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Topics - nawshin farzana

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Science and Information / Fluorescent Dyes
« on: September 05, 2013, 07:04:20 AM »
Fluorescent Dyes

Fluorescent dyes have the unique property of absorbing in the UV range and emitting in the visible range of the color spectrum. Each fluorescent dye has its own unique properties and used in various applications in textiles including non destructive testing, water tracing, leak detection, antifreeze, adhesives, car wash soaps, and detergents.

Humanities & Social Science / Chromic materials: intelligent textiles
« on: September 05, 2013, 06:36:24 AM »
Chromic Materials:

Some types of intelligent textiles are those which change their colour
reversibly according to external environmental conditions, for this reason
they are also called chameleon fibres. Chromic materials are the general
term referring to materials which radiate the colour, erase the colour or
just change it because its induction caused by the external stimuli, as
"chromic" is a suffix that means colour.

So we can classify chromic materials depending on the stimuli affecting them:

PhotoChromic: external stimuli energy is light.
ThermoChromic: external stimuli energy is heat.
ElectroChromic: external stimuli energy is electricity.
Piezorochromic: external stimuli energy is pressure.
Solvatechromic: external stimuli energy is liquid.
Carsolchromic: external stimuli energy is electron beam.

source: internet

Humanities & Social Science / solvent dyeing in textiles
« on: September 05, 2013, 06:31:44 AM »
Solvent dyeing is a dyeing process carried out from a continuous non-acqueous phase. Here solvent is used as dyeing media. But water may be added to assist dyeing process. Since the introduction of hydrophobic fibers like cellulose acetate in 1920’s solvent have been considered for dyeing because it was not possible to dye such fibers with ionic dyes and water.

Characteristics of Solvents:
An ideal solvent for Textile processing should have the following characteristics –
1. Non- toxic.
2. Non-flammable.
3. Non-corrosive.
4. Inert to textile materials.
5. Stable to repeated distillation.
6. Low Specific heat.
7. Low heat of evaporation.
8. Readily available.
9. Economic feasibility.

Types of Solvent Used in Textile Processing :
Some solvents of chlorinated hydrocarbons of aliphatic series posses most of the mentioned requirements and hence are being used as solvents are extensively used such as –

1. Tri-chloro Ethylen (TCE).
2. Per-chloro Ethylen (PCE).
3. Methyl Chloroform (MC).

All three solvents are almost equally suitable but tri-chloroethylene has very high stability to decomposition and hence isomers preferable.

Advantages of Solvent Dyeing:
1. High wettability and dyeability.
2. Rapid dyeing with minimum energy requirements.
3. Better levelness and dye yield compared with better fabric aesthetics.
4. Solvent is being recycled, so the effluent control problem is eliminated.
5.Less time required.

Disadvantages of Solvent Dyeing:
1. Solvents are expensive, so higher production cost
2. Problem in equipments availability.
3. Existing dye can not be used in full range.

source: internet

Humanities & Social Science / Banana textile fibre
« on: September 05, 2013, 06:06:41 AM »
Banana Fiber

Banana fiber is a kind of new-type natural fiber. Banana fiber is extracted from bark of banana tree, it belongs to bast fiber. The appearance of banana fiber is similar with natural original bamboo fiber and ramie fiber, but fineness and spinnability of banana fiber is better than natural original bamboo fiber and ramie fiber. The chemical composition of banana fiber is mainly cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
There are characteristics with high strength, small elongation, good luster, light weight, strong moisture absorption, fast moisture

absorption and release, easy degradation as well as environmental protection etc. Banana fiber can be made into garment, curtain, towel, bedsheet etc due to it’s characteristics with light, good luster and moisture absorption. Banana fiber average fineness is 2386Nm(4.1dtex), average fiber length is 60mm. Currently the highest count of 100% banana yarn can be produced to Nm60 (Ne35), the feeling of banana fiber is better than ramie fiber, there is no feeling of urtication.

At the ASEAN summit in the central city of Philippines, many leaders worn Philippines traditional garment made from banana fiber. Designer said: “two garments of the three made from banana fiber and flax fiber, price is USD369/piece, and it can be stored 10 years.

The appearance of banana fiber and banana series added a kind of new-typed natural and eco-friendly material for textile industries, Banana fiber has played an important role in development of textile industry. There will be widely market potential, good economic benefit for banana fiber. The technology of banana fiber we produced has reach international advanced level, the banana fabrics and banana garments we developed attracted great interest to home and overseas customers.

Source: internet

Humanities & Social Science / Smart textiles: Fashion
« on: September 05, 2013, 05:35:12 AM »
Musical jackets:

Musical jacket turns an ordinary jacket into a wearable musical instrument. Musical jacket allows the wearer to play notes, chords, rhythms, and accompaniment using any instrument available in the general music scheme.

It integrates fabric keypad, a sequencer, synthesizer, amplifying speakers, conductive organza, and batteries to power these subsystems.

Chameleonic textiles(Chromic Materials):

These are intelligent textiles which change color (because the dye applied on the surface change color) with change in temperature.
Chromic materials are the general term referring to materials which radiate the colour, erase the colour or just change it because of its induction caused by the external stimuli, such as light, heat, electricity, solvent, pressure.
The color change is especially due to application of thermo chromic dyes whose color changes at particular temperature.
2 types of thermo chromic systems that have been successfully applied to textiles -the liquid crystal type and the molecular rearrangement type. In both the cases, the dye is entrapped in microcapsules, applied to garment fabric like a pigment in a resin binder

Illuminating textiles:

Emits lights according to external environmental conditions.

*Photoluminescence: external stimulus is light.
*Electroluminescence: external stimulus is electricity.
*Chemioluminescence: external stimulus is a chemical reaction.
*Triboluminescence: external stimulus is friction.

Soy Fabric

What is Soy Fabric?
This eco friendly fabric is derived from food production waste as it is made from the hulls of soy beans. Sometimes called the “vegetable cashmere”, soy is soft, easy to care for and absorbs dyes quickly, requiring less dye-stuffs.


Eco Print
The use of soy textiles are good for our planet, because it is made from fibres that are spun from the ‘leftovers’ of the soy food industry. Because the plant itself is easily renewable and the fibre biodegrades more quickly than oil-based products like polyester, its use has minimal environmental impact. This fabric is so biodegradable that you could throw it on your compost pile when it wears out.
Feel of Fabric
Soy clothing is light and silky soft, with just a bit of stretch, to gently caress your body with its natural drape. It is called the vegetable “cashmere” because of its luxurious and soft texture, but you’ll likely agree it’s far better than cashmere because it’s so easy to care for.
Moisture AbsorbentThis eco friendly fabric has excellent absorption qualities which allow perspiration to evaporate. This makes it cool and comfortable during hot weather.
Anti Bacterial
Do to its moisture management soy textiles are also anti bacterial.
UV Resistant
This eco fabric will also protect you from the sun with its UV resistant qualities.


Not as strong as cotton or hemp

Caring for Soy Textiles:

soy-eco-fabricSoy is easy to care for. Machine wash in cold water on a gentle setting. You can skip the chlorine bleach, fabric softener (these fabrics are naturally soft) and the dryer. Lay flat to dry. Soy has a beautiful drape that does not need to be ironed. Use a low, no-steam setting if ironing is desired.

Different kinds of soy textiles:

In addition to 100% soy textiles, there are various blends containing soy. For example, a soy/cotton jersey blend is very suitable for sports wear and other clothing where a little stretch is desirable. Soy can also be blended with other textiles like cotton, bringing additional benefits to soy textiles.

source: internet

SMART TEXTILES are materials and structures that sense and react to environmental conditions or stimuli, such as those from mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, magnetic or other sources.

Textile products which can act in a different manner than an average fabric and are mostly able to perform a special function certainly count as smart textiles.

SMART TEXTILES are not just restricted to clothing and apparels but extend to many other applications like automobiles, robotics, aircrafts, medicine and surgery etc. The importance of these materials is so profound at some places (e.g. military battlefields) that they virtually act as life saving materials.

Application areas of smart textiles:

Smart textiles find applications in a plethora of fields. Some of the principle ones are:
 Military (e.g. uniforms which can detect chemical threats in a battlefield)
Airplanes (e.g. in manufacture of flaps found in aircraft wings)
Biomedical field (e.g. manufacture of smart sutures, tissues)
Space research (e.g. special spacesuits designed for astronauts)
Comfort wears (e.g. fabrics which can maintain body temperature)
Sports (e.g. fabrics which can make athletes feel comfortable even in stretched body conditions)
Fashion clothing (e.g. fabrics which can change color according to ambient temperatures)

Bamboo textiles are yarn fabric and apparel(clothing) made out of bamboo fibres. In recent years a range of technologies have been developed allowing bamboo fibre to be used in a wide range of textile and fashion applications.
Modern bamboo clothing is clothing made from either 100% bamboo yarn or a blend of bamboo and cotton yarn or it can also be blended with other textile fibres such as hemp or even spandex.

Bamboo Fiber is a kind of cellulose fiber extracted from natural bamboo and is made from the pulp of bamboo plants.
It may be directly made from the fibres of the plant called as “Original/Bio/Natural bamboo fibre” or synthesized as a “regenerated viscose fibre” made from bamboo cellulose.

Ecological reasons for using bamboo for textiles and clothing :

1.   Growth - There are over 1600 species of bamboo found in diverse climates from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. As it grows quickly & plentifully about 40 million hectares of the earth is covered with bamboo, mostly in Asia.
2.   Harvesting - The new cane will reach its full height in just 8–10 weeks. Each cane reaches maturity in 3–5 years. Bamboo can be continually re-harvested with no damage to the surrounding environment.
3.   Yield and land use- Bamboo grows very densely, its clumping nature enables a lot of it to be grown in a comparatively small area, easing pressure on land use. Yields of bamboo of up to 60 tonnes per hectare greatly exceed the yield of 20 tonnes for most trees and only 1-2 tonnes per hectare for cotton.
4.   Greenhouse gases and global warming- Bamboo minimises CO2 and generates up to 35% more oxygen than equivalent stands of trees. One hectare of bamboo sequesters 62 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year while one hectare of young forest only sequesters 15 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.
5.   Deforestation- Bamboo planting can slow deforestation, providing an alternative source of timber for the construction industry and cellulose fibre for the textile industry. Tree plantations have to be chopped down and terminated at harvest but bamboo keeps on growing.
6.   Water use- Very little bamboo is irrigated and there is sound evidence that the water-use efficiency of bamboo is twice than that of other trees.
7.   Soil erosion- The bamboo plants root system creates an effective watershed, stitching the soil together along fragile river banks, deforested areas, and in places prone to mudslides.
8.   Biodegradable- Bamboo fibre is biodegradable in soil by micro organisms and sunlight .clothing made from bamboo can be composted and disposed of in an organic and environmentally friendly manner.
9.   Pesticides and fertilizers –As mentioned earlier, there is no need for pesticides or fertilisers when growing bamboo.

Multifunctional bleaching agent can effectively replace most of agents used in the traditional sodium hydroxide bleaching process, suitable for cotton and its blends. It can be used in various processes, such as vat dyeing, jet overflow dyeing and pad dyeing and so on.

◆ Applications
1. Discontinuous process : suitable for yarns, knit fabrics and towels

Reference Recipe :

H2O2 (30%)      4-5ml/L
MBA                  2-3g/L
M:L                    1:10

Process Sequence:
prepare chemicals→cloth entering→90~95℃×30mins→warm washing→cold washing→cloth discharging

2. Continuous process: suitable for cotton woven fabrics, knit fabrics and towels

Reference Recipe:

H2O2 (100%)    4-12g/L
MBA                25-40g/L

Competitive Advantages of the product
1.Suitable for all kinds of greige fabrics and water.
2.Excellent whiteness and capillary effect, no cotton seed hull residue.
3.Low fabric damage, high quality and efficiency.
4.Saving water, electricity and gas, low COD & TDS value
5.Short processing time and high production efficiency

SALT FREE REACTIVE DYEING OF COTTON -a newer technique of cotton dyeing without salt usage

Reactive dyes are very popular for cellulosic garments as they are environmentally safe and having good overall fastness properties. But application of these dyes requires a very high concentration of salt. The salt released from garment dyeing increases salinity in drain water stream which has a negative impact on environmental ecology. The present work aims to eliminate the usage of salt during dyeing of cotton goods with reactive dyes.

The methodology adopted here, for the elimination of salt in cotton dyeing, was based on the principle of cationisation (to develop a positive charge) of cotton. The same was achieved by subjecting the caustic pretreated cotton fabric samples to a treatment of 1, 2 dichloroethane followed by methylamine to introduce amino groups in the cellulose structure. The treated cotton when dyed from slightly acidic bath generates positive sites due to protonation in the amino group. The reactive dyes being anionic (negatively charged) in solution get attracted to the positive charges on the fibre which eliminates the salt requirements for satisfactory dye exhaustion.

A pretreatment to cotton which could eliminate the usage of salt in its dyeing with reactive dyes is revealed.
Both garment dyeing units and fabric/yarn finishing industries would thus be helpful.

Textile science, events, trade and issues / The Textile Museum
« on: October 26, 2011, 02:06:54 PM »
The Textile Museum
The Textile Museum expands public knowledge and appreciation – locally, nationally and internationally – of the artistic merits and cultural importance of the world’s textiles.
In 1925 George Hewitt Myers founded The Textile Museum with a collection of 275 rugs and 60 related textiles. Myers collected actively for the Museum until his death in 1957, at which time the collection had grown to encompass the textile arts of Africa, Asia and Latin America. In Myers' time, the Museum was open by appointment only and received several hundred visitors annually. Today, The Textile Museum is one of the world's foremost specialized art museums and receives 25,000 to 35,000 visitors each year from around the world.
The Textile Museum is housed in two historic buildings in the Kalorama neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Visitors enter the Museum through the former home of the Museum's founding family which was designed by John Russell Pope in 1913.
The Museum's educational programs encourage visitors to explore the variety and wonder of the textile arts, and to learn more about how textiles are made and why they are important. Exhibition-related programming is designed to enhance and expand upon the exhibition themes. All exhibitions feature school tours, and programs are offered for educators throughout the year.
The Textile Museum presents a variety of lectures, workshops, seminars and demonstrations throughout the year.
The Textile Museum is a wonderful place to volunteer and gain skills in the museum field and welcomes applications for internship and volunteer programs year-round.
Source: internet

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