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Clinical Pathology / Anxiety
« on: February 23, 2020, 12:57:47 PM »
Anxiety is a normal and often healthy emotion. However, when a person regularly feels disproportionate levels of anxiety, it might become a medical disorder. Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts and physical changes like increased blood pressure.

When an individual faces potentially harmful or worrying triggers, feelings of anxiety are not only normal but necessary for survival.
It causes a rush of adrenalin, a hormone and chemical messenger in the brain, which in turn triggers these anxious reactions in a process called the “fight-or-flight’ response. This prepares humans to physically confront or flee any potential threats to safety.

Anxieties now revolve around work, money, family life, health, and other crucial issues that demand a person’s attention without necessarily requiring the ‘fight-or-flight’ reaction.


While a number of different diagnoses constitute anxiety disorders, the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) will often include the following:

   1. Restlessness, and a feeling of being “on-edge”
   2. Uncontrollable feelings of worry
   3. Increased irritability
   4. Concentration difficulties
   5. Sleep difficulties, such as problems in falling or staying asleep


The causes of anxiety disorders are complicated. Many might occur at once, some may lead to others, and some might not lead to an anxiety disorder unless another is present.

Possible causes include:

    1. Environmental stressors, such as difficulties at work, relationship problems, or family issues
    2. Genetics, as people who have family members with an anxiety disorder are more likely to experience one themselves
    3. Medical factors, such as the symptoms of a different disease, the effects of a medication, or the stress of an intensive surgery or prolonged recovery
    4. Brain chemistry, as psychologists define many anxiety disorders as misalignments of hormones and electrical signals in the brain
    5. Withdrawal from an illicit substance, the effects of which might intensify the impact of other possible causes


Treatments will consist of a combination of psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, and medication.

Alcohol dependence, depression, or other conditions can sometimes have such a strong effect on mental well-being that treating an anxiety disorder must wait until any underlying conditions are brought under control.


In some cases, a person can treat an anxiety disorder at home without clinical supervision. However, this may not be effective for severe or long-term anxiety disorders.

There are several exercises and actions to help a person cope with milder, more focused, or shorter-term anxiety disorders, including:

    1. Stress management: Learning to manage stress can help limit potential triggers. Organize any upcoming pressures and deadlines, compile lists to make daunting tasks more manageable, and commit to taking time off from study or work.
    2. Relaxation techniques: Simple activities can help soothe the mental and physical signs of anxiety. These techniques include meditation, deep breathing exercises, long baths, resting in the dark, and yoga.
    3. Exercises to replace negative thoughts with positive ones: Make a list of the negative thoughts that might be cycling as a result of anxiety, and write down another list next to it containing positive, believable thoughts to replace them. Creating a mental image of successfully facing and conquering a specific fear can also provide benefits if anxiety symptoms relate to a specific cause, such as in a phobia.
    4. Support network: Talk with familiar people who are supportive, such as a family member or friend. Support group services may also be available in the local area and online.
    5. Exercise: Physical exertion can improve self-image and release chemicals in the brain that trigger positive feelings.


A standard way of treating anxiety is psychological counseling. This can include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychotherapy, or a combination of therapies.


A person can support anxiety management with several types of medication.

Medicines that might control some of the physical and mental symptoms include antidepressants, benzodiazepines, tricyclics, and beta-blockers.

1. Benzodiazepines: A doctor may prescribe these for certain people with anxiety, but they can be highly addictive. These drugs tend to have few side effects except for drowsiness and possible dependence. Diazepam, or Valium, is an example of a commonly prescribed benzodiazepine.

2. Antidepressants: These commonly help with anxiety, even though they also target depression. People often use serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), which have fewer side effects than older antidepressants but are likely to cause jitters, nausea, and sexual dysfunction when treatment begins.

3. Other antidepressants include fluoxetine, or Prozac, and citalopram, or Celexa.

4. Tricyclics: This is a class of drugs older than SSRIs that provide benefits for most anxiety disorders other than OCD. These drugs might cause side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, and weight gain. Imipramine and clomipramine are two examples of tricyclics.

Additional drugs a person might use to treat anxiety include:

    i) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
    ii) Beta-blockers
    iii) Buspirone.


There are ways to reduce the risk of anxiety disorders. Remember that anxious feelings are a natural factor of daily life, and experiencing them does not always indicate the presence of a mental health disorder.

Take the following steps to help moderate anxious emotions:

    1. Reduce intake of caffeine, tea, cola, and chocolate.
    2. Before using over-the-counter (OTC) or herbal remedies, check with a doctor or pharmacist for any chemicals that may make anxiety symptoms worse.
    3. Maintain a healthy diet.
    4. Keep a regular sleep pattern.
    5. Avoid alcohol, cannabis, and other recreational drugs.

Clinical Pathology / Depression
« on: February 16, 2020, 03:31:53 PM »
Depression is a mood disorder that involves a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It is different from the mood fluctuations that people regularly experience as a part of life.

Depression is an ongoing problem, not a passing one. It consists of episodes during which the symptoms last for at least 2 weeks. Depression can last for several weeks, months, or years.

In females

Below are some symptoms of depression that tend to appear more often in females:

    mood swings
    ruminating (dwelling on negative thoughts)

In males

Males with depression are more likely than females to drink alcohol in excess, display anger, and engage in risk-taking as a result of the disorder.

Other symptoms of depression in males may include:

    avoiding families and social situations
    working without a break
    having difficulty keeping up with work and family responsibilities
    displaying abusive or controlling behavior in relationships


The medical community does not fully understand the causes of depression. There are many possible causes, and sometimes, various factors combine to trigger symptoms.

Factors that are likely to play a role include:

   1. genetic features
   2. changes in the brain’s neurotransmitter levels
   3. environmental factors
   4.psychological and social factors
   5.additional conditions, such as bipolar disorder


Psychotherapy: Also known as talking therapy, some options include one-to-one counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

Drug treatment: A doctor may prescribe antidepressants. Antidepressants can help treat moderate-to-severe depression.

    Several classes of antidepressants are available:

    1.selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
    2.monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
    3. tricyclic antidepressants
    4.atypical antidepressants
    5. selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

A person should only take these medications as their doctor prescribes.

Natural remedies

Some people use natural remedies, such as herbal medicines, to treat mild-to-moderate depression.

Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control / Flurometry
« on: February 08, 2020, 01:44:18 PM »

Medicinal Chemistry / Re: Accidental discovery of some drugs
« on: February 08, 2020, 01:37:18 PM »
Nice post

Organic Pharmacy / Carbohydrates
« on: February 05, 2020, 02:39:35 PM »

Pharmacology / Re: How insulin works
« on: February 02, 2020, 02:11:56 PM »
Thanks for sharing.

Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control / UV-Vis Spectroscopy
« on: February 02, 2020, 02:06:59 PM »

Pharmacy / Re: ফিট থাকতে গ্রিন টি
« on: May 02, 2019, 01:47:58 PM »
Thank you for sharing

Pharmacy / Re: Foods that cause cancer
« on: May 02, 2019, 01:46:45 PM »
Very Informative

Pharmacy / Star Fruit/ Carambola: harmful for kidney
« on: April 15, 2019, 05:25:16 PM »
Star fruit — or carambola — is a sweet and sour fruit that has the shape of a five-point star. The skin is edible and the flesh has a mild, sour flavor that makes it popular in a number of dishes. The star fruit is yellow or green in color. It comes in two main types: a smaller, sour variety and a larger, sweeter one. It is originally from Asia. The fruit gets its name because it is shaped like a star when sliced.

The star fruit is a decent source of several nutrients — especially fiber and vitamin C.

This is the nutrient content of a single, medium-sized (91-gram) star fruit :

    Fiber: 3 grams
    Protein: 1 gram
    Vitamin C: 52%
    Vitamin B5: 4%
    Folate: 3%
    Copper: 6%
    Potassium: 3%
    Magnesium: 2%

Side Effects:

Studies show that eating starfruit can have a harmful (toxic) effect for people who have kidney disease. Star fruit may cause adverse effects in some people, mainly due to its high oxalate content. The substances found in starfruit can affect the brain and cause neurological disorders. This toxic substance is called a neurotoxin. People with healthy, normal kidneys can process and pass this toxin out from their body. However, for those with kidney disease, this is not possible. The toxin stays in the body and causes serious illness.

The symptoms of starfruit poisoning include:

    Mental confusion
    Death (in serious cases)

Mechanism of toxicity:

Hiccups are a common and often harmless myoclonus of the diaphragm. However, in patients with renal disease and recent star fruit ingestion, this spasm can be a sign of toxicity and occurs in up to 94% of patients who present with intoxication. Toxicity can also result in vomiting, weakness, confusion, convulsions, and death.
Star fruit contains two molecules that are responsible for kidney damage and neurotoxicity: oxalate and the recently discovered caramboxin.
Oxalic acid’s effects on kidneys are well-known and well defined, partly due to its culpability in ethylene glycol toxicity and death. Oxalate crystallizes and forms obstructive deposits that cause direct tissue damage in the form of both apoptosis and acute tubular necrosis. Neurotoxic effects are due to the more elusive compound of interest, caramboxin. Garcia-Cairasco and colleagues conducted a bioguided isolation of the toxin and termed the new, “phenylalanine-like” molecule with 2 carboxylic acids. They also discovered its strong N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamatergic receptor agonist activity and justified the hyperexcitability of neurons in patients who experience this toxicity.

So, patient with kidney disease should avoid star fruit and those without renal disease should take caution to not consume large amounts of the fruit or its products and ensure that ingestion does not occur on an empty stomach.

Pharmacy / Stress and its effect on our body
« on: April 13, 2019, 01:07:46 PM »
Stress is the body's reaction to harmful situations -- whether they’re real or perceived. When we feel threatened, a chemical reaction occurs in our body that allows us to act in a way to prevent injury. This reaction is known as "fight-or-flight,” or the stress response.

The body experiences a cascade of physical reactions, including:

    An accelerated heartbeat.
    Opening of lung airways to improve oxygen delivery.
    Release of adrenaline to speed us up.
    Release of glucose to power muscles.
    Widened pupils to improve vision.
    Lowered gastrointestinal activity so we can run, not digest.

Today, we rarely face a situation where we truly need to fight or flee. But our body still initiates the stress response in situations where there are no options for fighting or escaping: a traffic jam, a disagreeable boss or coworker, a looming deadline.

Indeed, stress symptoms can affect our body, our thoughts and feelings, and our behavior. Being able to recognize common stress symptoms can help us manage them. Stress that's left unchecked can contribute to many health problems, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity and diabetes.

Common effects of stress:

On your body                                               On your mood                                                  On your behavior

Headache                                                Anxiety                                                          Overeating or undereating
Muscle tension or pain                                Restlessness                                                  Angry outbursts
Chest pain                                                Lack of motivation or focus                                  Drug or alcohol misuse
Fatigue                                                        Feeling overwhelmed                                          Tobacco use
Change in sex drive                                Irritability or anger                                          Social withdrawal
Stomach upset                                        Sadness or depression                                  Exercising less often

To manage stress:

If we have stress symptoms, taking steps to manage our stress can have many health benefits. Explore stress management strategies, such as:

    Getting regular physical activity
    Practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation, yoga, tai chi or massage
    Keeping a sense of humor
    Spending time with family and friends
    Setting aside time for hobbies, such as reading a book or listening to music

Our aim should be to find active ways to manage our stress. Inactive ways to manage stress — such as watching television, surfing the internet or playing video games — may seem relaxing, but they may increase our stress over the long term and we have to be sure to get plenty of sleep and eat a healthy, balanced diet We have to avoid tobacco use, excess caffeine and alcohol, and the use of illegal substances.

Inorganic Pharmacy / Intermolecular forces
« on: April 07, 2019, 04:39:44 PM »

Inorganic Pharmacy / VSEPR Theory to predict molecular geometry
« on: April 07, 2019, 04:31:51 PM »

Pharmacy / Calcium-Rich Foods
« on: April 06, 2019, 01:21:09 PM »
Calcium is very important for our health.

In fact, we have more calcium in our body than any other mineral. It makes up much of our bones and teeth and plays a role in heart health, muscle function and nerve signaling.

The main foods rich in calcium are dairy products like milk, cheese and yogurt. However, many non-dairy sources are also high in this mineral.

These include seafood, leafy greens, legumes, dried fruit and various foods that are fortified with calcium.

Here are some foods that are rich in calcium, many of which are non-dairy.

1. Seeds

Seeds are tiny nutritional powerhouses. Some are high in calcium, including sunflower, sesame, celery and chia seeds. Sesame seeds, 1 tablespoon have 9 grams calcium plus other minerals, including copper, iron and manganese.

2. Cheese

Most cheeses are excellent sources of calcium. Parmesan cheese has the most, with 331 mg calcium per ounce (28 grams). Softer cheeses tend to have less — one ounce  only delivers 52 mg.

3. Yogurt

Yogurt is an excellent source of calcium. Many types of yogurt are also rich in live probiotic bacteria, which have various health benefits.
One cup (245 grams) of plain yogurt contains 200 gm calcium, as well as phosphorus, potassium and vitamins B2 and B12.

4. Sardines and canned salmon

Sardines and canned salmon are loaded with calcium for their edible bones. A 3.75-ounce (92-gram) can of sardines packs 35%  and 3 ounces (85 grams) of canned salmon with bones have 21% calcium.

5. Beans and lentils

Beans and lentils are high in fiber, protein and micronutrients. They also boast lots of iron, zinc, folate, magnesium and potassium. Some varieties also have decent amounts of calcium. A single cup (172 grams) of cooked wing beans has 244 mg  calcium.

6. Almonds

Of all nuts, almonds are among the highest in calcium — one ounce of almonds, or about 22 nuts, delivers 8% calcium. In addition, they’re an excellent source of magnesium, manganese and vitamin E.

7. Figs

Dried figs are rich in antioxidants and fiber. They also have more calcium than other dried fruits. In fact, dried figs provide 5% calcium in one ounce (28 grams). Moreover, figs provide decent amounts of potassium and vitamin K.

8. Milk

Milk is one of the best and cheapest calcium sources. One cup (237 ml) of cow's milk has 276–352 mg, depending on whether it's whole or nonfat milk. The calcium in dairy is also absorbed well . Additionally, milk is a good source of protein, vitamin A and vitamin D.

9. Some leafy greens

Dark, leafy greens are incredibly healthy, and some of them are high in calcium. Greens that have good amounts of this mineral include collard greens, spinach and kale. For instance, one cup (190 grams) of cooked collard greens has 266 mg calcium.

10. Broccoli

One cup of frozen broccoli has 87 mg of calcium.

11. Sweet  potatoes

One large sweet potato contains 68 mg of calcium. These vegetables are also rich in potassium and vitamins A and C.

12. Oranges

One large orange contains 74 mg of calcium, while a single glass of calcium-fortified orange juice contains 300 mg.


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