকে শেখার চেষ্টা করুন।

৩.
নিজের প্রতিষ্ঠানের নতুন কর্মী নিয়োগের ক্ষেত্রে লিংকডইন ব্যবহারের চেষ্টা করুন। প্রতিষ্ঠানে বহুমাত্রিক সংস্কৃতি তৈরির জন্য লিংকডইনের বিভিন্ন গ্রুপ থেকে পরামর্শ নিতে পারেন।

৪.
প্রতিষ্ঠানের নতুন কাজের সুযোগ কিংবা অর্জন লিংকডইনে নিয়মিত প্রকাশ করুন।

৫.
লিংকডইনে পরিচিত কিংবা প্রাক্তন সহকর্মী বা শিক্ষকদের কাছ থেকে সুপারিশ নেওয়ার সুযোগ থাকলে নিন। কাউকে সুপারিশ দেওয়ার ক্ষেত্রে কাজের গুরুত্ব ও সম্পর্কের দিকে নজর দিন।

Source: Prothom Alo.

6
Rickshaw driver's daughter Manya Singh wins Miss India runner up


Facebook Short Video Clip

Collected

7
Scholarship / The art of writing a personal statement
« on: February 16, 2021, 01:14:32 PM »
The art of writing a personal statement

A personal statement is essential for applying to foreign universities. But there exists only a few detailed material on the internet. In this regard, a guidance on the four most common questions will benefit the aspirant students


A personal statement is a document demanded by almost every foreign university in its application procedure. The document highlights the achievements, goals, strengths, personality and experience of the candidate by which a university assesses whether he/she is suitable for their desired course.

A better personal statement can not only put you ahead of other applicants with higher academic results but can also, at times, guarantee you a place at universities where you do not meet the requirements for previous academic results, by a little margin.

With 70,000-90,000 Bangladeshi students going abroad for higher education each year and with few materials found on the internet containing detailed information on how to write a personal statement, the aspirants will benefit greatly from the guidance provided herein on the four most common questions in a personal statement.

Question 1: What makes you a suitable candidate for this course?

Many candidates readily assume that the answer to this question revolves around simply outlining the skills that have been acquired from his/her previous academic and extracurricular activities. What is actually needed is that he/she to explain how these skills have been developed and how these are related to the demands of the intended course.

For instance, one would not provide a satisfactory answer in this section if he/she just writes that "I have developed research skills from my previous academic commitments". Instead, he/she should opt for saying that "at the undergraduate stage, I was required to undertake several essay-based assignments which required me to conduct widespread research on contemporary issues to provide certain recommendations, and thus these have improved my research skills. I can use this experience of mine to find comprehensive and creative arguments which would place me in a better position to score higher marks in the course".

The skills that the institutions seek in this section vary from subject to subject, but some of the common skills other than the one mentioned above are as follows: (i) Teamwork (ii) Communication (iii) Ability to work under pressure (iv) IT literacy (v) Creative problem solving.

Do not forget to mention any recognition that has been awarded to you for excellence in any stage of your academic and professional life in this section. For example, you may refer to a scholarship that has been awarded to you for your academic results. Again, remember not only to mention it but to go further and do so in a way that addresses the question. You can state that you have been awarded a scholarship for outstanding results, showing how sincere you are and how refined your skills are, which increases your chances of passing the course with flying colours.

Question 2: Why do you want to study at this university?

It is very easy to be tricked into thinking that this question can be successfully answered with general statements only. However, it will occur to you with a little thought that this question has been designed to put your research skills to test.

Before you decide on answering this question, take time to engage in research about the global ranking of the institution and what area(s) the institute excelled in the most. For instance, if the university you have chosen is ranked tenth in the QS World University Rankings, mention that in this section along with pointing out that it is so highly ranked because of its impeccable record in terms of employer and academic reputation.

Question 3: Why have you chosen this course?

In order to answer this question, an overall discussion of your chosen subject may not suffice. The answer expects you to explore your achievements in the field for which you want to enlighten yourself further in a particular course.

Reasons for choosing a course entails a brief view about the whole subject, your future endeavours in relation to this course, the benefits of undertaking the course, the facilities that your society or country will offer you after you get the degree title of that particular course, etc.

It is wise at this stage to mention if any of the course teacher's areas of interest in research matches with yours and if so, how this will benefit you in the future. For instance, if you apply for a specialized postgraduate course, you can state here that "this degree will increase your chances of being employed in higher positions in x, y, and z ways" to show how you could benefit from choosing this course.

Question 4: Where do you see yourself in five years?

This question can be answered widely. However, you need to explain precisely about your ambition and job interest. In order to state your career prospective, make sure to research meticulously about the platform that you want to see yourself in. Your plans must be realistic and must portray long-term planning which will ultimately lead you towards your ambition. Being able to portray your sense of commitment and being enthusiastic should be your main objectives while writing this answer.

As clear and concise answers are what one looks for in a personal statement, go straight to the point while answering the questions in a personal statement. Also, be sure to check for any additional information regarding the personal statement provided on the University's website. This will enable you to get an idea of key documentation issues, such as word limit, fonts, line spacing, etc., accepted by the University you are applying for.

Furthermore, do not use any information (which surprisingly many students do to get themselves into trouble) for which you will not be able to provide evidence if it is subsequently requested by the University for cross-checking in an attempt to make yourself stand out from others. It is imperative that adhering to the above suggestions you also oversee your grammatical and spelling mistakes. To avoid such minor mistakes that can affect your chances of success greatly, you can use online instruments such as Grammarly or get your draft checked by some of your teachers.

Deena Afroza Aziz is pursuing an LLM from the Eastern University, Bangladesh.

Arafat Reza is an LLB graduate from BPP University, UK.

Mehbeez Binte Matiur is an Honor's 3rd Year student at Department of Criminology, University of Dhaka.

Source: https://tbsnews.net/feature/pursuit/art-writing-personal-statement-200032?fbclid=IwAR1RhNgvpePrNjBJqbhWKE_VaRY4bgBTbihvt2oEODz9P_EiV12Kp2BG8uA#.YCYLnDc0nFI.messenger

8
Career Guidance / Seek A Career, Not A Job
« on: February 16, 2021, 01:12:31 PM »
Seek A Career, Not A Job


Business education has proliferated in the country with over a thousand independent management schools, apart from more than 900 state universities, that offer similar courses. Similarly, education in the field of commerce is now available in over 20,000 colleges and universities.

Sectors like retail (online and offline), pharma and healthcare, energy (conventional and non-conventional), food and beverages and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) hold employment promises.

These sectors are drivers of revival for the global economy that saw a 5 per cent contraction last year from a total size of $80 trillion. The Indian economy, too, suffered a 23 per cent contraction during the year.

A quick survey with the placement offices of a few universities shows the following trends. The top six sectors employing freshers from B-Schools are edutech, logistics and supply chain, banking and insurance, telecommunications, e-commerce or retail, and analytics and consulting.

Among tech enterprises, BYJU’s, Jaro, Toppers and Extramarks are hiring heavily, while DTDC and SafeExpress are the top logistics recruiters. Bank of America, ICICI, Aditya Birla and JR Laddha have been big recruiters in the banking and finance space, along with microfinance organisations.



Reliance Jio takes the cake among telecoms and Amazon, e-kart and Flipkart are leading in the e-commerce segment. AC Nielson and Mphasis are major data and consulting recruiters. We saw 94 per cent of the final placements with a package in the range of `3.5 to `10 lakh per annum. Edutech is seen offering the highest package followed by data analytics and consultancy companies.

On the jobs front, the first lesson to be learnt is that one should seek a career and not just a job. It should be the manifestation of the chosen career at a point in time. Traditionally, business education has been plagued with the following challenges:

1. It is often delivered through face-to-face concepts and theories of management or usual taxation, accounting laws and principles.

2. Business education is delivered by people, who have rarely practised what they are teaching from management books, largely written in the West.

3. It is evaluated through a semester-end or an annual written examination, which is the base of scoring, awarding degrees, and consideration for jobs.

4. It is heavily biased towards jobs in large corporations, indigenous or multi-national corporations, while in reality, the actual engagement is required in MSMEs, small start-ups and entrepreneurial ventures.

The pre-pandemic era has necessitated many changes, which several universities have started adopting. The pandemic has only redefined education. Trends that will match the expectations in the next decade are:

1. Business education will begin with a flipped-classroom model, where students would be provided with multiple resources, including open-source and proprietary resources of the mentors. These could be videos, podcasts, PDFs, book chapters, case studies, info-graphics, interviews, or slideshows.

2. Students are expected to develop asynchronous self-learning muscles and take up doubts and challenges in synchronous sessions, which could be digital or physical, or both ­— PhyGital - in class and online.

3. The third level in business learning could be solving problems, critical thinking exercises with simulated situations to examine comprehension of the subject concerned, and application of the insights.

4. Students could be asked to develop their own case studies based on their areas of interest.

5. After an initiation to overall subject and its practice, the student of management could take up a broad specialisation area which, in the first level, could be marketing, human resources, finance and systems. For commerce students, it could be advanced accounts, taxation, actuarial sciences, or business economics.

6. At masters’ level, the specialisation could be in niche areas. In management, it could be in retail, services, leadership, budget, project, banking and insurance, learning and development, brand, rural or agri-business, data analytics, energy, logistics and supply chain, IT and technology, telecom, entertainment and media, social business, development, pharmaceuticals, strategic management, export-import or sales.

Similarly in commerce, students could go deep into one domain within taxation or accounting.

7. It is also important to know quantitative aspects often neglected in traditional management education, like, econometrics, statistics, quantitative analyses software, big data analytics and IT applications. A couple of courses covering these would be significant.

8. It is important to develop a few case studies of success or failure in the areas of niche specialisation. For a hands-on experience, a couple of life projects and one major full-time internship in the chosen niche area is necessary. Students could have a low-engagement, online internship running along with the academic programme, while managing time, and using the weekends well.

9. Higher emotional intelligence along with the ability to be a team-worker and lead from a remote location, when required, are the basic professional skills and work ethics that are required.

10. Having a minor specialisation in ITeS, brand communication, corporate or cyber law would be an advantage and differentiator in a market full of generalists with plain vanilla BBA or MBA degrees.

Reinvent yourself. Redefine your career goals, restrategise your journey, refocus on specifics, re-learn after much unlearning, and reinvigorate the economy, post-pandemic for taking the right lessons. That’s the mantra in the B-schools of India.

Prof Ujjwal K Chowdhury
Pro-Vice Chancellor
Kolkata-based Adamas University

Source: https://www.outlookindia.com/outlookmoney/magazine/story/seek-a-career-not-a-job-632

9
The Importance Of Technical Optimization For SEO

Search engine optimization (SEO) continues to be an essential part of any digital marketing strategy. As much as we like talking about the newest and latest digital marketing tactics, SEO is a reliable mainstay and will be so for the foreseeable future.

When designing a comprehensive SEO strategy, however, most digital marketers spend their time on several things. Choosing high-ranking keywords to target is obviously an important step. Integrating these into high-quality pieces of content may be your next goal. At the same time, building backlinks is also critical.

All these on-page and off-page SEO strategies are necessary elements. However, technical search engine optimization is equally important to create strong SEO. Focusing on your website architecture and ensuring that Google can properly crawl your website goes a long way in allowing your website to rise in the search rankings.

Why Technical SEO Is Important

There isn’t one overarching plug-in or hack that will help your website have the “perfect” technical SEO. That said, there are a variety of things you can do that, collectively, can significantly improve your technical SEO and put you ahead of the competition.

Why do you want to prioritize technical SEO? Well, because technical SEO is what allows search engines like Google to know that you have a website of high value. This is important because it can prompt the search engines to rank you higher. After all, they primarily want to present users with the best possible results for their chosen keywords, and technical SEO is a way to ensure your website meets the requirements.

If Google prioritized webpages that were slow, nonresponsive or confusing to navigate, Google users would be more likely to take their search queries somewhere else. So if your website loads quickly, has no dead links and is secure, Google’s crawlers will give it an extra boost in search rankings.

The reasons for this are evident. Creating a strong technical foundation for your website will go a long way in satisfying and delighting your users. Search engine crawlers take notice and prioritize your website over others who offer slower and buggier experiences.

Technical SEO: Some Tips And Advice

Technical SEO is definitely something that you should take seriously. So, what are some of the things that you can do to raise your technical SEO? While it would be impossible to list all of them in this article, here are some of the most important things that you can do.

First, make sure that your website is optimized for mobile devices. This is a big one, because more users are now browsing the internet on their smartphones. Google and other search engines, therefore, prioritize websites that offer a great mobile browsing experience. Luckily, search engines like Google have released mobile-friendly tests that can help you optimize your mobile website.

Website speed also plays an important role. To get a basic audit of your website’s current speed, you can use a tool like Pingdom or Google PageSpeed Insights. With that baseline, make sure that you are doing several key things. Think about enabling browser caching, optimizing your website’s images and enabling compression on your site. These are small steps, but put together, they can make your website much faster.

Next, make sure that you include an SSL certificate on your website. SSL (secure sockets layer) certificates provide extra security for visitors to your website. It protects data, confirms identities and improves customer trust. Therefore, by purchasing an SSL certificate, you will not only improve your SEO ranking, but you will add additional security to your website. It’s a no-brainer, so if you haven’t already obtained an SSL certificate, don’t hesitate to do so.

Finally, submit your sitemap to search engines. Sitemaps are essentially lists of pages on your website. They are critical because they let search engines find and index your website. Fortunately, sitemaps aren’t that difficult to create. For instance, if you use WordPress as your content management system, you can easily find a plug-in that will create a sitemap for you. Once your sitemap is ready, submit it to Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools. Doing this makes it easier for these search engines to crawl your website.

Rising Through The Rankings


Technical SEO isn’t going to automatically get you to the top of Google or Bing. That said, ignoring technical SEO will guarantee that doesn’t happen. A slow or buggy website is going to be punished by search engines, thereby preventing you from achieving your digital marketing goals.

Because of this, we encourage you to take technical SEO seriously. Audit your website, and implement some of the suggestions mentioned above. Ultimately, they will go a long way in strengthening your website’s technical SEO.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/deloitte/2021/01/27/what-the-vaccine-wont-solve/?sh=5f44b8ce1ccb

10
Famous people Quote / Quotation by Famous leader
« on: February 16, 2021, 12:18:59 PM »


11
Politician's Quote / oliticians are the same all over.
« on: February 16, 2021, 12:17:18 PM »

Politicians are the same all over. They promise to build bridges even when there are no rivers.

Nikita Khrushchev

12
Religious Quotation / Religion is the clearest telescope
« on: February 16, 2021, 12:15:26 PM »

Religion is the clearest telescope through which we can behold the beauties of creation, and the good of our Creator.

WILLIAM SCOTT DOWNEY

13
সফল উদ্যোক্তা হতে যেখানে ‘না’ বলতে হবে


নতুন নতুন যখন একটা ব্যবসা শুরু করা যায়, তখন উদ্যোক্তাদের মধ্যে একটা আদর্শ অবস্থা খোঁজার তাড়না থাকে। মনে হয় যেন অনেক কিছু করে ফেলতে হবে, কিন্তু বাছবিচার ছাড়া অনেক কিছু একসঙ্গে করে ফেলার ফল আখেরে খুব ভালো হয় না।

যেসব উদ্যোক্তা জীবনে সফল হন, তাঁরা কাজের বিষয়ে গোছানো হন এবং লক্ষ্যেও একমুখী থাকেন। সফল উদ্যোক্তা হতে হলে কাজের বাহুল্য কমিয়ে ফেলতে হবে। উদ্যোক্তাদের সহায়তাকারী ওয়েবসাইট এন্ট্রাপ্রেনিউর জানিয়েছে, ঠিক কোন কোন জায়গায় ‘না’ বললে উদ্যোগকে বাঁচানো যায় লোকসান থেকে।

১. অতিরিক্ত কর্মী নিয়োগকে না বলুন
উদ্যোক্তাদের একটি সাধারণ ভুল হচ্ছে দ্রুতই অনেক টাকা খরচ করে ফেলেন। তার একটি হচ্ছে আগাম ও অপ্রয়োজনীয় নিয়োগ। হতে পারে একটা সফল উদ্যোগে একটি নির্দিষ্ট পরিমাণ কর্মী লাগে। তবে তাঁরা কি একদম প্রথম দিনেই এত কর্মী নিয়োগ দিয়েছিলেন? নতুন উদ্যোগের উচিত প্রত্যেক কর্মীর প্রয়োজনীয়তা যাচাই করা এবং কোনো কাজ যদি একান্তই কোনো পুরোনো কর্মী দ্বারা না হয়, কেবল তখনই নতুন কর্মী নিয়োগ দেওয়া।

নতুন কর্মী নিয়োগ প্রক্রিয়া এমনিতেও একটি খরচের খাত। তার ওপরে যদি কর্মী কাজের পরিবেশে মানিয়ে না নিতে পারেন, তবে সেটা শুধু আর্থিক ক্ষতি নয়, অন্য কর্মী এবং উদ্যোক্তার আত্মবিশ্বাসেও খারাপ প্রভাব ফেলে।

২. অতিরিক্ত মিটিংকে না বলুন
ব্যবসায় অর্থের চেয়ে বড় সম্পদ হচ্ছে সময়। একটা ব্যবসাকে সফল করতে কত কাজই না করতে হয়। কিন্তু সারা দিনের সময়সীমা যেহেতু ২৪ ঘণ্টার বেশি নয়, সময়কে বুঝে খরচ করাই ভালো। সফল হতে হলে অপ্রয়োজনীয় মিটিংকে না বলতে হবে। সঙ্গে প্রয়োজনীয় মিটিংয়ের সময়ও বেঁধে ফেলতে হবে, যেন অযথা গল্পে সময় নষ্ট না হয়।

সবচেয়ে ভালো বুদ্ধি হচ্ছে নিজের সারা দিনের কাজের তালিকা করে নিতে হবে। এরপর তালিকা মিলিয়ে কাজ করতে হবে। এভাবে কাজগুলোর অগ্রগতি চোখের সামনে থাকবে আর সময়েরও সর্বোত্তম ব্যবহার হবে।

৩. বহু উদ্যোগ ও বহু কৌশলকে না বলুন
তরুণ ব্যবসায়ীরা একই সঙ্গে অনেক ব্যবসা শুরু করেন। মনে হয় যেন একটা ব্যবসা আরেকটা ব্যবসাকে সহায়তা করবে। কিন্তু বাস্তবে তা হয় না। বরং একসঙ্গে অনেক ব্যবসা উদ্যোক্তার মনঃসংযোগ নষ্ট করে আর কোনোটাতেই ঠিক সফল হওয়া যায় না।
একই কথা নতুন কৌশলের জন্য। অনেক কৌশল শুধু কাজে ব্যাঘাতই করে না, সঙ্গে পয়সা নষ্ট তো আছেই। ফলে সফল হতে হলে বহু উদ্যোগ ও অপ্রয়োজনীয় কৌশলকে না বলতে হবে। যা চাইছেন তার সবই হবে, তবে আস্তে আস্তে। একটার পর একটা অর্জন করে পরে সফল হওয়া যাবে।

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Real Estate / ভাড়া বাসায় আর কত
« on: February 15, 2021, 01:56:37 PM »
ভাড়া বাসায় আর কত


‘ভাড়া বাসায় আর কত? ভাড়ার টাকায় শুরু হোক ঋণ শোধ। আর ঋণেই হয়ে যাক নিজের ফ্ল্যাট।’ ঠিক এমনভাবেই রহমান পাশার কাছে আবাসন ঋণের বিপণন করেছিলেন বেসরকারি এক ব্যাংকের খুচরা ঋণ বিভাগের কর্মকর্তা।

এক শিল্প গ্রুপের মধ্যম শ্রেণির কর্মকর্তা রহমান পাশাও এতে উদ্বুদ্ধ হয়েছিলেন। নিজের জমানো টাকা ও ব্যাংকঋণে এখন নিজের ফ্ল্যাটে থাকেন। ভাড়ার টাকায় ঋণের কিস্তি শোধ করেন। এটি ২০১৬ সালের ঘটনা। আর এখন তো সুদহার কমায় আবাসন ঋণ আরও সস্তা হয়ে পড়েছে। করোনার কারণে কিছুদিন ফ্ল্যাট বিক্রির গতি কম ছিল। এখন বিক্রি বেড়েছে।

নিজের একটি ফ্ল্যাট হবে, মধ্যবিত্ত মানুষের কাছে এক বড় স্বপ্ন। তাঁদের এই স্বপ্নপূরণে এখন হাতছানি দিয়ে ডাকছে দেশের ব্যাংক ও আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো। তারা যেন প্রতিযোগিতার ভিত্তিতে সুদের হার কমিয়ে গ্রাহকদের দীর্ঘ মেয়াদে আবাসন ঋণ দিতে নেমেছে। কোনো কোনো প্রতিষ্ঠান গ্রাহকের আবেদন পাওয়ার ২৪ ঘণ্টার মধ্যেই ঋণের অনুমোদন দিচ্ছে। অন্যরা নির্দিষ্ট সময়েই ঋণ আবেদন নিষ্পত্তি করছে।

সুদহার সর্বোচ্চ ৯%
বিদায়ী ২০২০ সালের এপ্রিল থেকে সুদের হার সর্বোচ্চ ৯ শতাংশে কার্যকর হওয়ার পর থেকে ব্যাংকগুলোর মধ্যে একধরনের প্রতিযোগিতা শুরু হয় সুদ কমানোর। এর ফলে বেশির ভাগ ব্যাংকের দেওয়া ঋণের সুদহার সাড়ে ৭ থেকে ৯ শতাংশের মধ্যে রয়েছে। এরই মধ্যে বেসরকারি খাতের ডাচ্-বাংলা ব্যাংক বড় চমক দেখিয়েছে। ব্যাংকটি এখন সাড়ে ৭ শতাংশ সুদে অন্য ব্যাংক ও আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানের আবাসন ঋণের গ্রাহকদের নিজের ব্যাংকে আনছে (ঋণ টেকওভার)। তবে নতুন ঋণ দিচ্ছে ৮ শতাংশ সুদে। ব্যাংকটির ‘ঠিকানা’ নামে আলাদা একটি ঋণ প্রকল্প চালু রয়েছে।

ডাচ্-বাংলা ব্যাংকের ব্যবস্থাপনা পরিচালক আবুল কাশেম মো. শিরিন এ নিয়ে প্রথম আলোকে বলেন, ‘করোনায় কিছুদিন ঋণচাহিদা ছিল না। এখন ঋণের জন্য ভালো চাহিদাও আসছে। আমরাও ঋণ দিচ্ছি। এ জন্য সুদহারও কমিয়ে দিয়েছি।’

শুধু ডাচ্-বাংলা নয়, এখন সব ব্যাংকই আবাসনের মতো খুচরা ঋণকে বেশ গুরুত্ব দিচ্ছে। ব্যাংক কর্মকর্তারা বলছেন, অন্য ঋণের চেয়ে ফ্ল্যাট কেনার ঋণ বেশি নিরাপদ। কারণ, এই ঋণে খেলাপি কম এবং ঋণ পরিশোধ না হওয়া পর্যন্ত ফ্ল্যাট ব্যাংকের নিয়ন্ত্রণে থাকে। আর সংকটে না পড়লে কেউ ফ্ল্যাটের মালিকানা হারাতে চান না। তাই ব্যাংকগুলো দিন দিন এই ঋণে মনোযোগ বাড়াচ্ছে। আর এখন শিল্প ঋণের চাহিদা না থাকায় ব্যাংকগুলো আবাসনসহ বিভিন্ন খুচরা ঋণে নজর বাড়িয়েছে।

বেড়েছে ঋণের সীমাও
আগে ব্যাংকগুলো ১ কোটি ২০ লাখ টাকা পর্যন্ত গৃহঋণ দিতে পারত। চাহিদা বেড়ে যাওয়ায় ২ কোটি টাকা পর্যন্ত ঋণ প্রদানের অনুমতি দিয়েছে বাংলাদেশ ব্যাংক। তবে ব্যাংকবহির্ভূত আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো (লিজিং কোম্পানি) আগে থেকেই গ্রাহকের চাহিদামতো ঋণ দিতে পারছে। ঋণ বিতরণের পাশাপাশি ঋণ আদায়ের প্রক্রিয়াটিও আগের চেয়ে অনেক সহজ করেছে ব্যাংক ও আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো। প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলোই ঋণ দিতে ছুটছে গ্রাহকের দ্বারে দ্বারে।

ব্যাংক এশিয়ার ব্যবস্থাপনা পরিচালক আরফান আলী প্রথম আলোকে বলেন, ‘করোনার কারণে অনেক ফ্ল্যাট বিক্রির উপযোগী হয়েছে। কারণ, বড় একটা সময় ফ্ল্যাট বিক্রি বন্ধ ছিল। এখন সুদহার কমে গেছে। ভালো ঋণ আবেদনও আসছে। আমরাও ঋণ দিচ্ছি। সুদহার সাড়ে ৮ শতাংশ।’

ব্যাংক থেকে ঋণ নিয়ে বাড়ি নির্মাণ বা ফ্ল্যাট কিনতে চাইলে মোট দামের ৩০ শতাংশ টাকা নিজের থাকতে হয়। অর্থাৎ, এক কোটি টাকার ফ্ল্যাট কিনতে প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো ৭০ লাখ টাকা পর্যন্ত ঋণ দেয়। বাকি ৩০ লাখ টাকা ক্রেতার নিজের থাকতে হয়। তবে আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো ফ্ল্যাটের দামের পুরোটাই ঋণ হিসেবে দিতে পারে।

খোঁজ নিয়ে জানা গেছে, আবাসন খাতে ঋণ বিতরণে শীর্ষ ব্যাংকগুলোর মধ্যে রয়েছে আইএফআইসি, ডাচ্-বাংলা, প্রাইম, ব্র্যাক, দ্য সিটি, ব্যাংক এশিয়া, মিউচুয়াল ট্রাস্ট, স্ট্যান্ডার্ড চার্টার্ড ব্যাংক প্রভৃতি।

২০১৫ সালের আগে আবাসন ঋণের সুদহার ছিল ১৫ শতাংশের বেশি। ওই সময়ে অনেকে ঋণ নিয়ে শোধ করতে পারেননি। এতে আবাসন খাতেও বড় সংকট তৈরি হয়েছিল। অন্যান্য দেশে কম সুদ ও লিজে আবাসন ঋণের ব্যবস্থা থাকলেও বাংলাদেশে এমন কোনো সুযোগ এখনো সৃষ্টি করা হয়নি। ব্যাংক ও আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো এখন বিভিন্ন আকর্ষণীয় পণ্য তৈরি করে ঋণ দেওয়ার চেষ্টা করছে।

পথ দেখায় আইএফআইসি
দেশে আবাসন ঋণের সুদহার কমিয়ে প্রথম বড় আলোচনায় আসে বেসরকারি খাতের আইএফআইসি ব্যাংক। ২০১৫ সালের শুরুর দিকেও ব্যাংকটি যেখানে গৃহঋণের বিপরীতে ১১ দশমিক ৯৫ শতাংশ সুদ নিত, সেখানে ওই বছরের ডিসেম্বরে তা কমিয়ে ৯ দশমিক ৯৯ শতাংশ সুদে ঋণ দিতে শুরু করে। তখন ব্যাংক খাতে সুদহার ছিল ১৫ শতাংশের ওপরে। এর ফলে কম সুদে ঋণ বিতরণে সাফল্য আসে। গ্রাহকেরা সবচেয়ে বেশি আবাসন ঋণ নেন আইএফআইসি ব্যাংক থেকে। ব্যাংকটির ‘আমার বাড়ি’ নামে আলাদা একটি পণ্য রয়েছে। এই ব্যাংক বাড়ি নির্মাণে ২ কোটি ও সেমিপাকা ভবন নির্মাণে ৩৫ লাখ টাকা পর্যন্ত ঋণ দেয়। আইএফআইসি ব্যাংকের দেখাদেখি অন্যান্য ব্যাংক আর আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানও এই পথে হাঁটতে শুরু করে।

খোঁজ নিয়ে জানা গেছে, আবাসন খাতে ঋণ বিতরণে শীর্ষ ব্যাংকগুলোর মধ্যে রয়েছে আইএফআইসি, ডাচ্-বাংলা, প্রাইম, ব্র্যাক, দ্য সিটি, ব্যাংক এশিয়া, মিউচুয়াল ট্রাস্ট, স্ট্যান্ডার্ড চার্টার্ড ব্যাংক প্রভৃতি। আর আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলোর মধ্যে ডেল্টা ব্র্যাক হাউজিং (ডিবিএইচ), আইডিএলসি, আইপিডিসি, ন্যাশনাল হাউজিং, লংকাবাংলা এগিয়ে আছে। এসব প্রতিষ্ঠানের ঋণের সুদহার এখন সাড়ে ৭ থেকে ৯ শতাংশের মধ্যে।

আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানের প্রধান নির্বাহীদের সংগঠন বাংলাদেশ লিজিং অ্যান্ড ফাইন্যান্স কোম্পানিজ অ্যাসোসিয়েশন (বিএলএফসিএ) চেয়ারম্যান ও আইপিডিসির ব্যবস্থাপনা পরিচালক মমিনুল ইসলাম প্রথম আলোকে বলেন, ‘যাঁদের আয় নিয়মিত ছিল, তাঁদের হাতে টাকা জমে গেছে। কেউ দেশের বাইরে ঘুরতে যেতে পারেননি। তাঁদের অনেকেই ফ্ল্যাট কেনার দিকে ঝুঁকছেন। ২০১৬ ও ১৭ সালে আবাসনে যে ঋণ যেত, এখন তার চেয়ে বেশি ঋণ বিতরণ হচ্ছে। এখন ঢাকায় প্রতিদিন ১০-১২ টি নতুন ঋণ বিতরণ হচ্ছে। এ ছাড়া ছোট বাড়ি নির্মাণে প্রতি মাসে এক শ জনের বেশি গ্রাহককে ঋণ দিচ্ছি।’

ঋণ পাওয়ার যোগ্যতা
ব্যাংক ও আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো বেতনভুক্ত, স্ব-নিয়োজিত (সেলফ-এমপ্লয়েড), ব্যবসায়ী এবং বাড়িওয়ালাদের ঋণ দিয়ে থাকে। আবার ব্যক্তিগত বা যৌথ, দুইভাবেই আবেদন করা যায়। ঋণ পাওয়ার জন্য বয়স হতে হবে ২৫ থেকে ৬৫ বছরের মধ্যে। যাঁরা চাকরিজীবী, তাঁদের মাসিক আয় হতে হবে সর্বনিম্ন ২৫ হাজার টাকা।

ঋণ আবেদনপত্রে সংযুক্ত করতে হবে আবেদনকারী এবং গ্যারান্টারের জাতীয় পরিচয়পত্রের ফটোকপি, পাসপোর্ট সাইজ ছবি, পরিষেবা বিলের কপি (গ্যাস বিল, টেলিফোন বিল, ওয়াসা বিল) ও অন্যান্য আয়–সংক্রান্ত নথিপত্র।

এ ছাড়া বেতন বা আয়ের এক বছরের ব্যাংক লেনদেন বিবরণী (স্টেটমেন্ট), ইলেকট্রনিক কর শনাক্তকরণ (ই-টিন) কপি জমা দিতে হবে। বাড়ির নির্মাণ ঋণ হলে জমির মালিকানা–সংক্রান্ত নথিপত্র ও অঙ্গীকারনামা জমা দিতে হবে। ব্যাংক ও আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো ২৫ বছর মেয়াদ পর্যন্ত যেকোনো পরিমাণ হোম ঋণ প্রদান করছে।

আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠান ডিবিএইচের ব্যবস্থাপনা পরিচালক নাসিমুল বাতেন প্রথম আলোকে বলেন, গত বছরের শেষ চার মাস থেকে ভালো ঋণ যাচ্ছে। আবাসন প্রতিষ্ঠানগুলো ভালো ব্যবসা করেছে। আর সুদহার আগের চেয়ে কম হওয়ায় গ্রাহকদেরও আগ্রহ বেড়েছে। বলা যায়, সব মিলিয়ে আবাসন ঋণ আগের চেয়ে বেশি যাচ্ছে।

নথিপত্র যা লাগবে
ফ্ল্যাট কেনার ঋণের জন্য অবশ্য কাগজপত্র কম লাগে। এ জন্য ফ্ল্যাট ক্রেতা এবং ডেভেলপারের সঙ্গে সম্পাদিত ফ্ল্যাট ক্রয়ে রেজিস্ট্রি করা চুক্তিপত্রের সত্যায়িত ফটোকপি দিতে হবে। এ ছাড়া জমির মালিক ও ডেভেলপারের মধ্যে সম্পাদিত চুক্তিপত্রের সত্যায়িত ফটোকপি, অনুমোদিত নকশা ও অনুমোদনপত্রের সত্যায়িত ফটোকপি এবং ফ্ল্যাট কেনার রেজিস্ট্রি করা বায়না চুক্তিপত্রের মূল কপি এবং বরাদ্দপত্র লাগবেই।

বাড়ি নির্মাণ ঋণের জন্য প্রথমেই দরকার যথাযথ কর্তৃপক্ষ কর্তৃক অনুমোদিত নকশার সত্যায়িত ফটোকপি, মূল দলিল, নামজারি খতিয়ান, খাজনা রসিদের সত্যায়িত ফটোকপি। এ ছাড়া লাগবে সিএস, এসএ, আরএস, বিএস খতিয়ানের সত্যায়িত কপি। জেলা বা সাবরেজিস্ট্রারের কার্যালয় থেকে ১২ বছরের তল্লাশিসহ নির্দায় সনদ (এনইসি)। সরকার থেকে বরাদ্দ পাওয়া জমির ক্ষেত্রে মূল বরাদ্দপত্র এবং দখল হস্তান্তরপত্রও লাগবে।

© প্রথম আলো

15
ফ্ল্যাট বা জমি কিনতে ঘুমের বারোটা বাজাবেন না


‘নে বাবা, তোরা এখন নাকে তেল দিয়ে ঘুমা। নো টেনশন।’ আশিয়ান সিটির আলোচিত এই বিজ্ঞাপন দেশে অনেকেরই ঘুম হারাম করেছে। কষ্টের টাকায় প্লট বুকিং দিয়ে আদালতের বারান্দায় বারান্দায় ঘুরে হয়রান হচ্ছেন অনেকেই।

আলোচিত এই প্রকল্প ছাড়া অনেক প্রতিষ্ঠানের প্লট বা ফ্ল্যাট কিনে প্রতারিত হয়েছেন ক্রেতারা। অনেক ক্ষেত্রেই ফ্ল্যাট বা প্লট বুঝে পেতে বছরের পর বছর সময় অপেক্ষা করতে হচ্ছে তাঁদের। তাই প্রতারণার ফাঁদে পা যেন না আটকায়, সে জন্য আগেই ভালোভাবে খোঁজখবর নিন। সবকিছু পরিষ্কার থাকলেই কেবল বিনিয়োগের চূড়ান্ত সিদ্ধান্তে যান। নতুবা শান্তিতে মাথা গোঁজার জন্য যে কাঁড়ি কাড়ি টাকা দিয়ে ফ্ল্যাট বা প্লট কিনবেন, সেটাই একদিন অশান্তির কারণ হয়ে উঠতে পারে।

আবাসন প্রকল্পের জমির দলিলে কোনো ভেজাল আছে কি না এবং রাজধানী উন্নয়ন কর্তৃপক্ষ (রাজউক) প্রকল্পের অনুমোদন দিয়েছে কি না, তা জানা খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। কারণ, নকশা অনুযায়ী ভবন তৈরি না হলে রাজউক সেই ভবনের অবৈধ অংশ ভেঙে ফেলতে পারে।
ফ্ল্যাট-প্লট কিনতে আপনি কত টাকা বিনিয়োগ করবেন, প্রথমে তার একটি হিসাব কষে ফেলুন। তারপর পছন্দমতো ফ্ল্যাট-প্লট খুঁজুন। ব্যাংক বা আর্থিক প্রতিষ্ঠানের কাছ থেকে ঋণ নিয়েও ফ্ল্যাট কিনতে পারেন। এসব প্রতিষ্ঠান দীর্ঘমেয়াদি কিস্তিতে ব্যাংকঋণ দিচ্ছে। এমনকি কোনো কারণে আপনি আয়কর নথিতে কোনো বছরের কিছু আয় দেখাতে ভুলে গেছেন, এখন সেই টাকায় ফ্ল্যাট কিনতে পারবেন। জাতীয় রাজস্ব বোর্ড (এনবিআর) এ নিয়ে কোনো প্রশ্ন করবে না।

টাকার সংস্থানের কথা হলো। এবার নিজের চাহিদা অনুযায়ী এলাকায় খোঁজখবর নিন কোন কোন প্রতিষ্ঠানের প্রকল্প রয়েছে। তারপর সরেজমিনে ঘুরে দেখুন। দাম–দরের বিষয়ে আশপাশে কিছু প্রকল্পেরও খোঁজ নিন। ভবনের নকশা দেখুন। আবাসন প্রতিষ্ঠানটি রিয়েল এস্টেট অ্যান্ড হাউজিং অ্যাসোসিয়েশন অব বাংলাদেশের (রিহ্যাব) সদস্য কি না, সেটিও যাচাই করুন।

ব্যাটে-বলে মিললে কাগজপত্র যাচাইয়ে নামুন। বিশেষ করে আবাসন প্রকল্পের জমির দলিলে কোনো ভেজাল আছে কি না এবং রাজধানী উন্নয়ন কর্তৃপক্ষ (রাজউক) প্রকল্পের অনুমোদন দিয়েছে কি না, তা জানা খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। কারণ, নকশা অনুযায়ী ভবন তৈরি না হলে রাজউক সেই ভবনের অবৈধ অংশ ভেঙে ফেলতে পারে। মনে রাখুন, রাজউকের মতো চট্টগ্রাম উন্নয়ন কর্তৃপক্ষ, খুলনা উন্নয়ন কর্তৃপক্ষ ও রাজশাহী উন্নয়ন কর্তৃপক্ষও নিজ নিজ প্লট প্রকল্পের অনুমোদন দিয়ে থাকে।

কোনোভাবেই আবাসন প্রতিষ্ঠানের চটকদার বিজ্ঞাপন দেখে ফ্ল্যাট কেনায় ঝাঁপ দেবেন না। আবারও বলছি, সতর্ক থাকুন, প্লট প্রকল্পটি রাজউকের ডিটেইল এরিয়া প্ল্যানের (ড্যাপ) বন্যাপ্রবণ অঞ্চলে পড়েছে কি না, জেনে নিন। আবার যে এলাকায় প্রকল্পটি, সেখানে আদৌ তাদের জমি আছে কি না, সেটাও জানুন।

জানতে চাইলে দেশের শীর্ষস্থানীয় আবাসন প্রতিষ্ঠান কনকর্ডের হেড অব ব্র্যান্ড মো. তারিকুল আলম প্রথম আলোকে বলেন, আবাসন প্রতিষ্ঠানের সঙ্গে চুক্তির আগে অবশ্যই চুক্তিপত্র ভালোভাবে পড়ে দেখা প্রয়োজন। নিজে না বুঝলে আইনজীবীর পরামর্শও নেওয়া যেতে পারে। এ ছাড়া ভবন নির্মাণের কোয়ালিটি বা মান বোঝার জন্য কী ধরনের রড, সিমেন্ট ও বৈদ্যুতিক সরঞ্জাম ব্যবহার করা হবে, সেটিও খোঁজ নেওয়া দরকার বলে মন্তব্য করেন তিনি।

ফ্ল্যাট-প্লট কিনতে ক্রেতার অবশ্যই কর শনাক্তকরণ নম্বর (টিআইএন) থাকতে হবে। টিআইএন ছাড়া ফ্ল্যাট-জমি নিবন্ধন করা যাবে না। আর সেই টিআইএনের বিপরীতে নিয়মিত বার্ষিক কর বিবরণী জমা দিতে হবে।

ঢাকার আশপাশে অনেকগুলো প্লট প্রকল্প গড়ে উঠছে। ক্রেতাদের ভেড়াতে অনেকেই আকর্ষণীয় বিজ্ঞাপন দিচ্ছে। প্লট প্রকল্পগুলোর মধ্যে অনেকগুলোর অবস্থানই রাজউকের পূর্বাচল নতুন শহর প্রকল্পের আশপাশে। এই সরকারি প্রকল্পে ২৫ হাজারের বেশি আবাসিক প্লট থাকলেও নাগরিক সেবা না থাকায় এখনো বাসযোগ্য হয়নি। অথচ প্রকল্পটির বয়স ২৪ বছর। সরকারি প্রকল্পের এই অবস্থা হলে বেসরকারিগুলোর অবস্থান কোথায়, সেটি সত্যি ভাবার বিষয়। তাই প্লট কেনার আগে অনেক হিসাব–নিকাশ করতেই হবে। নতুবা নিজের একটি বাড়ির স্বপ্ন স্বপ্নই রয়ে যাবে।

অনেক প্রতিষ্ঠানের বিরুদ্ধে অভিযোগ, তারা ভাড়া জমিতে সাইনবোর্ড লাগিয়ে আশপাশের অনেক জমি নিজেদের বলে দাবি করে। তাই প্রকল্পের অনুমোদন আছে কি না এবং সংশ্লিষ্ট প্রতিষ্ঠানের নামে আদৌ জমি আছে কি না সেটি যাচাই করতে হবে। অনেক কোম্পানির প্রতিনিধিরা বলেন, তাঁরা উপজেলা চেয়ারম্যানের অনুমতি নিয়ে ব্যবসা করছেন। কিন্তু উপজেলা চেয়ারম্যান কখনোই নিয়ন্ত্রক সংস্থা নয়। তারপর দেখতে হবে, প্রকল্প বাস্তবায়নকারী প্রতিষ্ঠানটি রিহ্যাব অথবা বাংলাদেশ ল্যান্ড ডেভেলপারস অ্যাসোসিয়েশনের (বিএলডিএ) সদস্য কি না। আইন অনুযায়ী, সংগঠন দুটির সদস্য না হলে ব্যবসা অবৈধ।

জানতে চাইলে রিহ্যাবের সহসভাপতি সোহেল রানা প্রথম আলোকে বলেন, সরকারের স্পষ্ট নির্দেশনা রয়েছে অনুমোদিত প্রকল্প ছাড়া প্লট কেনাবেচা করা যাবে না। তবে রাজধানীর আশপাশে যত প্রকল্প আছে, তার মধ্যে অল্পসংখ্যকেরই অনুমোদন রয়েছে। ফ্ল্যাট ও প্লট প্রকল্প কেনার আগে কোম্পানি সম্পর্কে জানতে চাইলে ক্রেতারা রিহ্যাবের কার্যালয়ে খোঁজ নিতে পারেন বলেও জানান তিনি।

Source: © প্রথম আলো

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