Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - Asif.Hossain

Pages: 1 2 [3] 4 5 ... 16
Physiotherapy / Relaxed passive movements
« on: November 09, 2014, 02:27:21 PM »
It is a Movement performed on the Joints by the Therapist, when the muscles or joints are affected.

Why to do?

1.   To obtain full range of the Movement in the joint
2.   For General relaxation
3.   Memorization of the Movement pattern (Bed ridden person)
4.   For Lymph Drainage

Where useful?
1.   Stroke (Early stage)
2.   Paralysis (Early stage)
3.   Bed ridden persons

Where it should not be used?
Injuries in and around joints

Physiotherapy / Therapeutic massage
« on: November 09, 2014, 02:26:16 PM »
Massage is one of the oldest of the Health sciences and has been used for curative purposes since time immemorial. Massage treatment uses "TOUCH" to apply pressure to the body's skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments.

The Idea of Massage is to ease disorders by;
1.   relieving tension
2.   promoting blood flow
3.   calming nerves
4.   loosening muscle

Modes of Therapeutic Massage
1.   Stroking
2.   Effleurage
3.   Kneading
4.   Friction
5.   Wringing
6.   Picking up
7.   Hacking
8.   Clapping
9.   Shaking & Vibration

Stroking - Stroking is performed with the whole hand or fingers. It comprises the usage of relaxed hand over the patient's skin with a rhythm and pressure that produce a relaxing effect.

Effleurage - Effleurage is performed by spreading and moving the hands with pressure and speed, to gain relaxation and lymph drainage.

Kneading - Kneading involves alternate compression and release of the part to be manipulated.

Picking up - Picking up involves lifting up of tissue from underlying bone, releasing it after squeezing it.

Wringing -Wringing technique lifts up the tissue and applies a twist to enhance stretching effect.

Friction - Friction is a small movement applied with thumb or finger where pressure is applied from superficial to depth of the tissue.

Hacking - Hacking is performed with extended forearm and striking the skin using the side of the hand .

Clapping -Clapping is done by striking the skin with cupped hands.

Shaking and Vibration -
Shaking and vibration involves gentle strokes of shakes and vibrations respectively

1.   Relief of pain
2.   Muscle tightness is relieved
3.   General relaxation
4.   Induce sleep in insomnia (sleepless nights)
5.   Relieves tension
6.   Skin is toned
7.   Drainage of oedema or swelling
8.   Loosens secretion in the Lungs

Where not to Massage?
If the treatment area has:
1.   Large open wounds
2.   Burns
3.   Skin Ulcers
4.   Gross Oedema (severe swelling)
5.   Extremely Hairy areas
6.   Sensitive skin
7.   Bacterial infections
8.   Skin disease
9.   Malignancies like cancer

Traction - Traction is a device used for reducing the fractures and dislocations of a bone. Types:

Continuous - applied over period of few days or weeks

Intermittent -
repeated application for a short duration

Physiotherapy / Inter Ferential Therapy (IFT)
« on: November 09, 2014, 02:24:15 PM »
Inter Ferential Therapy (IFT) uses a Mid frequency - current for treatment.

Where useful?
Individuals with
1.   Pain
2.   Muscles spasm (pain and tightness)
3.   Swelling
4.   Muscles strain

Where it should not be used?

If the Treatment area has:
1.   Localised wounds
2.   Unhealed scar
3.   Recent cuts
4.   Skin infections

Physiotherapy / Functional Electrical Stimulation (F.E.S)
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:34:47 PM »
This kind of physiotherapy treatment involves use of low frequency cureent. Electrical stimulation is used to activate and train a muscle, which has lost its action or in training a muscle which has lost or 'forgotten' its action after an injury / surgery.


Modified Galvanic Current

In this treatment method the duration of current flow is long and continuous.

Time duration - 10 - 200 milliseconds
Frequency - 50 - 100 pulses/sec.
Used in cases of severe nerve damage

Surged Faradic Current

Shorter duration and intermittent flow of current

Time duration - .01-1 millisecond

Frequency - 50 cycles per/sec. Used in cases of partial nerve damage or nerve compression

Where useful?

1.   All Nerve injuries(like Radial nerve Injury of the arm or hand)
2.   Muscle weakness(To activate the muscle)
3.   Facial nerve Injury

Where should it not be used?
Individuals who have
1.   Recent cuts
2.   Open wounds
3.   Unhealed scars
4.   Recent fracture
5.   Metal plate fixation in their Body
6.   Skin infections
7.   Recent surgery

Physiotherapy / Microwave diathermy
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:21:35 PM »
It's an electromagnetic wave used for treatment purposes with wavelength between infra-red rays and short wave diathermic waves.
The heat energy obtained from the wave is used for giving relief to the patient.
Treatment Settings

Micro-wave diathermy waves used for treatment is of Wave length - 12.25 cm
Frequency - 2,450 cycles/sec

Production of Waves

The waves are obtained by heating special type of valve called Magnetron. The output is carried to a small aerial and microwaves are emitted.

Where useful?

1.   Pain
2.   Bacterial infection
3.   Septic fingers
4.   Boils
5.   Abscess

Where it should not be used?

1.   Cancer
2.   Tuberculosis of Bone
3.   Recent exposure to X-rays
4.   Defective blood circulation (In cases like Diabetes)
1.   Healing of infections is faster
2.   Aids in relaxation
1.   Burns
2.   Injuries to eyes

Physiotherapy / Ultra sonic therapy
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:18:29 PM »
It's an electromagnetic wave different from sound waves.
The frequencies of waves employed for medical purposes are between 5,00,000 and 3,000,000 cycles/sec.

Generation of Ultrasonic waves

Ultrasonic waves are generated by vibration of a Crystal mounted on a special head.

Treatment Time

Initial Stage - 3 to 4 min
Severe Stage - 6 to 8 min

Where useful?
1.   Inflammation of Elbow Joint (Tennis elbow)
2.   Plantar fascitis(Heel pain)
3.   Shortening of Muscle or Ligament
4.   Inflammation of tendons(For eg Supraspinatus tendnitis)
5.   Ligament sprain(For eg Lateral Ligament sprain of ankle)
6.   Unhealed scars

Where should it not be used?

1.   Avoidance to specialised structures such as eyes, ears,ovaries or testes.
2.   Growing ends of bones
3.   Uterus of pregnant women
4.   Areas with poor blood supply (In case of Diabetes)
5.   Cancer
1.   Relief of pain
2.   Healing of Soft tissues (Ligament)
3.   Healing of unhealed scars
1.   Burns
2.   Cavitation (Damage to bones)
3.   Overdose

Physiotherapy / Ultra-Violet rays (UV Rays)
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:16:42 PM »
Ultra-violet rays are electromagnetic waves. Rays with wavelengths ranging between 3,900 and 1,849 A°. are used for treatment purpose.

Sources of UV-rays
1.   Sunlight
2.   Mercury vapour lamp
3.   Fluorescent tubes

Where useful?
Individuals with
1.   General weakness
2.   Vitamin-D deficiency
3.   Weight Loss
4.   Psoriasis (Skin disease)
5.   Alopecia (Hair fall)

Where it should not be used?
1.   Sensitive skin
2.   Dermatitis (Skin disease)
3.   High fever
4.   Tuberculosis of lungs
5.   Cancer
1.   Formation of Vitamin-D
2.   proved resistance to infection
3.   General tonic effect
1.   Conjunctivitis (Eye infection)
2.   Reddening of skin
3.   Electric shock
4.   Burns
5.   UV rays should not be used in combination with certain other treatment

Physiotherapy / Infra-red rays
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:13:27 PM »
Infra-red rays are electromagnetic waves, the heat energy obtained from the rays are used to relieve pain.
Infra-red Rays Generators (2 types)

Non-Luminous Generator
Luminous Generator

Where useful?

1.   Pain
2.   Muscle strain and pain
Where it should not be used?

1.   Defective Blood Supply to the area (eg. In case of diabetes)
2.   Any Blood loss
3.   Defective skin sensation (nerve damage)
1.   Relief of Pain
2.   Muscle relaxation
1.   Burns
2.   Electric Shock
3.   Overdose headache
4.   Injury to eyes
5.   Faintness

Source: medindia

Physiotherapy / Short Wave Diathermy
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:11:58 PM »
Short Wave diathermy current is a high frequency alternating current. The heat energy obtained from the wave is used for giving relief to the patient. Its frequency is 27,120,000 cycles per second and the wavelength is 11 metre.

Types of Applications

1.   The condenser field method (commonly used)
2.   Cable method
Where useful?
1.   Inflammation of shoulder joint
2.   Inflammation of Elbow Joint (Tennis Elbow)
3.   Degeneration of joints of neck (Cervical Spondylosis)
4.   Degeneration of joints like knee and hip (Osteoarthritis)
5.   Ligament Sprains in knee joint
6.   Low Back Ache
7.   Plantar fascitis (Heel Pain)
8.   Sinusitis
Where it should not be used?
1.   High Fever
2.   Fluctuating Blood Pressure
3.   Very sensitive Skin
4.   Persons with Untreated Fits
5.   Persons using Cardiac Pace Maker
6.   Severe kidney and heart problems
7.   Pregnant Women
8.   Mentally Retarded Individuals
9.   Tuberculosis of Bone
10.   Malignant cancer
If the treatment area has:
1.   Open wounds
2.   Skin disease
3.   Unhealed scars
4.   Recent burns
1.   Relaxation of the muscles
2.   Effective in bacterial infections
3.   Relief of pain
Treatment Time
Initial Stage - 5-10 minutes
Moderate Stage - 10-20 minutes
Severe State - 20-30 minutes
1.   Burns
2.   Scalds (Boils)
3.   Overdose
4.   Shock
5.   Electric Sparking
6.   Faintness

Physiotherapy / Hot Packs
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:10:13 PM »
Hot packs usually consist of a silicate gel called Bentonite.
The temperature of the 'Hot Water Tank' where the Hot Packs to be immersed is in the range between 75° to 80°C. The heat energy obtained from the hot packs is used to relieve pain and induce relaxation.

Where useful?
1.   Muscular Pain
2.   General Relaxation

Where it should not be used?
Individuals with
1.   Lack of heat sensation
2.   Local Open Wounds
3.   Burns
4.   Unhealed Scars
1.   Relief of Pain
2.   Relaxing effect to the muscles

Source: medindia

Physiotherapy / Contrast Bath
« on: November 09, 2014, 01:09:13 PM »
Contrast bath therapy, also known as "hot/cold immersion therapy", is a form of treatment where a limb or the entire body is immersed in ice water followed by the immediate immersion of the limb or body in warm water. This procedure is repeated several times, alternating hot and cold. This treatment involves the combination of alternate immersion in hot and cold baths.
Temperature of Hot water - 40° - 45°C
Temperature of cold water - 15° - 20°C

Where useful?
1.   Pain in the extremities (Legs and Hands)
2.   General Relaxation

Where it should not be used?
Individuals with lack of sensation to hot and cold temperatures (in case of Nerve damage) for example some diabetics.


1.   Relief of Pain
2.   Relaxing Effect

Source: medindia

LASER is used in Combination with Infra Red. Usually Helium Neon L A S E R is used.
Lasers have many important applications. They are used in common consumer devices such as optical disk drives, laser printers, and barcode scanners. Lasers are used for both fiber-optic and free-space optical communication. They are used in medicine for laser surgery and various skin treatments, and in industry for cutting and welding materials. They are used in military and law enforcement devices for marking targets and measuring range and speed. Laser lighting displays use laser light as an entertainment medium.

Treatment is done in two ways:
1.   Direct contact (directly over the skin)
2.   Distance contact (5cm away from the skin)

Where Useful?
1.   Open wounds
2.   Pressure ulcers
3.   Diabetic ulcers
4.   Surgical wounds
5.   Pain

Where it should not be used?

1.   Epileptic persons/persons with recurrent fits
2.   Persons with cardiac problems
3.   Persons using artificial pacemakers
Advantages of Mild Type Laser Treatment
1.   Pain is relived
2.   Healing is faster

Precautions Necessary When Using Lasers
Use goggles to protect eyes

Source: medindia

Physiotherapy / Cryotherapy
« on: November 08, 2014, 02:47:29 PM »
Cryotherapy is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy. Cryotherapy is used to treat a variety of benign and malignant tissue damage, medically called lesions.The term "cryotherapy" comes from the Greek cryo (κρύο) meaning cold, and therapy (θεραπεία) meaning cure. Cryotherapy has been used as early as the seventeenth century.
Its goal is to decrease cell growth and reproduction (cellular metabolism), increase cellular survival, decrease inflammation, decrease pain and spasm, promote the constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstriction), and when using extreme temperatures, to destroy cells by crystallizing the cytosol, which is the liquid found inside cells, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF). The most prominent use of the term refers to the surgical treatment, specifically known as cryosurgery. Other therapies that use the term are cryogenic chamber therapy and ice pack therapy.

This is a treatment involving the application of Ice. This is a commonest and very old method of treatment. The temperature of the skin over the ailment is reduced to 10°C during the treatment

When useful?

1.   Pain
2.   Muscle spasm (muscles become so tight and painful)
3.   Spasticity (muscles become tight due to damage to the brain)
4.   After any surgery, to train the muscle which has lost its action
5.   Bed sores / Pressure sores

Where it should not be used?

Individuals with
1.   Psychological fear of ice
2.   Cardiac problems
3.   Nerve injuries
4.   Lack of sensation
1.   In case of injury, bleeding is prevented
2.   In case of bedsores, healing is faster
Treatment Time
The treatment duration is about 1-3 minutes (It depends upon the patient's condition)

Ways of Application
1.   Ice towel
2.   Ice packs
3.   Immersion
4.   Ice cube massage
5.   Quick massage

Source: medindia

Physiotherapy / Paraffin wax used in Physiotherapy
« on: November 08, 2014, 11:00:22 AM »
Paraffin wax is used for the treatment. The temperature of the wax is in the range between 40° to 44°c. The heat energy obtained from the hot wax is used to relieve pain and stiffness of the joints.

You can use paraffin wax (may be called either paraffin or wax) to apply moist heat to your hands or feet to ease the pain and stiffness of osteoarthritis. Paraffin especially helps to reduce pain and loosen up your hand and finger joints before exercise.
You should talk with your doctor before trying paraffin at home. And it's a good idea to have a physical therapist show you how to do it before you try it yourself.

You will need:
•4 lb (1.8 kg) of paraffin wax. Paraffin is available in most places where canning supplies are sold.
•1 cup of mineral oil. You may be able to find some mineral oil that has a pleasant scent such as wintergreen.
•Equipment for melting the wax. You can use a paraffin bath, available from a medical supply store, or a Crockpot or double boiler. If you use a Crockpot, a small one works fine for your hands. You'll need a large one if you want to do your feet.
•A candy thermometer (if you're using a Crockpot or double boiler). If you get a paraffin bath from a medical supply store, it should have a thermometer.
•Plastic wrap or plastic bags.
•Terry cloth towel.
•Rubber bands or tape.

•Melt the wax (use low heat if you use a double boiler). Stir often to speed up the melting.
•Stir in the mineral oil.
•Turn off the heat, and allow the wax to cool until it has a thin film on the top. This will mean it is getting cool enough to put your hand or foot in.
•Use the thermometer to check the temperature of the wax. It should read about 125°F (51.7°C) when you begin your treatment.
•Before you begin, use warm, soapy water to wash the hand or foot you are going to treat. This will keep the paraffin clean so you can use it again for future treatments. Dry your hand or foot completely.
•Relax your hand or foot, and dip it into the paraffin, being very careful not to touch the sides or bottom of the pot. Allow the wax to come to just above the wrist or ankle. If you are unsteady, it helps to have another person guide your hand or foot in and out of the paraffin.
•Lift your hand or foot out, but hold it over the paraffin. Allow it to dry a few seconds until it stops dripping.
•Repeat this process 10 to 12 times. Each time you dip in, stop just below the previous line of wax on your skin. This will keep warm wax from getting in under the wax that is already on your skin and will prevent burning.
•Wrap your hand or foot in plastic wrap or slide it into a plastic bag.
•Next, wrap a towel around your hand or foot and hold it in place with rubber bands or tape.
•Leave the paraffin on for 20 minutes. Then unwrap your hand or foot and slide the paraffin from your hand or foot back into the pot. The wax can be melted and used again.
•Cover the paraffin, and save it for next time.

When to apply?
1. Joint pain
2. Joint stiffness
3. Conditions like Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis

Where useful?

This is applied over Joints of legs and hands

Where it should not be used?
If the area to be treated has:
1. Open wounds
2. Cuts
3. Burns
4. Skin rashes

1. Joint pain and stiffness is relived
2. Skin becomes smooth and moist
3. Causes relaxing effect

Treatment Time

The time duration for the treatment is about 30-45 minutes

Source: medindia

Physiotherapy / Life Style Exercise
« on: November 06, 2014, 11:43:07 AM »
You may obtain it difficult to conform to “traditional” practice session into your busy lifestyle.
By finishing a handful of these prompt and simple “lifestyle” exercises every day, you will burn more calories on an everyday base. Try these at work, home, or while on holiday.

1. Park Far Away by parking further away from the entrance to work Or shopping, you can easily add valuable steps (use) to yours
Busy day.

2. Bathroom Breaks instead of utilizing the bathroom closest to you Desk or office, walk to another one down the foyer or on some other floor.

3. Force-walk, Lunch by eating a well-balanced lunch and walking for the continuance of your lunch break, you can easily incorporate a Mini-aerobic exercise into your busy day. Even if your lunch shift is only 30 minutes, a quick walk around your office building is an easy way to add physical activity to your busy schedule.

4. Play with your Kids a simple game of kickball or a round of hoops with the kids is an excellent way to burn calories. By scheduling a Daily family activity like this, it is easy to stay active while having fun With your household at the same time. Schedule a game of kickball (or Whatever game your family enjoys) for roughly the same time ever Day – when the entire family can participate. A game right afterwards dinner may work for your family.

5. Do Your Chores everyday household chores provide an easygoing (and Efficient) way to remain active with a busy lifestyle. Mowing the lawn With a push-mower, sweeping and mopping the kitchen and bathroom, or vacuuming the house are great ways to burn calories While keeping your home in top shape.

Pages: 1 2 [3] 4 5 ... 16