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Messages - Asif.Hossain

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Life Science / Fish Berry
« on: December 02, 2015, 03:48:52 PM »
Common name: Fish Berry
Botanical name: Anamirta cocculus
Family: Menispermaceae (Moonseed family)

Fish Berry is a large woody climber spreading over large trees. The plant is large-stemmed, up to 10 cm in diameter, the bark is corky grey with white wood. Leaves are simple, alternate, long-stalkes, ovate, heart-shaped. Flowers are greenish in long panicles, arising from the nodes of old stem. The small, yellowish-white, sweet-scented flowers are 6-10 cm across. The fruit produced is a drupe, about 1 cm in diameter when dry. Its crushed seeds are an effective pediculicide (anti-lice) and are also traditionally used to stun fish or as a pesticide. The name "fishberry" comes from the use of the dried fruit as a method of fishing.

Medicinal uses: Warning: Unverified information According to Ayurveda, the plant pacifies vitiated kapha, vata, ulcer, inflammation, chronic skin diseases, bronchitis, cough and used for rapid evolution of uterus.

Source: Flower of India

Life Science / Kumarika
« on: December 02, 2015, 03:44:27 PM »
Common name: Kumarika
Botanical name: Smilax ovalifolia   
Family: Smilacaceae (Smilax family)

Kumarika is an armed or unarmed climber. Leaves leathery, shining, 7-15 x 4-11 cm, broadly ovate to elliptic, base rounded or shortly wedge-shaped; 3-5-nerved. Leaf stalk 1.5 cm long, base sheathing, with tendrils at the end. Flowers white, in dense umbels in leaf axils, 1-3 on a common peduncle. Bracts ovate. Perianth recurved in mature flowers, outer 3 segments, 4 mm long, oblong, inner narrower. Stamens about as long as the perianth. It is found from the Himalayan region in the north to Peninsular India. Flowering: January-April.

Medicinal uses:  The roots of Kumarika are used for veneral diseases. Also applied in rheumatic swellings and given in urinary complaints and dysentery.

Source: Flower of India

Life Science / Tailed Pepper
« on: December 02, 2015, 03:39:11 PM »
Common name: Tailed Pepper
Botanical name: Piper cubeba
Family: Piperaceae (Pepper family)

Tailed pepper is a plant cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. It is mostly grown in Java and Sumatra, hence sometimes called Java pepper. It is a perennial plant, with a climbing stem, round branches, about as thick as a goose-quill, ash-colored, and rooting at the joints. The leaves are from 4-6.5 inches long, 1.5-2 inches broad, ovate-oblong, long pointed, and very smooth. Flowers are arranged in narrow spikes at the end of the branches. Fruit, a berry rather longer than that of black pepper. Tailed pepper is native to SE Asia, introduced in India by Arabian traders.

Medicinal uses:  Sanskrit texts included cubeb in various remedies. Charaka and Sushruta prescribed a cubeb paste as a mouthwash, and the use of dried cubebs internally for oral and dental diseases, loss of voice, halitosis, fevers, and cough. Unani physicians use a paste of the cubeb berries externally on male and female genitals to intensify sexual pleasure during coitus. Due to this attributed property, cubeb was called "Habb-ul-Uruus".

Source: Flower of India


Sweet potatoes from all over the world naturally contain genes from the bacterium Agrobacterium. Researchers from UGent and the International Potato Institute (CIP) publish this discovery on the website of PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America). Later it will be on the cover of this magazine. Sweet potato is one of the most important food crops for human consumption in the world. Because of the presence of this "foreign" DNA, sweet potato can be seen as a "natural GMO."

The researchers discovered the foreign DNA sequences of Agrobacterium while searching the genome -- this is the entire DNA-code -- of sweet potato for viral diseases. Instead of contributing this peculiar finding to bacterial contamination of the plant samples, the researchers decided to study these sequences in more detail.

Already present in sweet potato ancestor

The sequences appeared to be present in each of the 291 tested sweet potato cultivars and even in some wild related species. Different research methods confirmed the same conclusion: the specific sequences are not due to contamination, but they are part of the sweet potato genome.

The genes in the foreign DNA sequences were also shown to be active in sweet potato, which can indicate that they provide a positive characteristic which was selected for by the farmers during domestication.

More and more evidence of 'horizontal gene transfer'

It is not the first time that researchers find bacterial, fungal or viral DNA in the genome of plants or animals. High throughput genome analyses in recent years find more and more examples of possible "horizontal gene transfers." In a horizontal gene transfer there is exchange of genes between different species -- in contrast to normal gene transfer from parents to progeny which occurs within one species.

Finding similar sequences is not a full proof that they are the result of horizontal gene transfer, but in the case of sweet potato there are strong indications that this has happened. Indeed, Agrobacterium is specialized to transfer a part of its own DNA, the so-called T-DNA, to plants. And it is this T-DNA that has been found in sweet potato.

The mechanism that Agrobacterium uses to incorporate its own T-DNA in the genetic material of plants forms the basis of the GMO technology. While Agrobacterium traditionally introduces its T-DNA only in a few plant cells, biotechnologist have succeeded to regenerate plants from these cells. The finding of T-DNAs in sweet potato now reveals that this extra step has also occurred in nature thousands of years ago. Prof. Lieve Gheysen, one of the researchers involved: "The natural presence of Agrobacterium T-DNA in sweet potato and its stable inheritance during evolution is a beautiful example of the possibility of DNA exchange across species barriers. It demonstrates that genetic modification also happens in nature. In comparison to "natural" GMOs, that are beyond our control, human-made GMOs have the advantage that we know exactly which characteristic we add to the plant."


A newly published study details how to make trees grow bigger and faster, which could increase supplies of renewable resources and help trees cope with the effects of climate change.

In the study, published in Current Biology, researchers from the University of Manchester successfully manipulated two genes in poplar trees in order to make them grow larger and more quickly than usual.

Professor Simon Turner from the Faculty of Life Sciences led the research: “The rate at which trees grow is determined by the rate of cell division in the stem. We have identified two genes that are able to drive cell division in the stem and so override the normal growth pattern.

“Although, this needs be tested in the field, this discovery paves the way for generating trees that grow more quickly and so will contribute to meeting the needs for increased plant biomass as a renewable source of biofuels, chemicals and materials while minimizing further CO2 release into the atmosphere.”

The genes, called PXY and CLE, control the growth of a tree trunk. When overexpressed, making them more active than in their normal state, the trees grew twice as fast as normal and were taller, wider and had more leaves.

As well as the potential to increase biomass supplies for the growing biofuel and industrial biotechnology sectors, the discovery could help plants deal with the environmental consequences of climate change.

Professor Turner adds: “Our work offers the possibility we may be able to maintain a fast growth rate even in the face of adverse and changeable environmental conditions that all plants are likely to be faced with.

“Most plants, including crops, respond to adverse environmental conditions with lower growth rates that result in correspondingly lower yields. Understanding how the plants respond to environmental signals and to what extent we are able to manipulate them to override these signals is likely to be very important for continued improvements to crop performance. In future it may be possible that manipulating the expression of the PXY and CLE genes can override environmental signals that normally alter plant growth.

“This is something that needs to be tested in the field, but offers a potential way forward for what is one of the most pressing challenges of the day.”

The team now plans to work with a forest products company to test their findings in the field.

The work builds on a previous study from 2010 in which the team identified the role of the genes involved, in the plant Arabidopsis.

The study was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.

Source: University of Manchester


New research shows that vitamin A that plays a key role in lung development and maintenance, and may play a protective role in lung injury caused by cigarette smoke exposure and viral infections.

It’s no surprise that smoking is bad for the lungs. But only 10%-20% of long-term smokers will develop serious conditions that affect breathing, such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To understand why, a Yale-led team studied the mechanisms that cause lung health to decline.

Led by assistant professor of medicine (pulmonary, critical care and sleep medicine) Dr. Charles S. Dela Cruz, the researchers focused on retinoic acid, a form of vitamin A that plays a key role in lung development and maintenance. By studying mouse models, the researchers found that exposure to cigarette smoke causes a key protein, IL-15, to significantly weaken a retinoic acid receptor. That weakening is further exacerbated by viral infections, which tend to be more severe in people with COPD.

The finding provides researchers with a strategy to restore retinoic acid’s protective function and decrease lung damage. With this insight, scientists can develop potential therapies for patients suffering from emphysema and COPD, a leading cause of death in the United States.

Source: Ziba Kashef, Yale University


Scientists previously described how miRNA transfers genetic regulatory information from cell to cell within protective nano-vesicles (sacs) known as exosomes. In this study, the Yale team — led by professor of medicine (immunology) Philip Askenase in collaboration with visiting professor Krzysztof Bryniarski from Jagiellonian University in Krakow Poland — examined how miRNA from mouse immune T cells are delivered independently of these vesicles.

Although such “free” extracellular RNA, or exRNA, is the dominant form of RNA in the circulation, the function of exRNA was not known. However, the researchers discovered that exRNA can associate with exosomes from companion cells of the targeted cells (in this case, companion immune system B cells) to transfer the genetic messages via specific structures (antigens) on the final targeted cell.

The findings are significant, say the researchers, because they show not only how freely circulating miRNA transfers between cells, but also how it can influence the function of targeted cells in an antigen-specific way. The research provides a model for future study of miRNA information transfer between cells, and as a basis for the potential development of unique RNA genetic therapies for human diseases, including allergy, autoimmunity, and even cancer.

Other authors include, Wlodzimierz Ptak, Katarzyna Nazimek, Emilia Martin, Marian Szczepanik, and Marek Sanak.

Publication: Krzysztof Bryniarski, et al., “Free Extracellular miRNA Functionally Targets Cells by Transfecting Exosomes from Their Companion Cells,” PLOS One, 2015; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122991

Source: Ziba Kashef, Yale University

Public Health / Being affected by the kidneys
« on: February 23, 2015, 12:22:09 PM »
Less water to drink: 6-8 glasses of water a day to stay healthy, we need to drink. But if water is quite low compared to the needs of others. Especially in the winter is much less water. The increased levels of toxins in the body, which contain impurities and strain the kidneys cannot remove. Which tends to be lost in the normal performance of the kidney. Damage to the kidneys.

Extra sodium-rich foods to eat:
our body needs only 1 teaspoon of salt. It's more than just playing the salt into the Body of us remains. The performance of the kidneys loses. So be wary of eating foods rich in salt and sodium are more important.

Hold down the urine: There are many of this bad habit. Are extremely harmful for the task by the kidneys in urine. Because of the severe pressure to wear bladder and kidney infections.

Extra coffee: August 2004, Journal of Urology, published data that revealed, urinary calcium levels of caffeine than coffee reinforces the strain cannot find the kidney, which subsequently creates calcium oxalet , the calcium oxalet known as kidney stone. So refrain from excessive drinking coffee, do not drink coffee at all, especially to empty.

Smoking and alcohol: Smoking and alcohol due to the gradual decline in kidney blood flow and kidney performance tend to decline as a result. Due to the different types of kidney disease, including kidney damage occurs.

Extra protein to eat: it takes a lot more time to digest protein. Especially animal protein. This reduces the effect of animal proteins in our digestion on our kidneys. The kidneys gradually lose its normal performance

Nutrition and Food Engineering / Pea increases disease resistance power
« on: February 23, 2015, 12:07:29 PM »
The body's immune power and increase the brightness of the skin as a pea pair of winter vegetables. It is used in almost all foods and is a very popular and tasty curry or. A lot of the nutritional value.
In addition, iron, potassium, beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin K are plenty of.

Pea fiber foods because it is eliminating constipation and reduces fat. Pea reduce blood cholesterol. Pea has a reputation as an anti-oxidant,  folic acid. As a result, it is good food for maternity relief. Pea role in strengthening the body's bones. It is also very effective in diabetes. The pea helps to improve eyesight.

Fish oil reduces the risk of stroke and heart disease

Scientists have found that research on fish oil, fish oil is very beneficial in reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke. Fish oils contain unsaturated fatty acids called omega-three, which reduces the blood of harmful cholesterol and raises good cholesterol, which is the heart and blood fat accumulation and vascular clean, good blood flow. Control high blood pressure  and  reduces the risk of stroke. The study found that omega-three not coagulation, blood clotting, so blood can not be a stroke caused by a blood coagulation. So attack and stroke prevention should be oily fish in our diet.

From a new study has found that , researchers at the University of Louisville in Kentucky in the United States to carry out research. They saw the first step in research on rats, turmeric Curcumin is able to reduce the size of the tumor material.

Curcumin and cancer prevention because scientists have created two millmiter long capsule. Study found that food plays in yellow with cancer is not valid. But instead of these capsules can be eaten, but it does not only reduce the size of cancer tumors, tumors of this type, it may melt.

The study has been published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research.

Nutrition and Food Engineering / Food reduce the risk of cancer
« on: February 23, 2015, 11:25:46 AM »
Food reduce the risk of cancer
Cancer is one of the curses of modern life. However, some changes in lifestyle and eating properly Cancer to stave off the disease extent. The study found that some of the foods that are common in our daily times, which is able to reduce the risk of cancer.


Tomatoes in the first name that comes up. Tomatoes are rich of antioxidant lycopene. This component is found in the which woman's body is high, the lower the risk of breast cancer. In addition, to reduce the risk of liver cancer and prostate cancer lycopene helps. Daily menu so much to cancer if the tomatoes are safe for you.


From ancient times known as the yellow disease in palliative care. The scientists studied the yellow Curcumin enough of the elements of the cancer. It prevents the development of tumors in humans. Every morning so chew a piece of turmeric  make eating habits,  be healthy.


Pomegranate is rich in cancer resistant material. Significant role in the prevention of prostate cancer anemia. Pomegranate polyphenols Gallic acid is very effective in this deceases prevention.

Green tea

There are many benefits of green tea. One of the roles of the cancer prevention. This is a significant role in several types of cancer, researchers say reports. Two cups of green tea a day to keep your body in good health, as well as cancer will not deter away.

Genetic & Biotechnology / Three parents and children
« on: February 06, 2015, 03:22:25 PM »
Three fatal hereditary disease resistance using DNA as the first nation in the world, this method of birth UK lawmakers' three-parent, kid, give birth, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) has sanctioned the application of the method. It would be possible to prevent chronic disease, doctors said some hereditary. The kid from the mother's body to prevent the facing pages of complex hereditary diseases have developed a scientific approach to the British psychosomatic.

IVF is therefore natural mother and father in law of change 'nuclear DNA will be taken in. Some other adult female was also gathered from the small quantity of the embryo or maitokandriyala emadienae healthy DNA. Nearly half of the adult females in the UK breeding suffering from a sort of genetic maitokandriyajanita. Emadienaera these diseases as easily as their children are at peril of being given. Therefore, from the weakness of vision can contribute to symptoms such as diabetes and pesiksayera. As considerably as the head, heart and liver can lead to complications.

Important ingredient of the mitochondria of cells. These human activities are necessary for the production of energy. According to government estimates, the UK maitokandriyala approximately 125 kids are born with the disease. In six of the children in the creation of a child is such a continuing disease.

To alter the law as a result of IVF in the UK Human fertilization and embryology Authority (eicaephaie) Newcastle is a testing ground for the inaugural time in three parents allow you to begin the process of giving birth to DNA. And then the first kid born in the new IVF in Britain next year is expected to be delivered. The country's birth rate can be reduced maitokandriyala infected children and many families will have the chance to live a healthy and happy.

However, scientists, spiritual leaders and parents of three children born in a region of the process are critical. Argued, the OUP rashly concurred growing plant is safe and honorable. Many are at peril of being lost in the procedure of the stint.

Source: AFP, Reuters and BBC

Pharmacy / Popular Flavors of Teas
« on: December 20, 2014, 09:42:52 AM »
Chamomile is a popular herb used in teas around the world. However, there are some people who are allergic to chamomile and such should avoid taking this tea. Chamomile is proven to help with insomnia and helps to relax the body and mind. People who have trouble sleeping should drink a cup of chamomile tea before going to bed.

Nettle tea is one of the best natural remedies for various diseases – anemia, high blood pressure, rheumatism, arthritis, coughs and colds, congestion, urinary tract infections, kidney and urinary tract problems.

Ginger acts as a stimulant and gives you energy. The consumption of ginger tea stimulates and soothes the digestive system. Ginger is proven for relieving nausea. Also, thanks to the anti-inflammatory properties, ginger tea helps in fighting arthritis.

The original intent of mint tea is the soothing effect. In addition, peppermint or mint helps in easier digestion of food, reduces bloating and digestive problems. A cup of tea will relieve nausea and vomiting, especially if you suffer from motion sickness.
However, if you have heartburn, do not drink it because it can worsen the condition. This tea helps with herpes. Other health benefits of consuming this tea are relief of pain in muscles and relieving chronic pain, relieve cough and mild forms of asthma, as well as stress reduction. And finally, mint will refresh and your breath.

Lavender Tea is made from the dried flowers that grow on bushes of lavender. The medicinal properties of this plant have been documented and is appreciated all around the world. Cup of tea helps at soothing the mind and the body and contributes to easier and better sleep. When you feel anxious and depressed, get yourself a cup of lavender tea.
It will help you calm down and get in the mood. In the treatment of bloating, cramps, problems with the intestines, respiratory disorders and different types of infections lavender tea is No. 1. Lavander may be placed on the chest to reduce cough, alleviate bronchitis, asthma, colds and other respiratory problems.
Lavender is used for reducing body temperature at children and adults. This plant has other medicinal properties – use tea bags of lavender to heal the wounds, cuts and sores.

Green Tae.
Drinking green tea has many health benefits. Green tea reduces the risk of cancer and inhibit the carcinogenic substances from cigarettes. It also contains powerful antioxidants, polyphenols, which help fighting free radicals. Moreover, green tea stops the formation of certain tumors.
This tea lowers cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, which promotes heart health. Green tea lowers blood pressure, prevents and fights tooth decay and inhibit different viruses and prevents them from developing various diseases. And last but not the least, green tea is recommended as a great detoxifying drink.

Lemon balm.
Lemon balm is a delicious drink and very effective tonic for calming nerves and anxiety. Cold tea bags of lemon balm help with problems with ulcers or when there are problems with genital sores that causes virus “herpes simplex”.
Lemon balm tea was successfully proven to help in treatment of agitation and anxiety, stress and insomnia. Lemon balm contains certain properties that help in controlling herpes and regulate the thyroid.

Physiotherapy / Manual training in Physiotherapy
« on: November 09, 2014, 02:31:01 PM »
This is a Training for individuals who have difficulty in walking (For eg. training a person affected with stroke to walk independently)

1.   Training the person to walk with crutches
2.   Training to use the wheel chairs
3.   Training is given to those who use Artificial Legs

Where useful?
1.   Amputees( person who has lost a leg)
2.   Stroke
3.   Paralysis

Balance Training
Balance training is a training given to those who have difficulty in balance while sitting , standing.

Where useful?

1.   Ataxia( Balance disorder due to damage in a part of brain)
2.   Loss of joint position sense
3.   Parkinsonism(Disorder in part of brain)

Therapeutic Exercises

This is a kind of exercise, taught to improve the overall physical activity of the body to strengthens the Muscles, bones, joints and Ligament


Stretching is a manual way of lengthening the shortened structures like muscles, tendons, ligaments . and thereby increasing the movement of the joint

Where useful?

1.   Stiff neck
2.   During warm-up sessions of physical activity, eg. before sports

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