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Messages - Yousuf.Chy

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BCS Cadre / Re: General Knowledge Regarding Important Organizations
« on: June 22, 2013, 01:42:08 PM »

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
Establishment:         December 8, 1985
Headquarters:       Kathmandu, Nepal
Membership:            8 members
Chairman:             Mohammed Waheed Hassan Manik     
Secretary General:   Ahmed Saleem


Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Secretary General     Le Luong Minh (Vietnam)
Established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand,
The motto of ASEAN is "One Vision, One Identity, One Community".
Membership: 10 states, 2 observers

BCS Cadre / Re: General Knowledge Regarding Important Organizations
« on: June 22, 2013, 01:26:23 PM »
World Bank

World Bank is the result of 1944 Bretton Woods Conference.
President     Jim Yong Kim
Headquarter     Washington, D.C., U.S

The World Bank comprises two following institutions:

1. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

Membership 188 countries
Purpose: Provide assistance in development, poverty reduction

2. International Development Association (IDA)

Membership 172 countries
Purpose: Provide assistance in development, poverty reduction

MBA Discussion Forum / Happy Planet Index
« on: June 21, 2013, 11:36:06 AM »
The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006. The index is weighted to give progressively higher scores to nations with lower ecological footprints.

The index is designed to challenge well-established indices of countries’ development, such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI), which are seen as not taking sustainability into account. In particular, GDP is seen as inappropriate, as the usual ultimate aim of most people is not to be rich, but to be happy and healthy.Furthermore, it is believed that the notion of sustainable development requires a measure of the environmental costs of pursuing those goals.

Source: Wikipedia

BCS Cadre / Re: General Knowledge Regarding Important Organizations
« on: June 21, 2013, 10:37:42 AM »
Rotary International

Slogan             Service above Self
Formation      1905
Founder             Paul P. Harris
Headquarters  Evanston, Illinois, United States
President      Ron D. Burton (2013–2014)
Members      1.22 million

Amnesty International

Slogan             It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.
Formation      July 1961
Founder             Peter Benenson
Category     Non-profit
Services      Protecting human rights
Headquarters  General secretariat in London
Secretary General     Salil Shetty
Members      More than 3.1 million

BCS Cadre / Re: Abbreviations and Acronyms
« on: June 21, 2013, 10:21:36 AM »
A&P   Atlantic and Pacific
ASE   Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BIMSTEC   Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation
EU           European Union
HR           human rights
IATA   International Air Transport Association
IDA           International Disaster Assistance
IFBDO   International Federation of Blood Donor Organizations
ISL           International Sign Language
LON   League of Nations
OECD   Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
WWF   World Wildlife Fund

BCS Cadre / General Knowledge Regarding Important Organizations
« on: June 20, 2013, 07:05:36 PM »

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Formation:    4 April 1949
Founder:        Harry S. Truman
Headquarters:    Brussels, Belgium
Secretary General:    Anders Fogh Rasmussen
Category:   Military alliance

BCS Cadre / Abbreviations and Acronyms
« on: June 20, 2013, 06:47:49 PM »
UNDP            United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO            United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNFPA              United Nations Population Fund
UN-Habitat    United Nations Human Settlements Programme
UNHCR             Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees     
UNICEF            United Nations Children’s Fund
UNIDIR            United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
UNIDO            United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNAIDS            Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
UNV             United Nations Volunteers programme

Common Forum / Re: Most Beautiful Waterfalls in The World
« on: June 19, 2013, 06:15:38 PM »

Place / Caspian: Lake or sea?
« on: June 19, 2013, 05:56:12 PM »
Is the Caspian a sea or a lake? Maybe a rather metaphysical question for the business section but the answer could have profound results for the central Asian energy industry, which holds perhaps the largest amount of under-exploited oil and gas reserves on earth.

A conference in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan, last week failed to agree on the answer. The presidents of the five states that share the Caspian's shores - the host along with Russia, Iran, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan - just could not decide.
ou can understand their dilemma. It has been called a sea since time immemorial, mainly because of its sheer size. The Caspian is far bigger than many other stretches of water that are indisputably called "seas", such as the North Sea or the Baltic Sea.

If you've had the pleasure of swimming in it, as I have, it certainly feels like a sea. It is salty and has big waves. Stretches of the Absheron peninsula, on which Baku stands, are developed as areas you could only call seaside resorts.

On the other hand, the Caspian also has the defining characteristics of a lake: it is land-locked and has no outflowing rivers. It is the largest enclosed body of water on the planet. In the north, where the mighty river Volga washes into it, it is virtually fresh water (salinity increases the further south you go).

The Caspian has one other feature that makes it very unusual indeed. Underneath it, or within easy reach of its shores, are locked some 79 billion barrels of oil and 7 trillion cubic metres of natural gas. Now you begin to understand why the five countries with Caspian shorelines are so interested in its status.

If they had decided the Caspian was lake, they would have had to carve up its resources and the revenue they produce equally, each getting one fifth of its bounty. Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan are especially concerned this should not happen: they have substantially more than that in the current de facto arrangement.

If the presidents had decided it was a sea, they could each have laid claim to areas according to the length of their coastlines. In particular, this would not have suited Iran: with only 13 per cent of the total Caspian shoreline, and the least promising so far in terms of proven hydrocarbon resources, it would have lost out to its neighbours with longer coastlines.

Source: Article by, Frank Kane

Business & Entrepreneurship / World's weirdest taxes
« on: June 19, 2013, 11:01:26 AM »
1. Tax on smartphones and laptops in France

French President Francois Hollande is considering a tax on smartphones, laptops and tablets to finance the country's celebrated exception culturelle, or "cultural exception," a precious French principle enshrined in law.

The exception essentially requires that anything considered to be of cultural value to French society must be protected from erratic market forces and the pernicious spread of non-French cultural items — namely, American and other English-language influences.

2. Tax on flavored vodka in the United States

Americans, President Barack Obama wants to put a levy on your Stoli Raz.

According to ABC News, distilled spirits currently get a (somewhat arbitrary?) tax break if they include flavors. But if Obama's budget proposal goes through, it will mark the end of the gravy train for fruity libations.

In the US, distilled spirits are taxed at $13.50 per "proof-gallon," the equivalent of a gallon of 100-proof liquor. But if distillers add flavorings, they can roll back some of that tax: specifically, up to 2.5 percent of the alcohol in those flavoring mixtures is exempt from the spirits tax.

While this rollback may not sound like much, the US Treasury says the existing tax break gives an unfair advantage to flavored liquors, particularly foreign products whose flavor quotients aren't as restricted as in the US.

This tax would be great for Jack Daniels — but not awesome for lovers of Absolut Ruby Red.


3. Tax on beards in Russia

This is an oldie but a goodie, in our books at least.

The Russian beard tax is a relic from the age of Peter the Great. In the late 1600s, clean-cut Pete set out to modernize Russia by getting everyone to shave their facial hair — we hope that there was a Movember exception?

But we digress.

Anyone who wanted to keep a beard was taxed by having to buy a token, which bore the phrase, "The beard is a superfluous burden."

Thankfully, this tax is no longer written law, but it merits a mention for its enduring absurdity — especially from a nation that has a climate comparable to the inside of a Good Humor truck.


4. Tax on cow flatulence in the EU

Environmentalists are trying to save the planet, one gassy cow at a time.

A key producer of methane, cow flatulence is a leading cause of global warming — accounting for approximately 18 percent of the world's greenhouse gasses. Cows' slow digestion, combined with their gas-producing diet of greens, causes excessive methane build-up around the globe. The issue is compounded by slaughterhouses, which store thousands of cows in one location, creating large clouds of methane.

As a result, Ireland, Denmark and other EU nations have started taxing cattle "byproducts" at varying rates. In Ireland, the tax is set to be $18 per cow, while Danish farmers will have to pay at a rate $110 per head.


5. Tax on beer in Israel

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu swore, under the shadow of significant belt-tightening in April, to double the country's tax on beer, from about 60 cents to $1.20 a bottle.

Pre-tax, the average price of beer in Israel was already pretty steep — ranging from a bar price of about $5 for a 12-ounce bottle of the most common local lagers, Goldstar and Maccabee, to about $8 for a fine microbrew or imported specialty.

The new tax proposal has, unsurprisingly, been panned by barkeeps and beer drinkers alike.

6. Tax on toy-less cereal in Canada

This one gets an honorable mention, though technically it is a tax exemption rather than a straight-up tax.

Yes, apparently in Canada, makers of children’s breakfast cereal are granted tax-exempt status if their cereals contain free toys.

Sounds cool, right? Here's the kicker — this exemption is limited to toys that are not “beer, liquor, or wine.” So don't expect a nip of Crown Royal in your Lucky Charms.

Normal, un-fun cereal, as well as the hypothetical cereal packed with alcoholic "toys" (Cap'n Krunk?), get taxed normally in Canada.


Common Forum / Re: Funny & Interesting Facts
« on: June 19, 2013, 10:56:45 AM »
16. The cigarette lighter was invented before the match.

17. Thirty-five percent of the people who use personal ads for dating are already married.

18. A duck's quack doesn't echo, and no one knows why.

19. 23% of all photocopier faults worldwide are caused by people sitting on them and photocopying their butts.

20. In the course of an average lifetime you will, while sleeping, eat 70 assorted insects and 10 spiders.

21. Most lipstick contains fish scales.

22. Like fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different.

23. Over 75% of people who read this will try to lick their elbow.

24. A crocodile can't move its tongue and cannot chew. Its digestive juices are so strong that it can digest a steel nail.

25. Money notes are not made from paper, they are made mostly from a special blend of cotton and linen. In 1932, when a shortage of cash  occurred in Tenino, Washington, USA, notes were made out of wood for a brief period.

Common Forum / Funny & Interesting Facts
« on: June 19, 2013, 10:50:45 AM »
Please note that some of the 'facts' below have been proven false myths. An example is the duck's echo which does not echo (but proved that it does).

1.   It is impossible to lick your elbow (busted)
2.   A crocodile can't stick it's tongue out.
3.   A shrimp's heart is in it's head.
4.   People say "Bless you" when you sneeze because when you sneeze,your heart stops for a mili-second.
5.   In a study of 200,000 ostriches over a period of 80 years, no one reported a single case where an  ostrich buried its head in the sand.
6.   It is physically impossible for pigs to look up into the sky.
7.   A pregnant goldfish is called a twit. (busted?)
8.   More than 50% of the people in the world have never made or received a telephone call.
9.   Rats and horses can't vomit.
10.   If you sneeze too hard, you can fracture a rib.
11.   If you try to suppress a sneeze, you can rupture a blood vessel in your head or neck and die.
12.   If you keep your eyes open by force when you sneeze, you might pop an eyeball out.
13.   Rats multiply so quickly that in 18 months, two rats could have over a million descendants.
14.   Wearing headphones for just an hour will increase the bacteria in your ear by 700 times.
15.   In every episode of Seinfeld there is a Superman somewhere.


Common Forum / Re: SDGs & MDGs
« on: June 19, 2013, 10:33:47 AM »
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. All 189 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve these goals by the year 2015. The goals are:

1.   Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger,
2.   Achieving universal primary education,
3.   Promoting gender equality and empowering women,
4.   Reducing child mortality rates,
5.   Improving maternal health,
6.   Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases,
7.   Ensuring environmental sustainability, and
8.   Developing a global partnership for development.

Each of the goals has specific stated targets and dates for achieving those targets. To accelerate progress, the G8 Finance Ministers agreed in June 2005 to provide enough funds to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the African Development Bank (AfDB) to cancel an additional $40 to $55 billion in debt owed by members of the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) to allow impoverished countries to re channel the resources saved from the forgiven debt to social programs for improving health and education and for alleviating poverty.
Debate has surrounded adoption of the MDGs, focusing on lack of analysis and justification behind the chosen objectives, the difficulty or lack of measurements for some of the goals, and uneven progress towards reaching the goals, among other criticisms. Although developed countries' aid for achieving the MDGs has been rising over recent years, more than half the aid is towards debt relief owed by poor countries, with much of the remaining aid money going towards natural disaster relief and military aid which do not further development.

Progress towards reaching the goals has been uneven. Some countries have achieved many of the goals, while others are not on track to realize any. A UN conference in September 2010 reviewed progress to date and concluded with the adoption of a global action plan to achieve the eight anti-poverty goals by their 2015 target date. There were also new commitments on women's and children's health, and new initiatives in the worldwide battle against poverty, hunger, and disease.

Government organizations assist in achieving those goals, among them are the United Nations Millennium Campaign, the Millennium Promise Alliance, Inc., the Global Poverty Project, the Micah Challenge, The Youth in Action EU Programme, "Cartoons in Action" video project, and the 8 Visions of Hope global art project.


Common Forum / SDGs & MDGs
« on: June 19, 2013, 10:32:51 AM »
Sustainable Development Goals in short SDGs is another development objective like Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). After the year 2015 MDGs will replace with SDGs. MDGs aim to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, reducing child mortality rates etc. 

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) refer to an agreement of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012 (Rio+20), to develop a set of future international development goals.


The current development agenda is centered on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that were officially established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations (UN) in 2000. The MDGs encapsulate eight globally agreed goals in the areas of poverty alleviation, education, gender equality and empowerment of women, child and maternal health, environmental sustainability, reducing HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases, and building a global partnership for development.

As the target date of the MDGs, 2015, is approaching, a debate on the framework of international development beyond 2015 has started. In this vein, 192 UN member states agreed at the Rio+20 summit to start a process of designing sustainable development goals, which are “action-oriented, concise and easy to communicate, limited in number, inspirational, global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities”.
The Rio+20 outcome document, “The Future We Want”, also calls for the goals to be integrated into the UN’s post-2015 Development Agenda.
Current process

Since Rio+20 did not elaborate specific goals, a 30-member Open Working Group (OWG) was established on 22 January 2013 by the decision of the UN General Assembly. The OWG is tasked with preparing a proposal on the SDGs for consideration during the 68th session of the General Assembly, September 2013 – September 2014.

The OWG uses a constituency-based system of representation, which means that most of the seats in the working group are shared by several countries.

The Rio+20 outcome document states that, “at the outset, the OWG will decide on its methods of work, including developing modalities to ensure the full involvement of relevant stakeholders and expertise from civil society, the scientific community and the United Nations system in its work, in order to provide a diversity of perspectives and experience”.


Food / World's best foods.
« on: June 10, 2013, 04:09:07 PM »
1. Rendang, Indonesia

Beef is slowly simmered with coconut milk and a mixture of lemongrass, galangal, garlic, turmeric, ginger and chilies, then left to stew for a few hours to create this dish of tender, flavorful bovine goodness.

The Indonesian dish is often served at ceremonial occasions and to honored guests.

2. Nasi goreng, Indonesia

The wonder of combining rice with egg, chicken and prawns strikes again. The second fried rice to make the list.

3. Sushi, Japan

When Japan wants to build something right, it builds it really right. Brand giants such as Toyota, Nintendo, Sony, Nikon and Yamaha may have been created by people fueled by nothing more complicated than raw fish and rice, but it’s how the fish and rice is put together that makes this a global first-date favorite.

This perfect marriage between raw fish and rice has easily kept sushi in the top five. And like one reader, Nymayor, wrote, "Now to be fair, DELICIOUS can be simple."

4. Tom yam goong, Thailand

This Thai masterpiece teems with shrimp, mushrooms, tomatoes, lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaves. Usually loaded with coconut milk and cream, the hearty soup unifies a host of favorite Thai tastes: sour, salty, spicy and sweet. Best of all is the price: cheap.

5. Pad thai, Thailand

Here's a food Thai people can't live without. Pad Thai is packed with nutrients stirred into one glorious fried-noodle dish. The secret's in the sauce -- tamarind paste. If anyone ever creates a Hall of Food Fame, that should be first on the list.

There are also 45 other dishes.


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