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Topics - Farhana Israt Jahan

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Medicinal Chemistry / Accidental discovery of some drugs
« on: February 05, 2020, 01:45:29 PM »
Accidental discovery also known as 'Serendipity', has played a pivotal role in the discovery of many drugs used today. Many important discoveries in medicinal chemistry are due to serendipity. Some Examples are given below:

Penicillin: It is the first discovered antibiotics. By 1927, Fleming was investigating the properties of staphylococci. On 3 September 1928, Fleming returned to his laboratory having spent August on holiday with his family. Before leaving, he had stacked all his cultures of staphylococci on a bench in a corner of his laboratory. On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus, and that the colonies of staphylococci that had immediately surrounded it had been destroyed, whereas other colonies farther away were normal. Fleming showed the contaminated culture to his former assistant Merlin Price, who reminded him, "That's how you discovered lysozyme. Fleming grew the mould in a pure culture and found that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. He identified the mould as being from the Penicillium genus, and, after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March 1929.

Vaccine of Chicken Pox: Serendipitous connection of dots led to the discovery that vaccination is a general method for preventing infectious diseases.  It occurred during Pasteur’s struggle to establish the germ theory of disease, specifically in the case of chicken cholera.  To demonstrate that chicken cholera was caused by germs and not some toxins in the blood, it was important to isolate germs from toxins, which was very difficult in those early days.  To purify germs, Pasteur extracted them from diseased chickens, grew them in cultures outside the body, and injected the culture into healthy chickens, which would become sick and a new source of germs, hopefully less contaminated with toxins.  An autumn day in 1879, he injected a culture into some chickens and found them to be hardly affected.  Later, because of a mix up or shortage of supply, the “used” chickens were recycled, together with some new chickens, in experiments to test a fresh virulent culture.  This time the new chickens all died but the lucky recycled chickens remained unscathed.  A colleague recalled that when Pasteur heard of this surprising development, he “remained silent for a minute, then exclaimed as if he had seen a vision: ‘Don’t you see that these animals have been vaccinated!

Sildenafil: Researchers at Pfizer had worked for years on sildenafil, an inhibitor of the PDE5 enzyme, which they hoped would be effective in relaxing coronary arteries and relieving chest pain.  Their hope was dashed by 1992.  Only one out of ten candidates entering clinical trials successfully passes through the gauntlet and reaches consumers, but statistics is little consolation for those who see their projects falling on the heap of nine.  Gloomily, the researchers terminated the trial and asked participants to return the unused drug.  Many men refused, clutching to the drug as if it was gold.  Idiosyncrasies being present in all clinical tests, researchers gave the objection little thought until they heard rumors about the drug’s side effects on sex life and, more important, read a paper on the role of PDE5 in the chemical pathway of erection.  Gloom evaporated in the excitement that sildenafil may be a blockbuster after all.  This time, their expectation was confirmed by new clinical tests on impotent men.  They stumbled on an effective drug for erectile dysfunction Pfizer would market as Viagra.

Medicinal Chemistry / ORPHAN DRUG and ORPHAN DISEASE
« on: February 05, 2020, 01:36:34 PM »
An orphan drug is a pharmaceutical agent that has been developed specially to treat a rare medical condition; the condition itself being referred to as an orphan disease. Orphan disease is a disease that affects a small percentage of the population.

Examples of orphan disease & drugs:
Wilson’s disease: Penicillamine was developed to treat wilson’s disease, a rare hereditary disease that can lead to a fatal accumulation of copper in the body. The drug was later found to be effective in treating arthritis.
Cystic fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder affecting most critically the lungs & also the pancreas, liver & intestine. In the 1980s, cystic fibrosis patients are rarely found. Drugs like pulmozyme & tobramycin both developed that significantly improve their quality of life.

Medicinal Chemistry / What is Smart drug and Sentry drug?
« on: February 05, 2020, 01:34:57 PM »
Sentry drug is also called Arbor drug. It was founded by Eugene Applebaum and Bruno Manni in 1974.
A sentry drug is a drug which is administered alongside another drug to enhance the latter's activity. The role of sentry drug is to guard or assist the principal drug. Many sentry drugs protect their partner drug by inhibiting an enzyme which metabolizes the latter (e.g. carbidopa and levodopa).
Sentry drugs have also been used to localize the site of action of local anaesthetics and to increase the absorption of drugs from the GIT (e.g. adrenaline & procaine), adrenaline constricts the blood vessels in the surrounding area of the injection and so prevents procaine being rapidly removed from the area by the blood supply.

Smart drugs are drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, functional foods or any chemical ingested that may improve mental function. Some of these drug improve overall IQ while others are more focused e.g. on memory boosting or attention span or creativity. These substances are also called neuro enhancers, cognitive enhancers, intelligence enhancers or "nootropics."
"Nootropic" comes from Greek - "noos" means mind and "tropos" means changed, toward, turn.

Smart drugs are thought to work by altering the availability of the brains supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitter, enzymes & hormones) by increasing blood flow to the brain (flooding) thus improving brain’s oxygen supply or by stimulating nerve growth.

Examples of Smart Drugs
Traditional herbs: Vitamin B & D, omega-3, isoflavones
Prescription drugs: Methylphenidate and Dextroamphetamine: Stimulants used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Nutrients: Choline and derivatives: precursor to acetylcholine. eggs, meat and milk are good sources of choline.
Recreational agents: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), amphetamine, tobacco.

Cold / Flu / What is adenoiditis & its treatment?
« on: March 31, 2019, 01:32:39 PM »
What is adenoiditis?:
Everyone gets a sore throat from time to time, and sometimes the tonsils in your mouth can become infected. However, tonsils are not the only vulnerable glands in your mouth. Adenoids, located higher up in the mouth -- behind the nose and roof of the mouth -- can also get infected. Enlarged and inflamed adenoids -- called adenoiditis -- can make breathing difficult and lead to recurring respiratory infections.

What Are Adenoids?
Adenoids are a mass of tissue that, along with our tonsils, help keep us healthy by trapping harmful germs that pass through the nose or mouth. Adenoids also produce antibodies to help body fight infections.
Even though adenoids help filter out germs from our body, sometimes they can get overwhelmed by bacteria and become infected. When this happens they also get inflamed and swollen. This condition is called adenoiditis. It is most commonly seen in children, but sometimes affect adults.
Child's doctor may also recommend the tonsils be removed at the same time since adenoiditis and tonsillitis often go hand in hand. Surgery to remove the tonsils is called a tonsillectomy.

Source: WebMd

What Are the Symptoms of Adenoiditis?
Symptoms of adenoiditis can vary depending on what is causing the infection, but may include:

sore throat
stuffy nose
swollen glands in the neck
ear pain and other ear problems

How Is Adenoiditis Treated?
Adenoiditis is treated with antibiotics. However, if the child has frequent infections, including ear and sinus infections, or antibiotics do not help, or if child has ongoing breathing problems, surgery may be needed to remove the adenoids. This procedure is called an adenoidectomy.
Child's doctor may also recommend the tonsils be removed at the same time since adenoiditis and tonsillitis often go hand in hand. Surgery to remove the tonsils is called a tonsillectomy.


Food / Amazing Health Benefits of Pineapples
« on: March 27, 2019, 05:06:13 PM »
Nutritional Facts of Pineapple
If you go to the store and purchase a can of pineapples, you will find that they contain important nutrients that our body needs on a daily basis. We might get these nutrients from other food items, but adding pineapples to your diet is an extra bonus. Since they contain vitamin C and manganese, they are excellent at healing sore gums and revitalizing our immune system. They are also a source of vitamin B1, vitamin B6 as well as folate. All of these help maintain the integrity of your body.

10 Amazing Health Benefits of Pineapples:

1. Great Source of Healthy Carbs

Pineapples contain three kinds of carbohydrates that help the body. They are called glucose, sucrose and fructose. They are necessary for chemical reactions in the body and a single cup of pineapples has around 21.7 grams of carbohydrates. This means that even if all you consume are pineapples, you will still get the necessary carbohydrates you need to survive.

2. Improves Immunity
Since pineapples contain bromelain, they are a key defender against any external viruses affecting your body. Imagine not getting sick anymore due to an increase intake of pineapples on a daily basis. You can enjoy them in a fresh tropical cocktail and not even notice that behind the great taste, the fruit is actually benefiting your body. Improved immunity also means lesser damage to organs due to inflammatory diseases as they will never get the chance to affect you in the first place.

3. Lowers Risk of Cancer
Bromelain is an active anti-inflammatory agent that helps prevent the spread of cancerous cells across the body. Research states that an increased intake of bright yellow foods can help reduce the risk of cancer.

4. It May Help Heal Wounds
Certain diseases can prevent the body from healing itself properly. A weak body cannot sustain its cellular growth hence the person’s life could be in danger. The high quantity of bromelain in pineapples has shown to increase the healing ability in human beings. The research carried out in Saarland University produced such amazing results that later on the findings were used to manufacture and promote pineapple lotions.

5. Improves Gut Health
Your gut is the primary indicator of your health. An efficient and healthy gut will show its effects on a person’s face while a weak digestion can lead to several gastrointestinal problems. People who eat pineapples on a regular basis can steer clear of bloating and other gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and whatnot.

6. Strengthens Bones
Along with bromelain, pineapples also contain manganese that is important for bone regeneration as well as bone growth and help. Pineapples have an ample amount of manganese present making them the perfect substitute for meat or milk. A German study therefore states that by eating one cup of pineapples, you are able to consume 65% of your daily mineral intake.

7. Improves Eye Health
Do you have weak eyesight? Well, if you are tired of wearing glasses and want to enhance your eye health, then the best thing you can do is eat pineapples.  As per recent research, it has been successfully proven that eating pineapples can help heal your eyesight. Generally, people are subject to weak eyesight as they grow past their forties, but eating pineapples on a daily basis can slow down macular degeneration.

8. Promotes Tissue and Cellular Health of Skin
The fruit has an ever increasing list of benefits. One of the major items on that list is how pineapples help keep your skin intact and helps prevent any skin problems through cellular degeneration. People who consume one pineapple a day are known to have increased collagen synthesis, which is an integral part of your skin health. Other than that, pineapples also contain vitamin C, which in most cases is one of the most overlooked skin rejuvenator. Eating pineapples therefore can maintain tissue and cellular health of your body.

9. Alleviates Common Cold
Changing seasons brings with it a plethora of diseases. A lot of people have to face the effects of the common cold including a runny nose as well as a weak immune system. Bromelain has been recorded to have been instrumental in reducing mucus production and it also increases the effectiveness of the immune system. Overall, eating pineapples can help defend a person against the common cold.

10. Strengthens Gums
Pineapples also consist of astringent, which helps prevent bacteria from affecting your gums. We are still susceptible to bacterial infection in our gums regardless if we brush our teeth or not. In that situation, a cup of pineapples can help reduce the risk of you having to suffer for weeks, not to mention the constant pain while you face while trying to chew something. Pineapples really are nature’s greatest gift to us as they have all the properties needed to help defend us against a world full of diseases, infections and most of all, cancer.

Fast Food / Dangerous diseases that are caused by fast foods
« on: March 27, 2019, 12:49:49 PM »
Four dangerous diseases that are caused by fast foods:

Disease #1: Heart Disease
The more fast food you eat, the more chances of obesity and this in turn, can increase the risk of heart disease as one tends to have lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol.

Disease #2: Liver Damage
Since the distribution of the fast food meal that you eat doesn’t get distributed in the body evenly, the fat tends to accumulate in the liver and can cause permanent damage, inflammation and even scarring.

Disease #3: Stroke
Since obesity causes blockages in the arteries, this can separately result in high “bad” cholesterol levels leading to high blood pressure levels as well. Due to these blockages, the blood that travels to the brain is blocked (as the arteries carry them) and this results in a stroke.

Disease #4: Diabetes (Type 2)
This is again an obesity-related disease which occurs when your pancreas is unable to supply a sufficient amount of insulin to convert sugars to energy. This unconverted sugar floats around in the blood and can raise the risk of one getting Type 2 Diabetes.

« on: March 27, 2019, 12:44:59 PM »

1. Pesticides
•   Used to raise products, these poisons often leave behind residues. They've been linked to everything from cancer to birth defects.
•   Solution: Organic foods are required to be synthetic pesticide-free.

2. BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) & BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene)
•   These common processed food preservatives have been declared carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. They’re also accused of disrupting hormones and impacting male fertility.
•   Solution: Check ingredient lists to avoid.

3. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH/rBST)
•   Given to cows to increase milk production, rGBH produces elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in dairy products. IGF-1 is a significant factor in breast, prostate and colon cancers.
•   Solution: Choose organic or rBGH-free dairy products.

4. Sodium Aluminum Sulphate and Potassium Aluminum Sulphate
•   Used in processed cheese products, baked goods, and microwave popcorn, among other packaged goods, these ingredients are linked to adverse reproductive, neurological & behavioral effects.
•   Solution: Read ingredient lists to avoid this toxin.

5. Bisphenol-A (BPA)
•   Found in food and beverage can linings, this hormone-mimicker is suspected of promoting breast and prostate cancer, reproductive and behavioral problems, obesity, and diabetes.
•   Solution: Avoid canned foods. Choose fresh, dried, or frozen instead.

6. Sodium Nitrite/Nitrate
•   Used in deli foods like processed meats, these preservatives are linked to many types of cancer. Beware of “uncured” and “no added nitrites/nitrates” products. They often use celery juice instead, which is high in nitrates.
•   Solution: Read ingredient lists to avoid this toxin.

7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
•   These carcinogens are created when fat is burned—by flames or very high heat.
•   Solution: Pre-cook grillables and finish over low flame.

8. Heterocyclic Amines
•   These carcinogens form when natural substances found in meats and fish react together in high temperatures like those found during grilling.
•   Solution: Pre-cook grillables and finish over low flame.

9. Acrylamide
•   Formed by cooking or frying starchy foods like potatoes and grains at high temperatures, acrylamide is a carcinogen.
•   Solution: Avoid fried foods, snack chips, crackers, toasted cereals, cookies, and bread crusts.

10. Brominated Vegetable Oil
•   Used in fruit-flavored drinks and sodas, animal studies found high doses of this toxin led to reproductive and behavioral problems.
•   Solution: Check ingredients listings.

11. Artificial Food Coloring/Dyes 
•   These ubiquitous chemicals have been linked to neurological disorders like ADHD.
•   Solution: Read ingredient lists to avoid.

12. Dioxins
•   These highly toxic pollutants accumulate in fatty foods and are linked to cancer, liver damage, birth defects, and endocrine and immune disruption.
•   Solution: Choose low- or no-fat foods.

Medicinal Chemistry / Importance of Medicinal chemistry
« on: March 27, 2019, 10:51:41 AM »
Importance of Medicinal chemistry

Medicinal chemistry is the study of how novel drugs can be designed & developed. This process is helped immeasurably by details understanding of the structure and function of the molecule targets that are present in the body.
The major drugs targets are normally large molecule (macromolecule) such as proteins and nucleic acid. Knowing the structure, properties and functions of this macromolecule is crucial if we are to design new drugs.

1.   Medicinal chemistry is the application of chemical study processes to the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

2.   It is important to know  what function different macromolecule have in the  body , whether  targeting them is  likely  to have  a beneficial  effect in  treating  a particular disease. There is no point designing a drug to inhibit a digestive enzyme if one is looking for a new analgesic.

3.   Knowledge of macromolecule structure is crucial if one is to design a drug that will bind effectively to the target. Knowing the target structure and its functional groups will allow the medicinal chemist to design to a drug that contains complementary functional groups that will bind the drug to the target.

4.   A drug must not only bind to the target, it must bind to the correct region of the target. Proteins and nucleic acids are extremely large molecules in comparison to a drug, and if the drug binds to the wrong part of the macromolecule, it may not have any effect. An appreciation of the target’s structure and function will guide the medicinal chemist in this respect.

5.   An understanding of how a macromolecule operates is crucial if one is going to design an effective drug that will interfere with that process. for example , understanding the mechanism of how enzyme  catalyze   reactions has been extremely  important  in the design of many  important drugs  ; for example the protease inhibitor  used in HIV therapy  .

6.   Metabolism growth & maintenance of our bodily functions involves medicinal chemistry, as do the analogous changes taking place throughout the entire living world, plant & animal.

7.   Current Medicinal Chemistry is a vital journal for each and every medicinal chemist who desires to be kept knowledgeable and up-to-date with all the latest and many important developments.

8.   Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are usually procedures at the intersection of chemistry, specifically synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology as well as other biological specialties, in which they are a part of design, chemical synthesis and also development for marketplace of pharmaceutical agents (drugs).

9.   Medicinal chemistry in its most frequent guise—focusing on small organic molecules—encompasses synthetic organic chemistry and facets of natural products and computational chemistry in close combination along with chemical biology, enzymology and structural biology, together aiming at the discovery and development of new therapeutic agents.

10.   Medicinal chemistry is practically always aimed toward drug discovery and development.

11.   Medicinal chemists use hits to find molecules in which they want to synthesize and develop.

12.   Medicinal chemistry is a science on its own and yet it is the link between organic chemistry and biological sciences. Research in medicinal chemistry could be multi-dimensional. It includes the design and synthesis of recent biologically active molecules, the creation of new concepts for the appearance of uniquely acting ligands, improvement of biological activity through molecular modification, molecular modeling on bioactive molecules, physicochemical and theoretical studies investigation of molecular structure on the distribution, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and poisoning of active chemical entities (ACEs), and lots of alternative activities.

Medicinal Chemistry / Purpose of Medicinal chemistry
« on: March 27, 2019, 10:46:23 AM »
Purpose of Medicinal chemistry

1.   Understand of how chemicals and drugs work in a biological environment.

2.   Develop skills in the design, synthesis and study of new pharmaceutical molecules.

3.   To prepare new chemicals and with an acquired knowledge of the target disease and of competitive drug therapies, has an important part in framing the hypothesis for the new drug discovery.

4.   To screen for a lead compound and which screening hits need to be re-synthesized for biological evaluation, Purification and proper characterization of the new chemicals.

5.   When an in vitro ‘HIT’ is identified, we can decides what analogous compounds should be obtained or synthesized to explore the SARs(STRUCTURE–ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS) for the structural family of compounds in an effort to maximize the desired activity.

6.   Developing in vivo activity for the hit compound in an appropriate animal model. This can often be one of the most difficult steps to accomplish because several factors, such as absorbability, distribution in vivo, rate of metabolism and rate of excretion (ADME), all to solve in the design and preparation of new, analogous chemicals for testing.

7.   To maximize efficacy while minimizing side effects in an animal model.

8.   Through the knowledge of modern organic chemistry and medicinal chemistry, an understanding of the biology that relates to the target disease, an understanding of the pharmacological tests used in the project and sufficient knowledge of the factors that influence ADME characteristics of chemicals in vivo.

9.   To have an understanding of clinical medicine that pertains to the target disease; knowledge of the regulatory requirements for related drugs; a current knowledge of competitive therapies, both in the market and under development by competitors.

10.   To selects the appropriate structural series of compounds to follow and pursues the SARs to identify suitable drug candidates for advancement to safety and clinical testing.

Pharmacy / Foods that cause cancer
« on: March 27, 2019, 10:36:04 AM »
Top Ten Cancer causing foods:

Genetically Modified Foods (GMOs):
The rapidly growing industry of genetically modified crops are infiltrating our food supply at an alarming rate. More than 90% of our corn and soy are now genetically modified. This fairly new practice is the source of many debates. Experts agree that adequate testing was not done before GMO foods were added to the ingredient listing of thousands of products. In other words, no one – including the growers and manufacturers of GMO foods – knows the long-term effect they will have on human health. Look for GMO-free labels whenever possible or buy organic (which always means a product is not genetically modified).

Microwave Popcorn: From the chemically-lined bag to the actual contents, microwave popcorn is at the center of lung cancer debates around the world. Not only are the kernels and oil likely GMO (which the manufacturer does not have to disclose) unless organic, the fumes released from artificial butter flavoring contain diacetyl, which is toxic to humans. Make your own organic popcorn the old-fashioned way – it tastes better, doesn’t release toxic fumes, and is a healthier choice for you.

Canned Goods: Most cans are lined with a product called bisphenol-A (BPA), which has been shown to genetically alter the brain cells of rats. Many plastic goods, thermal paper, water lines, and many dental composites also contain BPA. Help protect your DNA by sticking to fresh or frozen vegetables that have no added ingredients for your family’s table! These are better for you and available year-round.

Grilled Red Meat: While grilled food can taste delicious, scientists have discovered that preparing meats in this way – especially processed meats like hot dogs – releases a carcinogen called heterocyclic aromatic amines. When you grill red meat to the point of well-done, it changes the chemical and molecular structure of the meat. You’re better off baking, broiling, or preparing meat in a skillet than on the grill.

Refined Sugar: The biggest cancer causing food (by far) is high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and other refined sugars. Even brown sugar is highly refined white sugar with some of the removed molasses added back in for flavor and color. Refined sugars (and foods made with them) are the source of major insulin spikes and feed the growth of cancer cells. Since the majority of the sugar supply in the U.S. is made using genetically modified (GMO) sugar beets, a healthier option is organic honey, coconut sugar, or maple sugar. Now that oncologists are using diabetes medication to fight cancer cells, there’s no doubt (finally) that those mutated cancer cells love sugar.

Salted, Pickled, and Smoked Foods: These products typically contain preservatives, such as nitrates, which are intended to prolong shelf life. The additives used in processed foods can accumulate in your body over time. Eventually, such toxins cause damage at the cellular level and lead to diseases like cancer. When smoked foods are cooked at high temperatures, the nitrates are converted to the much more dangerous nitrites. (Note: By pickled foods we don’t mean the fermented foods you make at home.)

Soda and Carbonated Beverages: Sodas have been at the center of the health debate for two decades as a major cancer causing food. Filled with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), dyes, and a host of other chemicals, they are very bad for every aspect of your health. They provide zero nutritional value and rob your body of the nutrients you get from other foods. Adding “diet” to the label means you’re also likely consuming aspartame – which is no better than rat poison to human cells.

White Flour: When flour is refined, all nutritional value is removed. Then it’s bleached with chlorine gas to make it more appealing to consumers. The glycemic index for white flour is very high – meaning it spikes your insulin levels without providing nutritional fuel. Carbohydrates are converted to sugars by your body, so excessive products that contain white flour can lead to increased insulin resistance. Simple sugars (like refined carbohydrates) are the preferred fuel source for cancer.

Farmed Fish: Commercial fish farming involves raising an incredible number of fish (such as salmon), in a crowded environment. More than 60% of the salmon consumed in the United States comes from a farming operation where they are treated with antibiotics, pesticides, and other carcinogenic chemicals to try and control the bacterial, viral, and parasitic outbreaks that result from cramming so many fish in a small space. Farmed fish also don’t have as much omega-3 as wild salmon.

Hydrogenated Oils: Vegetable oils are chemically extracted from their source, chemically treated, and more chemicals are added to change the smell and taste. They’re packed with unhealthy omega-6 fats (that Americans already consume way too much of) and have been proven to alter the structure of our cell membranes.

Clinical Pharmacy / How do clinical pharmacists care for patients?
« on: March 24, 2019, 04:58:44 PM »
Clinical pharmacists:
•    Provide a consistent process of patient care that ensures the appropriateness, effectiveness, and safety of the patient’s medication use.
•    Consult with the patient’s doctor(s) and other health care provider(s) to develop and implement a medication plan that can meet the overall goals of patient care established by the health care team.
•   Apply specialized knowledge of the scientific and clinical use of medications; including medication action, dosing, adverse effects, and drug interactions, in performing their patient care activities in collaboration with other members of the health care team.
•   Call on their clinical experience to solve health problems through the rational use of medications.
•   Rely on their professional relationships with patients to tailor their advice to best meet individual patient needs and desires.

Physical Pharmacy / Physical Pharmacy-the basic
« on: March 23, 2019, 04:21:10 PM »
What is Physical Pharmacy?
Physical Pharmacy is the study of the physical and chemical properties of drugs and their dosage forms.
Physical Pharmacy is associated with an area of pharmacy that deals with the quantitative and theoretical principles of physicochemical science as they apply to the practice of pharmacy.

Why We Study Physical Pharmacy?
-Physical pharmacy is a fundamental course  that leads to proper understanding of subsequent courses in Pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical technology.
-Physical pharmacy integrates knowledge of mathematics, physics and chemistry and applies them to the pharmaceutical dosage form development.
-It focus on the theories behind the phenomena needed for dosage form design.
-Enable the pharmacist to make rational decisions on scientific basis concerning the art and technology of solutions, suspensions, emulsions, etc.
-Physical pharmacy provides the basis for understanding the chemical and physical phenomena that govern the in vivo and in vitro actions of pharmaceutical products.

Clinical Pharmacy / Xenoestrogens and their effects in human health
« on: March 23, 2019, 04:05:51 PM »
What is Xenoestrogen?
Xenoestrogen or Environmental estrogen is the technical term for any of a group of synthetic substances found in the environment that, when absorbed into a person's system, function in a similar way to estrogen (female sex hormones)

SOURCES of Xenoestrogen:
Xenoestrogen can be found in many things such as food, cleaning products, drugs, electronics, manufacturing preservatives, artificial food coloring and many more.
Xenoestrogens are not only found in food products, but also drugs such as birth control.
Other sources of environmental estrogens include plastics that contain bisphenol A, our household products such as detergents, heavy metals such as lead and zinc; some pesticides such as DDT; anabolic growth promoter (e.g. Zeranol) for cow, chicken etc.

Effects on Health:
•   Xenoestrogens have been implicated in a variety of medical problems, and during the last 10 years many scientific studies have found hard evidence of adverse effects on human and animal health.
•   There is a concern that xenoestrogens may act as false messengers and disrupt the process of reproduction. Xenoestrogens, like all estrogens, can increase growth of the endometrium.
•   The sex ratios are female biased because xenoestrogens interrupt gonadal configuration causing complete or partial sex reversal of male.
•   Sperm concentrations and motility perimeters are reduced in male fish exposed to xenoestrogens in addition to disrupt stages of spermatogenesis, thus fish production will decrease. Similar effect may occur in human.
•   Another potential effect of xenoestrogens is on oncogenes, specifically in relation to breast cancer.

Clinical Pharmacy / What is Clinical Pharmacy?
« on: August 09, 2018, 02:15:17 PM »
Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness and disease prevention. Clinical pharmacists care for patients in all health care settings but the clinical pharmacy movement initially began inside hospitals and clinics.
Clinical pharmacy process requires the application of specific knowledge of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmaceutics & therapeutics.

Clinical pharmacists work directly with doctors, other health professionals, and patients to ensure that the medications prescribed for patients contribute to the best possible health outcomes. Clinical pharmacists practice in health care settings where they have frequent and regular interactions with doctors and other health professionals, contributing to better coordination of care.

Clinical pharmacists:
•    Provide a consistent process of patient care that ensures the appropriateness, effectiveness, and safety of the patient’s medication use.
•    Consult with the patient’s doctor(s) and other health care provider(s) to develop and implement a medication plan that can meet the overall goals of patient care established by the health care team.
•   Apply specialized knowledge of the scientific and clinical use of medications; including medication action, dosing, adverse effects, and drug interactions, in performing their patient care activities in collaboration with other members of the health care team.
•   Call on their clinical experience to solve health problems through the rational use of medications.
•   Rely on their professional relationships with patients to tailor their advice to best meet individual patient needs and desires.

Spinal cord / Spina bifida-a deadly birth defect
« on: July 03, 2018, 12:40:06 PM »
Spina bifida is a condition where the bones in the vertebral column do not fully cover the spinal cord, leaving it exposed. Symptoms range from mild to severe, and it can affect physical and intellectual development.
In spina bifida, the neural tube and spinal column do not develop properly. The spine does not close fully, and the spinal column remains exposed along several vertebrae. Exposure means the spinal column is more at risk of infection. Excess cerebrospinal fluid can build up and result in hydrocephalus, and this increases the chances of learning difficulties.

An infant who is born with spina bifida may have or develop:

  • weakness or paralysis in the legs
    urinary incontinence
    bowel incontinence
    a lack of sensation in the skin
    a build up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leading to hydrocephalus, and possibly brain damage
    The nervous system will also be more prone to infections, some of which can be life-threatening.

Causes and risk factors
It is unclear exactly what causes spina bifida. Scientists say it is most likely due to a combination of inherited, or genetic, environmental and nutritional factors.

Folic acid: Spina bifida is more likely if a mother does not have enough folic acid during the pregnancy, although the reason is unclear. All women of reproductive age should make sure their folic acid intake is adequate. Since the introduction of folic acid recommendations in the U.S. in 1992, the number of births involving neural tube defects has fallen.

Plant proteins, iron, magnesium, and niacin: A low intake of these nutrients before conception may be associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects by two to five times.

Family history: If one infant is born with spina bifida, there is a 4 percent chance that a future sibling will have the same condition.

Medications: Drugs such as valproate, used to treat epilepsy or bipolar disorder, have been associated with a higher risk of giving birth to babies with congenital defects, such as spina bifida.

Diabetes: A woman who has diabetes is more likely to have a baby with spina bifida, than one who does not.

Obesity: A woman whose body mass index (BMI) is 30 or above has a higher risk of having a baby with spina bifida.

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