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Pharmacy / Importance of Calcium for Womens Health
« on: April 06, 2019, 12:49:06 PM »
Most women are not aware of the vital role of calcium in their health. It is a fact that women's diets do not meet the recommended daily intake of calcium. Calcium is essential during adolescence and old age particularly for bone health.
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body with over 99% being found in the bones and teeth. Calcium plays a vital role in growth and maintenance of healthy bones, insufficient intake increases the risk of osteoporosis. It is also important for proper nerve functioning, blood clotting and muscle health. Calcium is decisive in various stage of women's life.


Bone up on Calcium- Prevent Osteoporosis

It is very important for children and young adults to bone up on Calcium. Girls reach their peak bone density by adolescence & start losing bone mass as they age. Adequate calcium intake during their teens helps girls to start their adult lives with stronger bones, reducing their risk of fractures as an adult. A diet that is deficient in calcium increases the risk of developing osteoporosis in later life.

Calcium Keeps Fit And Slim

Calcium plays a major role in weight management and weight loss. Several studies show that consuming high levels of calcium contributes to weight loss. Research suggests that calcium may bind with fat in the intestine and prevents your body from absorbing it. Calcium inhibits the production of hormones that cause fat to accumulate in our body. Thus, calcium act as a vehicle for weight loss.

Helps Avoid Pre-Menstrual Syndrome

Calcium is one of the very few natural supplements that have been decisively proven to help women with PMS. Women with poor intake of dietary calcium react against estrogen and progesterone, triggering PMS symptoms. Maintaining optimal calcium level is essential for younger women with PMS symptoms.

Preventing Skin Damage

The appearance of whitish spots on the face and skin is due to calcium deficiency. A diet rich in calcium helps to get rid of the white spots and revamp a natural glow to skin. Calcium also plays a vital role in slowing the aging process and aids in skin repair.


CATEGORY                                             CALCIUM REQUIREMENT(MG/DAY)
Woman                                                        600
Pregnancy                                               1200
Lactating (0-6 & 6-12 months)               1200
Infants (0-6 & 6-12 months)                       500
Children 1-3 years                                       600
Children 4-6 years                                       600
Children 7-9 years                                       600
Girls 10-13 years                                       800
Girls 16-15 years                                       800
Girls 16-17 years                                       800

Physical Pharmacy / Entropy
« on: April 04, 2019, 12:21:22 PM »

Physical Pharmacy / Thermodynamics
« on: April 04, 2019, 12:19:37 PM »

Pharmacy / Natural Ways to Reduce Blood Pressure
« on: April 03, 2019, 12:07:29 PM »
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for a heart attack or stroke. In fact, it is generally regarded as the most significant risk factor for a stroke.

Here are four ways to lower your blood pressure without medication:

1. Drink beet juice.

Several recent studies have shown that drinking fresh beet juice can lead to clinically meaningful reductions in blood pressure. For example, a study at the Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute in Melbourne, Australia, found that drinking just 16 ounces of fresh beet juice a day significantly reduced blood pressure in healthy subjects. Beet juice lowered blood pressure within just an hour with a peak drop occurring 3 to 4 hours after ingestion.

Why it works: The decrease in blood pressure is due to the chemical formation of nitrite from the dietary nitrates in the juice. Once in the general circulation, nitrite can be converted to nitric oxide (NO) by the cells that line blood vessels. NO is a powerful dilator of blood vessels, resulting in lower blood pressure.

2. Eat fresh, raw garlic.

Garlic has a wide range of well-documented effects, including helping to lower blood pressure. Studies showing a positive effect of garlic and garlic preparations are those that deliver a sufficient dosage of allicin. In double-blind studies with garlic preparations providing a daily dose of at least 10 mg allicin, blood pressure readings dropped with typical reductions of 11 mm Hg for the systolic and 5.0 in the diastolic within a 1 to 3-month period. To get enough allicin, eat 1 to 4 cloves of fresh garlic a day.

Why it works: All of the beneficial effects of garlic are attributed to its sulfur-containing compounds: allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and others. Allicin is mainly responsible for the pungent odor of garlic. It is formed by the action of the enzyme alliinase on the compound alliin. The enzyme is activated by heat, oxygen, or water.

3. Drink black tea.

An Australian study published in January 2012 in the Archives of Internal Medicine analyzed the effect of black tea on 95 men and women with normal to high-normal blood pressure levels. Half of the participants drank 3 cups of black tea daily for 6 months, and the other half drank a placebo drink with a similar flavor and caffeine content.

At the end of the study, the black tea–drinking group had an average reduction of 2 to 3 points in their systolic (the top number in a blood pressure reading) level, and about two points in their diastolic (the bottom number) level. Although this doesn't sound like much, the researchers said it's enough to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke by 7 to 10%.

Why it works: It's believed that black tea's hypertension benefits may be due to the fact that the beverage improves the function of the endothelial cells that line the interior of blood vessels and affect blood pressure. Other research suggests that flavonoids in black tea can improve the tone of blood vessels, helping them channel blood more efficiently.

4. Get more magnesium.

A British analysis of 22 studies, published in February 2012 in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, found that taking at least 370 mg of magnesium per day reduced systolic blood pressure by 3-4 points and diastolic pressure by 2-3 points in 1,173 study subjects.

This is key, because research shows many adults don't get the recommended dietary allowance of at least 320 mg of magnesium for women and 420 mg for men, and that for every 100 mg increase in magnesium intake, the risk of stroke is reduced by about 9 percent.

Why it works: Magnesium helps dilate blood vessels and prevents spasm in your heart muscle and blood vessel walls. It also dissolves blood clots. All of these aid optimal heart and blood vessel function and can help to lower blood pressure.

Pharmacy / Eating Raw Garlic can Reduce Blood Pressure
« on: April 03, 2019, 12:03:45 PM »
Garlic has a wide range of well-documented effects, including helping to lower blood pressure. Studies showing a positive effect of garlic and garlic preparations are those that deliver a sufficient dosage of allicin. In double-blind studies with garlic, preparations provided a daily dose of at least 10 mg allicin. Blood pressure readings dropped with typical reductions of 11 mm Hg for the systolic and 5.0 in the diastolic. This occurred within a 1 to 3-month period.

Why It Works

All of the beneficial effects of garlic are attributed to its sulfur-containing compounds. Such as allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, and others. Allicin is mainly responsible for the pungent odor of garlic. It is formed by the action of the enzyme alliinase on the compound allicin. The enzyme is activated by heat, oxygen, or water.Raw garlic provides powerful medicinal effects.
To get enough allicin, eat 1 to 4 cloves of fresh garlic a day.

Pharmacy / Re: Several foods... essential for anemia
« on: April 03, 2019, 11:40:13 AM »
Thank you Madam.

Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Control / Gas Chromatography
« on: March 28, 2019, 03:09:46 PM »

Clinical Pathology / Anaphylaxis
« on: March 28, 2019, 02:53:43 PM »
Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that needs to be treated right away. If we have an anaphylactic reaction, we need an epinephrine (adrenaline) shot as soon as possible, and someone should call  for emergency medical help. Left untreated, it can be deadly.

Epinephrine can reverse the symptoms within minutes. If this doesn't happen, we may need a second shot within half an hour. These shots, which we need a prescription to get, come pre-filled and in ready-to-use pens.

We shouldn’t take an antihistamine for an anaphylactic reaction.

Anaphylaxis is rare, and most people recover from it. But it's important to tell our doctor about any drug allergies we have before any kind of medical treatment, including dental care. It’s also a good idea to wear a medical alert bracelet or pendant or carry a card with information about our allergy.


The first signs of an anaphylactic reaction may look like typical allergy symptoms: a runny nose or a skin rash. But within about 30 minutes, more serious signs appear.

There is usually more than one of these:

    Coughing; wheezing; and pain, itching, or tightness in our chest
    Fainting, dizziness, confusion, or weakness
    Hives; a rash; and itchy, swollen, or red skin
    Runny or stuffy nose and sneezing
    Shortness of breath or trouble breathing and rapid heartbeat
    Swollen or itchy lips or tongue
    Swollen or itchy throat, hoarse voice, trouble swallowing, tightness in our throat
    Vomiting, diarrhea, or cramps
    Weak pulse, paleness

Some people also remember feeling a "sense of doom” right before the attack.

As many as 1 out of every 5 people may have a second anaphylactic reaction within 12 hours of the first. This is called a biphasic anaphylaxis.


Epinephrine is the most effective treatment for anaphylaxis, and the shot should be given right away (usually in the thigh).

Clinical Pathology / Allergies
« on: March 28, 2019, 02:47:01 PM »
Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Management

Allergies are among the most common chronic conditions worldwide. Allergy symptoms range from making us miserable to putting us at risk for life-threatening reactions.

According to the leading experts in allergy, an allergic reaction begins in the immune system. Our immune system protects us from invading organisms that can cause illness. If we have an allergy, our immune system mistakes an otherwise harmless substance as an invader. This substance is called an allergen. The immune system overreacts to the allergen by producing Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. These antibodies travel to cells that release histamine and other chemicals, causing an allergic reaction.

Allergy Symptoms

An allergic reaction typically triggers symptoms in the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, lining of the stomach or on the skin. For some people, allergies can also trigger symptoms of asthma. In the most serious cases, a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis) can occur.

A number of different allergens are responsible for allergic reactions. The most common include:
•    Pollen
•    Dust
•    Food
•    Insect stings
•    Animal dander
•    Mold
•    Medications/Drugs
•    Latex

Allergy Diagnosis

If we have allergy symptoms, an allergist / immunologist, often referred to as an allergist, can help with a diagnosis. An allergist has advanced training and experience to properly diagnose our condition and prescribe an allergy treatment and management plan to help us feel better and live better.

Pharmacy / The 12 Deadliest Drug-Resistant Bacteria
« on: March 27, 2019, 04:57:50 PM »
In the face of rising antibiotic resistance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has published its first ever list of the deadliest superbugs that threaten human health.

This so-called dirty dozen encompasses 12 families of dangerous bacteria that have developed resistance to the drugs used to treat common infections. Antibiotic-resistance costs some 700,000 lives each year, and if the phenomenon can't be halted, experts predict that the number could grow to 10 million deaths annually by 2050.

The list is divided into three urgency categories – critical, high, and medium – representing how badly we need new antibiotics to treat their respective superbugs.

The "critical" section includes three bacteria – Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae – which are all resistant to multiple drugs, and can cause a range of serious infections, including pneumonia and blood infections.

These species are all examples of what's called gram-negative bacteria – bugs that usually live in the gut that have developed two cellular membranes, making it harder for drug molecules to penetrate them.
The nine other pathogens making up the high and medium urgency categories are bacteria that cause more common diseases – such as gonorrhoea and food poisoning – but which can also be deadly, and are increasingly resistant to drugs.
These include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonellae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

The list is a grave acknowledgement by the WHO that current pharmaceutical research efforts to curb antibiotic resistance aren't doing enough to curb the risks posed by these superbugs.
While antibiotics require a huge amount in terms of research and development costs, they are only taken by patients for a short time, meaning only a small volume is sold.

One solution could be to alter how companies and research institutions are financially rewarded for developing new antibiotics, rather than just generating their profits through products sales.

WHO priority pathogens list for R&D of new antibiotics

Priority 1: CRITICAL

1. Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem-resistant

2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, carbapenem-resistant

3. Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant, ESBL-producing

Priority 2: HIGH

1. Enterococcus faecium, vancomycin-resistant

2. Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant, vancomycin-intermediate and resistant

3. Helicobacter pylori, clarithromycin-resistant

4. Campylobacter spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant

5. Salmonellae, fluoroquinolone-resistant

6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, cephalosporin-resistant, fluoroquinolone-resistant

Priority 3: MEDIUM

1. Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin-non-susceptible

2. Haemophilus influenzae, ampicillin-resistant

3. Shigella spp., fluoroquinolone-resistant

Inorganic Pharmacy / Hybridization
« on: March 21, 2019, 04:10:28 PM »

Pharmacy / Several foods... essential for anemia
« on: January 21, 2019, 03:04:53 PM »
Several foods essential for anemia


If we need an easy way to up iron intake then we should replace the unhealthy white flour with oat flour instead. In every cup, we’ll get more than 9 milligrams of iron, about half of what’s recommended for most pre-menopausal women in a day.


When we think of iron-rich foods, leafy greens and meat may come to mind first, but the trusty potato is actually one of the better ways to up our intake. In just a 3.5-ounce potato with skin, we can enjoy 7 milligrams of iron.


Cornmeal is an unexpectedly effective means of increasing iron intake. Just a cup of cornmeal packs nearly 11 milligrams of iron, making it an easy way to fight off anemia and reduce fatigue.


Red meat is known for its high iron content, and it’s true that beef is one of the best meats out there to help us fight back against anemia.


Garlic is a great way to up our iron intake, with 1.7 milligrams of the stuff per 3.5 ounces, and also happens to be a great way to improve our overall health.


A single cup of grapes packs more than 2 milligrams of iron, and red grapes are a great source of inflammation-reducing resveratrol. Grapes are also a great snack.


Olives are more than just the garnish on a salad. If we just 4 small olives and we’ll add 3.3 milligrams of iron to our daily total.


When we take chicken, we’ll get nearly a third of our recommended daily iron intake in just a 3.5-ounce portion.


Turkey is a healthy protein pack nearly a milligram of iron per ounce.


Despite of low calories, spinach is incredibly nutrient dense, packing almost 6 milligrams of iron per cup, as well as plenty of vitamin c and healthy fiber.


Broccoli is also low in calories, but a single cup of the stuff packs 20 percent of our daily vitamin a, loads of vitamin c, b vitamins, and nearly 5 milligrams of iron.


Peas are the source of high protein, fiber, and nutrient content. Adding just a cup of peas to our menu will infuse it with 4.7 milligrams of iron, in addition to nearly a day’s worth of vitamin c and 8 grams of protein.


Fish like tuna, salmon contain one of the highest omega-3 counts, making it a perfect food for anyone fighting inflammation or concerned about their heart disease risk. It also happens to pack 4.7 milligrams of iron per 8-ounce serving.

Brown rice

Not only is brown rice full of fiber and healthy protein, it’s also a great source of iron, with 4.5 milligrams per cup. It also happens to pack nearly half of our daily magnesium recommendation.


A single cup of these protein-rich, weight loss friendly beans will infuse our diet with 4.3 milligrams of energizing iron.

Pharmacy / Health benefits of black grapes
« on: January 15, 2019, 03:08:33 PM »
Black grapes

Black grapes, which are known for their velvety colour and sweet flavour, come packed with nutrients and antioxidants. Grapes are actually 'berries' that have a semi-solid, translucent flesh inside them; they may or may not have seeds. The most popular use of grapes, all over the world, is in making wines. However, the juicy fruit has also added a number of uses to its crowning glory. Apart from being relished as a fruit or in salads, black grapes can also be cooked in a variety of ways to make sauces, jams, compotes, desserts and more. In addition, it has some incredible benefits for the skin, hair and overall health.

1. Protects the Heart

Resveratrol, a compound found in grapes, is known to ease the flow of blood in the blood vessels, thus improving blood circulation in the body. The phytochemicals present in them help in reducing damage of the heart muscles and also aid in regulating cholesterol levels in the body, thereby preventing the risk of heart attacks and other cardio vascular diseases.

2. Improves Vision

Black grapes contain Lutein and Zeaxanthin, which are carotenoids, known to help in maintaining good eyesight.

3. Fights Risk of Cancer

Black grapes exhibit anti-mutagenic and antioxidant properties that are very effective in combating all kinds of cancer, including breast cancer. The compound resveratrol is a rich source of anti-oxidants and certain elements that are capable of destroying the energy source of cancerous cells.

4. Boosts Brain Function

Grapes work as a brain protecting agent; it improves memory and concentration and enhances the health of your brain. Due to riboflavin presence, it is beneficial for people suffering from migraines. Resveratrol, found in grapes can reduce the levels of amyloidal-beta peptides in Alzheimer's disease patients.

5. Prevents the Risk of Diabetes

Black grapes are also effective in the prevention of diabetes. They are known to improve the regulation of insulin and increase insulin sensitivity. Pterostilbene is a compound present in grapes that helps to lower the sugar levels in the blood. Black grapes have low glycemic index (GI) value ranging from around 43 to 53, which promote better blood sugar balance.

6. Promotes Healthy Hair

The black grape seed oil contains antioxidants and vitamin E that help in better blood circulation in the scalp, reversing excessive hair loss, split ends and premature grey hair. Grape oil is also known to improve overall hair growth.

7. Immunity Booster

Black grapes are rich in vitamin C, K and A along with flavonoids and minerals, and as such are said to help in boosting one's immunity. They are also rich in sugar and organic acids that help in relieving constipation, indigestion and treating kidney problems.

8. Healthy Skin

The antioxidants present in black grapes such as proanthocyanidins and resveratrol provides protection against harmful ultraviolet rays. They also help in the reduction of dark spots and wrinkles. The Vitamin C content of these grapes ensures rejuvenation of skin cells while Vitamin E present in them secures the moisture in the skin. Black grapes are known to increase the elasticity of the skin and improve blood circulation, thus leading to a healthy, glowing skin.

Clinical Pathology / Dementia
« on: January 14, 2019, 12:33:12 PM »

Dementia is not a specific disease. It's an overall term that describes a group of symptoms associated with a decline in memory or other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. Vascular dementia, which occurs after a stroke, is the second most common dementia type. But there are many other conditions that can cause symptoms of dementia, including some that are reversible, such as thyroid problems and vitamin deficiencies.

Symptoms of dementia:

People with dementia may have problems with short-term memory, keeping track of a purse or wallet, paying bills, planning and preparing meals, remembering appointments or traveling out of the neighborhood. Many dementias are progressive, meaning symptoms start out slowly and gradually get worse

Causes of dementia:

Dementia is caused by damage to brain cells. This damage interferes with the ability of brain cells to communicate with each other. When brain cells cannot communicate normally, thinking, behavior and feelings can be affected.
The brain has many distinct regions, each of which is responsible for different functions (for example, memory, judgment and movement). When cells in a particular region are damaged, that region cannot carry out its functions normally.
Different types of dementia are associated with particular types of brain cell damage in particular regions of the brain. For example, in Alzheimer's disease, high levels of certain proteins inside and outside brain cells make it hard for brain cells to stay healthy and to communicate with each other. The brain region called the hippocampus is the center of learning and memory in the brain, and the brain cells in this region are often the first to be damaged. That's why memory loss is often one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's.
Some other causes of dementia:
•   Depression
•   Medication side effects
•   Excess use of alcohol
•   Thyroid problems
•   Vitamin deficiencies

Diagnosis of dementia:

There is no one test to determine if someone has dementia. Doctors diagnose Alzheimer's and other types of dementia based on a careful medical history, a physical examination, laboratory tests, and the characteristic changes in thinking, day-to-day function and behavior associated with each type.

Treatment of dementia:

Treatment of dementia depends on its cause. In the case of most progressive dementias, including Alzheimer's disease, there is no cure and no treatment that slows or stops its progression. But there are drug treatments that may temporarily improve symptoms. The same medications used to treat Alzheimer's are among the drugs sometimes prescribed to help with symptoms of other types of dementias. Non-drug therapies can also alleviate some symptoms of dementia.

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