Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Topics - Golam Kibria

Pages: 1 [2] 3 4 ... 12
Use of PC / Microsot Power Point Tutorial
« on: August 25, 2012, 10:11:00 PM »
Microsoft power point is very essential to do any kind of presentation. If we can know about this we can prepare a very good presentation to present any kind of information in any kind of place. So, it is essential to learn about Ms. power point to be a successful candidate as a student and as a job seeker.

I am trying to post  all necessary tips to prepare a very good presentation with the use of Ms power point. I took help to prepare the posts from, etc.

By Golam Kibria.

Use of PC / Microsoft Word learning tutorial
« on: August 24, 2012, 11:36:45 PM »
Microsoft word is very much important for every student for his/her student life and also for job life. So, we all the student should know all about the microsoft word and its using process.

Now a days, in interview there are some questions are asked to the job seekers about the different terms of microsoft word. So, for interview the microsoft word is also important for interview.

I add here one of my life history about computer education. In the first, i was unable to do work of my class assignments by own. For that, i had done the assignments work form the computer shop. For that i paid near about 500/- for one assignment. After that, i realized that, i can do the work if i know about the Msword. Than i completed the office course from a institution. After that, all of my university assignments are done by me within very short time. It is very much helpful for my computer work. I also completed  graphics design course, outsourcing course, Seo course, Website design and development course from different institutions. Now i feel that, a man who know about computer education he/she can reach a very good life with the help of internet. So, i feel that, it is essential to know about computer education and be a employee of own at your home.
I am trying to post all kind of terms of MS Word which are very much helpful for  new students who are not known about MS Word. All posts are helpful to learn about MS Word without any kind of cost. So, we can use our online forum for learning different knowledge without any kind of cost. I am thankful to authority for providing this kind of useful online forum to our university students.

I took help form different websites,, etc.

If i took any kind of problems, please inform me by PM or email, i will try to overcome the mistakes.

By Golam Kibria.

IT Forum / Different Views of Microsoft Word
« on: August 24, 2012, 10:34:16 PM »

Print Layout View

This is the default view you'll find yourself in when opening a document. This view is best used when your document will contain things like images, headers, and footers, columns, etc. Each of these components will be visible. In this view you can see how the document will print according to its page breaks.

Full Screen Reading View

Full Screen Reading view is optimized for reading a document on the computer screen. In Full Screen Reading view, you also have the option of seeing the document as it would appear on a printed page. You should view the document in full screen reading view to maximise the space available for reading or commenting on the document.

Web Layout View

Use web layout view to view the document as it would look like as a web page. In this view you can see the background, text is wrapped to fit the window, and images appear as they would online.

Outline View

Using outline view you can view the document as an outline and show the outlining tools. This is useful if you are moving sections of your document, or creating an outline.
Draft View

Use draft view to view the document as a draft, to enable you to quickly edit the text. Certain elements of the document, such as headers and footers, will not be visible in this view.

IT Forum / How to Choose a Strong and Secure Password?
« on: August 12, 2012, 04:09:04 AM »
How to Choose a Strong Password

⍟ Change Passwords Regularly

First things first! And I literally mean it. We read about cyber crimes practically every day, yet most of you continue to use the same old passwords for ages. If you are one of them, then take a break from reading my article and change your old passwords on priority. Whenever I say this, I usually get responses like 'Changing passwords is tedious!' or 'My password is safe and secure in my mind!'. Trust me, creating new passwords every now and then is not a very mind-boggling task. The hacking software used by cyber criminals can crack down some of the most unexpected passwords. So smarten up your online user IDs by changing your passwords every three months for your e-mail accounts or social networking sites, and once a month for your online banking logins. If you are forgetful, set up online reminders for a password change.

⍟ Password Length
Experts suggest the ideal length of passwords to be eight characters or more. Some of us feel that a smaller password is easy to recollect. However, smaller passwords are easier to hack as they require lesser permutations and combinations of characters.

⍟ Combination Passwords

The strongest and most secure passwords are those which have a unique combination of alphabets, numerals, special characters and symbols. Most of us have a tendency to make passwords that are either completely alphabetic or numeric. Such passwords are easier to track and therefore, spell danger for your online privacy and security.

⍟ Variety
A few of us have a tendency to choose a single, easy-to-remember password and use it for every kind of personal login, viz., online banking, email accounts, shopping websites. If a hacker is smart and lucky enough to get hold of your password on one of the sites, he may use the opportunity to try your login name and password on other sites as well. In this case, it is best to create a separate password for each and every login ID that you may possess.

⍟ Fresh Passwords

Creating and memorizing passwords can be difficult for some people. So they create a set of five to six passwords for their email accounts or online banking. These passwords are generally used by them in rotation. However, I suggest my readers to create fresh passwords for logins. When I suggest usage of fresh passwords, I mean to say that passwords when used once, should not be repeated for a particular login.

One in all PC tips / What to Look for When Buying a Monitor?
« on: August 12, 2012, 04:06:08 AM »
Buying the Right Monitor

Screen Resolution

The screen resolution has an important role to play in the visuals. Every monitor has a preset resolution that gives you the best display possible. If you lower the resolution from its preset value to sharpen displays, all you get is a blurred version. A standard 19-inch monitor usually has a resolution of 1280x1024 pixels, while a wider 22-inch one will support 1680x1050. Large-sized models like the 30-inch ones or bigger will support 2560x1600 pixels.

Viewing Angle

The next thing you need to consider is the viewing angle. Well, if you happen to be the only person viewing, this point can be overlooked, but if you've got multiple viewers, the viewing angle becomes crucial. Zero in on models that will give you a 170 degree angle, as people looking at the monitor from either corners will be able to get clear views.

Contrast Ratio

The contrast ratio determines the richness of color on your screens. The contrast ratio measures the difference between the brightest and darkest pixels on the screen, and a higher contrast will give you a richer image, in terms of color. A ratio of 1000:1 would be decent enough, followed by 500:1 or 700:1.

Monitor Controls

Monitor controls are something that we always overlook while buying; never realizing their importance until we actually have to use them. Yes, I'm referring to those buttons that allow you to fiddle with the colors, contrast, brightness, menus and even the volume on models with attached speakers. Easy accessibility to these controls and their user-friendliness should be tested before making a purchase.

Size and Adjustments

Size is another important aspect, and so are physical adjustments. You'd obviously be keeping your desk space in mind, but refrain from buying a big monitor only because it looks good. You need to pay more attention to the width of your desk, i.e., the distance from which you'd be viewing it from. Also, check if it has height adjustments and swivel features as they are useful additions.

Response Time

There's this thing called the response time and it tells you a lot about the picture quality. The response time refers to the speed at which the screen pixels react to change. Monitors with slow response times give you a blurred image or leave a trail. If you are a light browser, this will not affect the picture quality too much, but the difference will be evident when you'll watch a video or a movie. For regular users, a speed of 16 milliseconds should be fine, whereas for multimedia users, 12 milliseconds is the norm. Gaming fanatics are usually happy with 8 milliseconds or less.

Ports matter a lot, and I'm not just considering gamers here. Some of you may own computers that have a graphics card with a digital output, so make sure you pick a monitor that has a DVI input (latest models today have DisplayPorts). Digital monitors do have a VGA connection as well, which comes in handy if you've got a dual-monitor plan. Movie fans should look out for composite inputs, which lets them connect their DVD/Blu-ray Disc players. HD content is all over the place, so you'll get a lot of models with HDMI connectors and it really makes sense to go in for it. Consider having a USB port too.

Warranties and Support
Never make the mistake of ignoring the terms, conditions and warranties while making your purchase. While a one-year warranty period remains the norm for smaller models, the high-end versions are usually covered up to three years. Ensure that the brand you choose will offer adequate customer support.

And finally, the battle. The LED wins hands down when it comes to color quality, but there are many for whom this is absolutely immaterial. When compared with the LCD, it is also thinner, lighter, gives you a better contrast ratio, and maintains its color accuracy for a longer period. However, all good things come with a hefty price tag, so if you've got the budget, no harm in splurging.

Before You Purchase a Monitor

✔Before you think of anything else, you need to classify your usage. Light users do not need all the frills and trimmings that video editors or gamers do.
✔Do a little research on the Internet and fix a budget.
✔The advantages of widescreen monitors are many, but if you think you want a standard one, buy it.
✔Companies bank on extras to influence customers, and you need to decide which ones are more important to you. For instance, multiple video inputs may be far more useful than a USB port.

Shopping for monitors may not be as much fun as buying a new computer; nevertheless, in all the excitement of getting a new monitor, don't forget your duty towards the environment and dump the old one. Recycling electronics may be a legal requirement in certain states, but even if it isn't in yours, do dispose it off wisely.

You need to know / Do It Yourself Guitar Repair
« on: August 12, 2012, 03:58:28 AM »
A guitarist always keeps a kit full of everything that he needs to maintain and patch up his instrument with. Here are a couple of things that you need to include in your repair kit. Most of them apply to the electric guitar; a lot of things can be done without these tools on an acoustic.

Allen wrenches of the appropriate sizes : They are usually standardized and always come with the electric guitar you buy. Never lose them; they are very important in doing most kind of repairs.

Chromatic tuner : As a rule, when working on the guitars that require the strings to be on, always keep the strings tuned before you start the work. The tuner is a necessity; even if you develop an ear for the notes, the tuner makes for an invaluable reference.

Truss rod wrench : A good tool to have once you know how to use it.

A steel ruler : Just something to help measure the action. After a while of playing, you can decide just how much action you want, so you don't really need the ruler.

The intonation key : It is the accessory that makes setting the intonation easier on floating bridges. You can still do it without this key. (Both methods explained later)

: A quality lube with a needle-point dispenser that makes it easy to apply the lube in small spaces.

You can also get some superglue, polish and oils for maintenance. These things are mostly subjective and can be used once you figure your guitar out from the inside out.


This job comes every 6 months on normal conditions and maintained guitars, if you're a casual/aspiring guitarist (3 months if you play gigs every night). The difficulty in changing the strings is a direct result of the type of bridge that you use. Most acoustic ones use a non-tailed (fixed) bridge, so they are easy to re-string once you know the basics. Good ones can come with adjustable saddles, which are useful for fine tuning and setting the intonation. I've detailed the re-stringing of electric guitars, from which you can associate the logical parallels to the acoustic.

Here's a list of things you need to be careful about while re-stringing any guitar:

    Gently straighten out each string between your thumb and index finger when you take it out of its cover. It helps reduce the elasticity of the strings so they don't pose too much of a problem while tuning.

    Re-stringing is the perfect time to clean out the places previously difficult to reach. This includes the lower part of the headstock and the spot between the bridge and the pickup/sound hole. Use a clean, lint-free cloth over wider areas and a Q-tip to get to the smaller places, especially the string inserts and the fine-tuning pegs on Floyd Rose trems. Use an old toothbrush to get to the spaces where each fret post meets the neck.

    The perfect way to wrap the string around the tuning peg on the headstock is by having not more than 2 coils per string. Having more than 2 coils pressures the peg, making it slip. Also, make sure the second coil is inside the first one. This allows the inner (second) coil that leads out to the fretboard to be pressured, thereby catching the outer (first) coil and keeping the string wound tightly over the peg.

    After re-stringing comes the more important part - stretching the strings. This is an absolute must because it's the best way to keep the strings from de-tuning in between bends. To stretch them (this is always done after re-stringing and before setting the intonation), all you have to do is pull each string up from the fretboard gently, then letting it rest back on the fretboard. Repeat this until the string feels stressed and less elastic. To be thorough, do this at the 5th, 7th, 12th and 17th frets. Be careful though, you may easily break the strings or cause them to slip out of the bridge.

Fixed bridge

It is the easier type to re-string; a fixed bridge will take less than 10 minutes once you develop a hand for it (excluding the stretching, which takes 10-15 minutes by itself). Align the string into the groove on the saddle and the nut. Poke the headstock end of the string through the hole in the tuning peg, put a sharp bend on the outer side of the string, right on the hole. Start turning the peg to tighten the string. Tune it to the relative note and cut off the excess string on the tuning peg. Remember to leave about an inch or two in case the string slips. Then stretch the string and re-tune.

Tremolo Bridges

This bridge is tougher to re-string than fixed bridges, because it's not attached directly to the body. The tremolo allows the string to slack easily, creating a major headache to re-string and tune. I'm going to explain the process on a Floyd Rose. Others, like the Edge and ZR trems have almost the same method.

    *Loosen the tuning clamps on the nut.
    *Loosen the string locks on the bridge. Be careful because the stress can launch them out of their grooves.
    Take the string out from under the tuning clamps on the nut. Avoid scratching the fretboard and the underside of the clamps.
    *Clean off the part where the string enters the bridge. This is a good habit that helps avoid any dirt that might cause the string to lose its grip.
    *The balled-up end on the new string usually goes into the tuning pegs. You can choose to cut it off too; it's not really needed.
    *Gently slide the strings under the tuning clamps and keep them as straight as possible. Cut off the string that goes beyond the fine tuners.
    *Then ease the open end through the string insert and tighten the lock. Never tighten it more than one rotation. Actually, if you can do that, it means the string hasn't gone completely into the lock. In that case, take it out and redo.
    *Start turning the peg once you're sure the locks are on tight. If the other end has been cut off at the proper distance, the string shouldn't need more than two coils around the peg. After you reach the relative note, stretch the strings and re-tune.

Adjusting the Truss Rod

You'll need to do this when your fretboard starts arching. The bend on the neck will cause the strings to rise away from the fretboard and become a pain to play properly. As long as you don't own a classic acoustic, you will have a truss rod inside the fretboard to straighten the neck. (classical acoustics do not have a truss rod installed, but they usually don't bend because they use nylon strings that don't stress the neck too much)

The bend can go either way - it can cause the strings to go to close to the frets or to move away from them. Either case is bad; the former will create fret buzz (discussed in detail in the next section) while the latter just makes it harder to play. A simple way to check for the bend is to clamp down the strings on the first fret (using a capo) and then on the last fret with one hand (or have a friend help you out). Slide a piece of paper of some thickness (like a card) through the middle of the fretboard, underneath the strings. If it won't pass easily, the neck is bent outward (the neck bulges towards the strings). If you can pass the paper through with still some extra space left, the neck is bent inwards (away from the strings). Both can be repaired with the truss rod as shown below.

Remove the cover that lies just above the nut, on the headstock. You need to keep the strings on to check if the adjustment is enough. The truss rod's nut is underneath this cover. Take the truss rod wrench and turn the nut as follows:

    If you are looking directly at the truss rod's nut, you will turn it clockwise to tighten the nut in. This pushes the neck towards the strings and reduces the action.
    Turning the nut anti-clockwise will loosen the truss rod, causing the neck to move away from the strings.

You must be very careful with this. The truss rod is very sensitive to changes. Rotate the nut as slowly as possible, checking the bend every second. Never turn the nut more than one full rotation in either direction. This is quite a delicate operation and if you are not too confident about it, you should take the guitar to a professional or a luthier who can help you out for the first time. Too much stress on the truss rod will warp the neck beyond repair or even crack and break it.

Locating Fret Buzz

This is an annoying part in guitar repair, mostly because locating the problem can be tougher than the solution. This is to be done if you get an audible (and distracting) buzz when you pluck the string. The solution depends on the location of the buzz.

    If it buzzes on a single fret, the solution could be anything from resetting the intonation to replacing the individual fret. If the frets are really old and worn out, or have deep dents due to hard play or an accident, you may have to replace them.
    If you have one or many strings that buzz when played open (on most/all frets), the problem is mostly in the nut. The strings can cut into the nut, lowering their height so they touch the frets. It could also be because the guitar is new and hasn't been set up properly. If the nut is old, consider replacing it. If the guitar is new, you will have to adjust the truss rod and the intonation.
    A buzz on all strings in only the upper part of the fretboard means the wood is reacting to the moisture (or lack of it) in the air, creating a bulge closer to the nut due to stress from the strings. You will need to keep the fretboard in optimum humidity to remove the bulge. Worst case scenario would be the upper part gets warped and you need to replace the fretboard.

Resetting Pickups

To adjust the pickup height, simply turn the two screws on each side of the pickup. Turning them anti-clockwise will lower them into the guitar, increasing their distance from the strings. Turning them clockwise will increase the pickup height. Always make sure that the stings are perfectly tuned before you do this, as each string sends different reactions out of the pickup for different tunings. This is the easiest job, but very important to get right.

There are two things you need to know before you can successfully adjust the pickups on your guitar. One is the type of pickups that you are using, which helps in figuring out how you can adjust them and how much of a difference it would make to raise or lower them. The other is your own playing style. It has a major influence on the exact distance of the pickup from the strings.

Simply put, rhythm players need a softer tone with more sustain. A pickup set further away from the strings (relatively speaking) gives you both. The perfect distance would be where the sound is soft enough without compromising on the amplification, while maintaining a good sustain. If the pickup is too far, it won't catch the vibrations of the string. If it is too close, the magnetic pull won't let the strings vibrate enough, therefore reducing sustain.

Playing leads and riffs requires a stronger, punchy tone that doesn't garble up when playing half a step ahead or behind one note. This calls for a pickup that's set closer to the strings.

The middle point is where blues and sliding fits in. Slides need a decent amount of sustain as well as a clear, strong tone.

Setting the Intonation

You can read ahead and opt to perform this task yourself, but trust me when I say you need a mountain of patience to get it right. Resetting the intonation is an absolute nightmare for even experienced guitar players. Bad intonations are the burden of all fretted instruments tuned with equal temperament. Anyone who has already tried doing this on a Floyd Rose will know what I'm talking about. Anyway, on to the details.

Just like re-stringing, the type of bridge will be the biggest influence on the way the intonation is to be done. The basic job is to make sure each string plays the right note on each fret as it is supposed to. Having the 1st and the 12th frets at the same relative note usually sets things right. You can use a good chromatic tuner to check the notes in between. Always remember to keep the string as closely tuned to the proper note before you begin. Also have the string as stretched out as you can, so it won't de-tune while you're setting the intonation.

The process is important if not mandatory, especially if you're performing with other musicians. By yourself, you can ignore the problem (to a limit). But when you're playing with others, you will immediately figure out the differences in tuning, making this task as necessary as it is painful.

The whole thing basically goes like this:

    If we are checking the high E, an E on open and an E flat on the 12th fret, it means the octave on the string is shorter than the same on the fretboard. Push the saddle closer to the neck to shorten the string length.
    If the E on the 12th fret is sharp, it means the string is too short to fit the octave. So you have to pull the saddle away from the neck to increase string length.

Fixed Bridges

The saddles are usually preset on acoustic guitars (each brand has a rigid saddle at factory settings), so there's nothing to do on them. To change the intonation, you have to change the action. If the saddles are adjustable, use the screws on the bottom side of the bridge to change the saddle position.

Floating Bridges

Tremolo bridges are where the pain is, especially the Floyd Rose. There are two reasons for this:

Since the bridge is floating, if it is not set to perfect zero, you'll never get the right intonation.
The intonation lock (small black screw under each string) needs to be set loose, which if done while the string is tight, launches the string lock clamp off its base.

Therefore, the usual way to set the intonation is as follows:

    *Tune string to relative note.
    *Check 12th fret. You now know which way to adjust the saddle using the fine-tuning screw (behind the saddle) and by how much.
    *Completely slacken the string. Loosen the intonation screw.
    *Adjust the saddle. Tighten the intonation screw.
    *Re-tune the string and check for the note on 12th again.
    *Rinse and repeat for each string.

The easy way out is using the intonation key (aka 'The Key'). There is one for the OFR, then another for a few Edge trems. The problem is, the tremolos aren't all the same, so the key will also change. If you're not careful with them, you'll end up scratching the coat on the bridge. But they do make the job very easy, like so:

    *Clamp the key in as shown in its manual.
    *Check the note on the 12th fret.
    *Tighten or loosen the knob on the key to effectively pull or push the saddle.
    *Set the saddle to the right place and move to next string.

A tool like this does belong in your maintenance kit, provided you got the right one (and a good one; the threading on some pieces can be clumsy, letting the knob slip while you're turning it). OFR keys are fairly easy to get. The other tremolos with string-locking saddles may or may not have one (ZR trems come with their own intonation adjustment screw).

Online Money Earning / What is PayPal and How Does it Work?
« on: August 11, 2012, 10:01:42 PM »
For an Internet user who actively participates in online shopping, PayPal must not be a new term. However, for the uninitiated, knowing what is PayPal and how does it work can be an interesting task. PayPal is an online money transaction facility that you're entitled to, once you get registered for it on the official website of PayPal.

In the era of E commerce websites, it is possible to purchase anything online and hence issues about safer money transactions are of paramount importance. PayPal is hailed to be the world's most popular online transaction account and many online purchases are made through PayPal. It has evolved to become one of the safest and hence, most popular mode of money transfer via emails.

What is PayPal: How Does PayPal Work?

PayPal has emerged to be the most trusted medium for online money transactions. You can log in to PayPal's official website and sign up with a valid email account. After that, you can get access to nearly thousands of online stores that will allow you to carry out transactions. Even on sites of Internet biggies like eBay, most of their transactions are through PayPal. Now, that we're aware about 'what is PayPal', knowing about how does it work will give us more insight about this excellent money transfer option, spread over 190 markets in 24 currencies.

Working of PayPal

Once you visit the official website of PayPal, you've to sign up for your account type. On the official website, there are three account options available for customers viz., personal, premier and business. Personal accounts are for those, who wish to pay their money online while premier accounts are for those who wish to get paid after selling their products online.

For merchants and traders, who operate under a group or company, there is a separate account that they can get registered under and that is known as business account. In case, you've registered for personal accounts, you'll have to choose your payment method. Generally, people use credit cards and even online traders and shop managers recommend the use of credit cards. Similarly, for business accounts, you have to link and confirm your credit cards registration on the website. After all this, you'll be required to reply to an email send to you for confirmation and once you accept it, you can start the online transaction.

BBA Discussion Forum / All about Internet Banking
« on: August 11, 2012, 09:41:47 PM »
What is Internet Banking?

Internet banking is used widely by masses, and has numerous benefits to offer. Nowadays, all banks provide online banking facility to their customers as an added advantage. Gone are the days, when one had to transact with a bank which was only in his local limits. Online banking has opened the doors for all customers, to operate beyond boundaries. Nowadays, people are so busy in their work lives, that they don't even have time to go to the bank for conducting their banking transactions. Internet banking enable people to carry out most of their banking transactions using a safe website, which is operated by their respective banks. It provides many features and functions to their customers, and enables them to view their account balance, transfer money from their account to another account (be it in their respective bank or any other bank), view their account summary, etc.

In this procedure, many financial transactions can be carried out by simply utilizing a computer with an Internet connection. The necessary things that a person needs for using online banking are, an active bank account with balance in it for transactions, debit or a credit card number, customer's user ID, bank account number, the Internet banking PIN number, and a PC with access to the web. People using Internet banking are certainly benefited by the online services their respective banks are providing them with. The primary reason why it is so famous and mostly used is that, customers are allowed to bank at non-working hours.

Banks create their banking interfaces and websites in a viewable and user-friendly manner, which enable customers to conduct their financial transactions with ease. If they are stuck in any process while performing their online transactions, banks have another helpful facility that is 'phone banking', wherein customers can call the bank's toll-free number and get assistance in completing their transactions. Electronic bill payment, viewing and downloading financial records, and money transfers are some of the general transactions which the customers generally carry out. All online banking services, provided by some banks, are free of cost.

When a customer views the bank's website, there are many options available, but to execute those transactions, he would obligatorily need to log into his virtual account. Without logging in, he won't be allowed to carry out any kind of the transactions. Initially, when he opens an account with the bank, the bank gives a welcome kit which contains important documents that include the checkbook; a document on which the customer's user ID, online banking password, phone banking password, and account number is embedded. The kit also contains some other confidential data, the credit or debit card, and the card details. The website will prompt the user to enter the necessary details like the Internet banking password and account number, and then will display his account information. In this stage, he can carry out all functions that are available on the website.

With regards to the password authentication and encryption, high security is maintained, as there is a chance of hackers getting unauthorized access to the customer's account and performing malpractices. However, banks keep their online security systems up-to-date to prevent such scenarios. Moreover, banks also suggest their customers to keep on changing passwords periodically. They also implement some security measures like using unique login IDs, transaction codes, using two passwords, security tokens which generate automatically changing passwords, etc.

The Internet banking facilities provided by banks differ from bank to bank, and country to country. To know all online banking services and processes, one has to thoroughly refer to the guides which were made available in the welcome kit. Moreover, proper care has to be taken regarding the confidential documents as, Internet banking frauds are on an increase.

Use of email / Email Security Tips
« on: August 11, 2012, 09:39:35 PM »
Best Practices to Secure Your Email

Create a Strong Password

One of the first tip to protect your emails account from hackers is to create a strong password and keeping it confidential. Viruses and worms have the capability of guessing weak passwords . Also to memorize them, we often create passwords based on our names, date of births etc. which makes your email account more vulnerable. The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team advises people to use mnemonics, that is, instead of a password like 'michaelsmith' you can create your password as MNIMS which stands for 'my name is michael smith'. Mnemonics generated passwords are stronger and less vulnerable to be hacked.

Identify Phishing Emails

The college of New Jersey explains that phishing is a scam where a hacker sends out emails that look legitimate and like they are from established nationally recognized companies, to try to steal your information and possibly your email passwords. Mails asking to update your bank accounts, passwords are some of the common examples. These mails are not legitimate, but are made to resemble one by employing social engineering techniques. Now the question is how would you identify phishing emails? A phishing email commonly uses the following words, 'verify your account', 'you have won a lottery', 'if you don't respond within 48 hours, your account will be closed' etc. Whenever you find such emails in your inbox, don't reply immediately and instead verify with the bank/company if they have sent that mail.

Secure your Computer

Update your anti-virus and anti-spyware software. You may think that your computer is protected as you have installed an anti-virus software, but hackers think about how to break your security gate all the time. Once they find a loop-hole in your computer's security, they modify the viruses accordingly. The solution is to update your security software so that you are always one step ahead of them. Apart from this, you should always update your email security settings.

Be Cautious While Opening Attachments

One of the most common ways of sending emails is by email attachments. Whenever you open an attachment, check for the URL. Be cautious even if the attachment is being sent by someone you know as many viruses can 'spoof' the return addresses. Also turn off the option of automatically downloading attachments.

Follow the Basic Safety Measures

Try using your email account at secure locations and remember to logout whenever accessing it from a shared computer. Change your passwords frequently and be aware of the latest happenings with regard to viruses, email scams, email security policy etc.

Along with the innumerable benefits, computers and internet have left us vulnerable to cyberterrorism. But the good thing is that we can prevent ourselves from being a victim, if we follow the above mentioned email safety tips. We all need to be well informed and guard ourselves against hacking, phishing etc. The hackers thrive on ignorance and casual behavior of people. I hope after reading this article, you will surely adopt a cautious approach whenever you use your email. The fight against cyber crime can only be successful if we all are better prepared and responsible.

One in all PC tips / Basic Computer Security Tips
« on: August 11, 2012, 09:36:30 PM »
Everyone talks about computer security i.e being secure online but how many of us actually practice the effective security tips? Then when hackers or viruses attack, we look around to attach blame. Well, prevention is better than cure, so it pays in the long run to secure your system in advance.

Tip #1: Set up user accounts

One computer, many users, is a security disaster waiting to happen. Your files and data are your personal, private content and should be protected accordingly. To prevent other users from seeing or accessing your data, set up user accounts on your PC. A user account shows an individual's specific data and not what is present on the entire system. It also specifies privileges on shared data, such as deleting/editing operations and what software can be installed on the machine.

This feature is especially useful when kids and adults use the same machine. What if your child accesses your important work files and deletes them by mistake? With a separate user account, he/she can only view certain files and cannot modify or delete them. Even if you are the sole user of the PC, set up a guest account, in case someone else needs to use the computer.

Tip #2: Secure your wireless network
With wired Internet access, there's little risk of someone encroaching on your network. But wireless networks do have holes in their security, so as the owner of the network, you need to be vigilant. Setting up password-protected network access is the first step. You need to assign a network name and password to your Wi-Fi network. Use the latest wireless encryption methods like WPA or WPA2. Do not reveal your network password to others.

Tip #3: Arm your computer with an anti-virus program
The best defense is a good offense. One of the most basic computer security guidelines is installing an anti-virus software. Installing security programs like an anti-virus, keeps your computer round-the-clock safe against viruses, malware, Trojan worms etc. and other malicious programs. For better protection, try to install complete security suites, that provide Internet security and firewalls along with anti-virus software.

Tip #4: Be regular in updates and virus scans

Just installing an anti-virus program will not protect your PC. You need to keep it up-to-date with regular virus signature and threat updates. New viruses and malware programs emerge online each day. Another bad trait of viruses is that they keep trying to find new ways to enter an unsuspecting computer. The only way to counter such attacks is to update your security programs on a regular basis. You should also scan your computer regularly for dangerous programs. Schedule periodic scans, once-a-month scans, scanning new added devices and automatic full system scans, to ensure your PC is threat-free.

Tip #5: Install parental control software for kid-friendly computer usage

Keeping your computer secure definitely involves keeping your kids safe from cyber enemies. Aside from explicit and adult content, you need to filter and monitor what your kid is up to online. Social networking sites in particular, are fun online places to socialize but they are also preying grounds for the depraved. Parental control software allows you to set filters and block sites as well as receive warnings when suspicious activity is taking place online.

Tip #6: Block unwanted search results

You can even change your web browser's security settings to block certain sites and filter out objectionable content. Such settings are not as powerful as parental control software but it helps to be extra secure. You can find this feature in the Tools option of most browsers. With search engines like Google, you can fiddle with search preferences settings.

Tip #7: Download wisely
Whether it is a picture, an MP3 or a game, downloaded files are an excellent way for malicious software to enter your computer. Once you download and install or use a file, there's no telling what it will do to your machine. So be extra careful when it comes to downloading. Download files from trusted and preferably certified sites. Sites offering free, cracked versions of software programs are especially dangerous, as some cracks can contain malware.

When a download begins, you are asked to save the file before the downloading actually starts. Read the file name and its extension carefully, to ensure what you want is being downloaded. While installing a program, read the license agreement and make sure, only the program you want is being installed. Sometimes spyware and hidden programs are bundled into the installer program, and are installed secretly along with your software. Scan your PC for threats after downloading files from the Internet.

Tip #8: Be careful with emails

Getting and sending emails is easy, going through your inbox for mail, that is actually relevant, is not. Email inboxes are storehouses of junk mail, spam, advertisements, forwards, mail and many times, a hidden threat. You can keep your inbox sorted and clutter-free by using spam blockers and filters. Threat-wise, try to avoid opening emails from senders or addresses you don't know.

A key sign of a malicious email is poor language. Weird, nonsensical text or poor grammar or even bogus-seeming email addresses are some signs of a harmful email. Be especially wary of email attachments. Check the file extension. Files with .exe, .pif, .com,.bin or .bat extensions, can be malicious. If you do not know the sender of the email, do not open or download such files, just delete the mail. Instead of opening the attachment from the mail itself, save the file, let it download and scan it, before opening it.

Tip #9: Secure your data with backups

Sometimes no matter what steps you take, you lose data. Part of being secure is having a fail-safe or backup to fall back on, in case something bad happens. So in case a virus has attacked your files or data is accidentally deleted, your data is never really lost, if you have a backup of it. Backup your data regularly, either by storing it on physical devices like CDs or by backing it up on a network. Set a system restore point for your PC, so in the event of a system crash, you can restore your PC to a particular working state with your data intact.

Tip #10: Be smart with your passwords

Passwords are supposed to keep your individual settings and data safe, so you need to keep their true value or the actual password safe. This means, do not write down all your passwords on a piece of paper and keep it lying around. With numerous passwords, it's understandable that remembering them all is difficult. So you can write them down but the place where you store this info, should be secure. And once in a while, please change your passwords. If in case, they are revealed, updating the passwords can render all hacking attempts as naught. Another safety precaution is the "remember me" option in most secure sites. If multiple users access the same PC, do not select this option.

The above computer security tips are just the tip of the iceberg, when it comes to securing your PC. For every good advancement in technology, cyber evil seems to get even more evil, so it pays to be vigilant in today's cyberspace.

Making a Business Plan / How to Start Your Own Computer Repair Business
« on: August 10, 2012, 11:36:59 PM »
The first step that you must take when you are thinking of starting a business, is to set the right price for your service. Time is money, and you will probably charge by the hour. Earlier, computer or PC repair shops were mainly called in to remove virus that had infected a computer. Nowadays, their job is to keep out viruses, before they actually enter the computer. As they say, 'prevention is better than cure'. The next step in starting a computer repair business, is to identify your customers. Do you want to sell to businesses or to private individuals? You need to find a niche, so that you can specialize in a small sector of the market. You also need to make a decision to quit your day job and operate your business the whole day. If you don't have any background in the field of finance, you need to employ accountants to record your transactions.

Some Tips on Starting a Computer Repair Business

You need to market your business by sending mailers or distributing flyers. You can also promote your business on the Internet, through SEO (search engine optimization) or email marketing. You need to establish trust with the client because they are giving a computer that may have a Social Security number, credit card numbers, and so on. The technician should supply his credentials, so that the client is assured that the techie can do the job.

You also need to keep the technical skills up-to-date. You should train your workers, maybe even encourage them to take certifications, such as the CompTIA A+. You should have employees that have good social skills. Before interviewing candidates for your job, make them fill an application form, in which they can list their technology-related skills, so that you know what questions to ask. If you cannot solve a particular problem, you can find help online by posting the question on one of the message boards.

You can run your business from the garage in your house, so you will save money since you don't have to lease space for your business. Operating a home-based business may be quite a change, if you are used to working in a large company. You will need space to keep a few desktop computers, and you will also need cabinets to store away stuff.

You can charge a diagnostics fee to test all the hardware and software. If you cannot figure out the problem, you can refund the diagnostics fee. After you have determined what the problem, you can give a written estimate so that you can agree on the cost first. You can repair your client's computers by remote access over the Internet. You can connect to the client's computer and control its mouse, while the client watches you solve his problem. Computer repair can be done on-site, so the client doesn't have to go through the trouble of disconnecting the computer and leaving it at your shop. In case of an off-site computer repair, which is cheaper, the client has to drop off and pick up the computer.

You are competing with the likes of Best Buy's Geek Squad, and Circuit City's Firedog (which is now closed). You are also competing with companies such as RadioShack and CompUSA. However, you have an advantage over these national stores because you are focused on the local level. Some small businesses also outsource their PC repair services and maintenance to offshore companies such as You can get started in computer repair by getting a franchise from Fast-teks or Computer Troubleshooters. You can buy computer parts from an online retailer such as Newegg or an auction site such as eBay.

You can become a drive saver or a data doctor that recovers data, if your client's hard drive has crashed. Now that you know how to start your own computer repair business, you'll be able to get around to starting a PC repair business, which I'm sure will be successful if everything goes well.

One in all PC tips / LED Vs. LCD Monitor
« on: August 10, 2012, 11:22:37 PM »
LED Vs. LCD Monitor Review:

Let me begin this comparison between LED and LCD monitors with an explanation of fundamental differences between these two types.

Basic Difference
LED and LCD monitors are based on the same basic technology for image display, but differ in the kind of backlighting used. While these monitors use cold cathode fluorescent lamps for backlighting, the latter use light emitting diodes. This is the prime difference between the two display technologies. So LED monitors are in actuality, a type of LCD monitors, or an improvement over them.

Unlike CRT monitors that generate their own light through cathode ray incidence on fluorescent materials, LCD displays have to rely on external lighting, as their display is created through manipulation of light, passing through polarized liquid crystals. The backlighting affects picture quality substantially and light shed by LEDs offers superior picture quality, compared to LCDs.

This is because LEDs offer much more gradation in intensity and a larger light wavelength spectrum, giving a truer color quality. These types of monitors offer a better dynamic contrast ratio too. So if you compare LED and LCD monitors from a gaming perspective and other intensive graphic applications, LED monitors are surely better choices, as they provide vivid and more lifelike colors, with better gradation.

There are two types of LED backlighting techniques used. One is RGB dynamic LED and the other one is edge LED. The former type of backlighting uses LEDs placed behind the LCD TV or monitor screens, while the latter uses LEDs placed around the monitor rim, from where light is made to diffuse behind the screen. Since LEDs are placed around the rim on edge LED monitors, they can be a lot slimmer than conventional LCDs.

LED monitors cure one of the basic problems with LCD TVs, which is the inability to display true black colors. They can produce true black hues, by switching off LEDs entirely, increasing the 'blackness' quotient of black colors, providing better contrast in the process.

Power Consumption
LED monitors are a very recently introduced technology and they are preferred over LCD monitors, because of the amazingly rich picture quality and comfort of viewing. One more advantage that LED monitors have over LCD ones is the power consumption factor. LED monitors require a lot less power to operate than cold cathode fluorescent lamps. This property can be attributed to the inherently low energy needs of an LED.

LED monitors are also a lot softer on the eyes than LCD monitors which make them popular choices for people who work for long hours on their desktop computers. Their power consumption is as much as 40% lesser than conventional LCD monitors. They are also a lot more eco-friendly, because mercury is not used in their production. LEDs last longer than cold cathode fluorescent lamps, with little reduction in their power output over time, which makes these monitors long-lasting.

One major factor that has been holding back LED technology from reaching the masses is the high price factor. The manufacturing of these devices is a bit costlier currently, compared to LCD displays which have raised their overall price. However, the cost gap is slowly lowering with time, as the demand for the superior LED back-lit displays is on the rise, all over the world. Even laptop computers of today, come equipped with LED displays.

It will take time for the manufacturing costs of this technology to go down, but when it does, it will surely replace conventional LCD monitors in large numbers.

One in all PC tips / What to Look for When Buying a Used Laptop?
« on: August 10, 2012, 11:16:59 PM »
Although most people choose to buy a new laptop or a refurbished laptops, there are some who would rather want to go in for a used laptop. This is especially true, if one is planning to buy a laptop for kids. The kids may not use the laptop as carefully and in the process may spoil it. Hence used laptops is a great option, when you want to buy a laptop for kids. However, that does not mean that one does not check the used laptop at all and opt to buy a piece that first comes our way. One should be aware of different tricks, one wants to buy a used laptop, so that one is able to at least get a reasonably good laptop and not end up with a laptop, which is as good as trash.

Things to Look Out for When Buying a Laptop:

When we want to buy a new laptop, we ask what to look for in a laptop. Same should be the question one asks, when one wants to buy a used laptop as well. The features to look for when buying used laptop are as mentioned below.

Although you are planning to opt for a used laptop, it is important that you consider a laptop, which at least has a decent good processor. It is very difficult and tricky to upgrade the processor. If the processor is of a very old version, then there are chances that the latest software may not work, as expected.

RAM: The RAM size should at least be 1 GB, however, be sure that you may not be able to install certain software on the laptop due to want of RAM space. Hence, many experts are of the opinion that the RAM size should at least be 2 GB. If there are a number of software installed on the laptop and the RAM size is rather small, then the chances of the laptop working at a decent speed are minimized.

Hard Drive: Gone are the days when the computers would have a hard drive of 1 GB. These are the days of computers with Terabytes memory. Although that is not possible in case of laptops, it is necessary that you have decently good memory. This will ensure you do not have to be bothered about the laptop running out of space. At the same time, you are able to install software which do require a large amount of memory.

Software: Often times, people do check the physical appearance of the laptop, but forget or ignore the software aspect. It is important to make sure that the laptop does indeed boot into the operating system. A test should be conducted to ensure that the hard disk is working fine. If the laptop does have a CD ROM player, then you will want to play a CD in it.

Screen: After reading about the basic features that one has to be on the look for, we will find out the points to consider in terms of physical features. Since it is a used laptop, you will have to make sure that there are no dead pixels on the screen. The simple method to check the same is to turn the desktop background to blue and closely examine the screen for dead pixels. If there are just a couple of pixels, then you may want to let it pass, but in case you observe some clusters, then it is best not to buy the said laptop.

This is not something that you check, when you buy a new laptop. However, it is an important point to consider, when one buys a used laptop. Many times it is seen that the keys of used laptops do not function or they do not return to their normal position after they are pressed, etc. In such cases, there are chances that the keyboard is ruined. Similarly it is important to check the Caps Lock key, Num Lock key, space bar, tab key, shift key, Ctrl key, etc. as well. The best method to check is to open a document and try typing.

Battery: It is the battery with which the laptop becomes a portable device. The most common complaints, when it comes to used laptops are that of battery. Conducting a battery test is therefore essential. Switch the laptop on and plug it into the charger. When the battery is charged to 100% unplug the power cable. Continue to use the laptop and check the battery at regular interval. If you see that the battery drains very fast in a matter of few minutes, then you will want to consider your decision about the laptop.

Wireless Connectivity: When one is using a laptop, it is but natural that one will use wireless Internet connectivity. Therefore, this is an aspect, which one needs to checks, when one buys a laptop. Conduct a connectivity test on the laptop to ensure that the laptop is able to successfully detect networks and does not need any kind of special configuration. After the laptop has connected surf the net for some time.

Fresh Graduate / How to Answer Difficult Job Interview Questions
« on: August 10, 2012, 10:54:06 PM »
An interviewer's task is to get a feel for you as a person. Asking tricky questions during a job interview is a sure way to evaluate how well a candidate copes under pressure. High pressure questions and difficult interview questions are asked in an attempt to assess if a candidate is right for the available position or not. To eliminate fears about how to answer difficult job interview questions familiarise yourself with them. Ahead of your job interview, prepare answers to tricky job interview questions and don't get caught off guard. Check out the following tricky job interview questions and find easy was to answer them. Don't let fears of the unknown ruin your chances of landing a great job. Follow these simple job interview guidelines and answer difficult interview questions with ease.

1. What are your weaknesses and how do you remedy these?

We all have character defects and areas of our jobs that are weaker than others. While this is true to every worker, no one likes to admit to their imperfections. When an interviewer asks this difficult question, there are specific ways to answer. Never admit to weaknesses that will hinder you from performing your core role. Rather try to specify a defect that is a weakness but almost favours or benefits the company directly, should they hire you. An example of such a weakness is being a perfectionist. While being a perfectionist suggests you pay attention to detail, if not managed appropriately, this can sometimes slow your productivity down. To counter such a weakness, you could express how important time management is to you and how you apply this to your daily responsibilities. As mentioned before, prepare for this difficult interview question ahead of time so as to avoid being put on the spot.

2. Name a challenge you have had to overcome in your career and how did you do so?

The reason why interviewers ask this tricky job interview question is to directly assess how well you mange with adversity. By asking such a question, the interviewer is not so concerned with what the problem was, but more so how you managed to overcome this problem. To answer this difficult question, again hold back on getting too excited over your troubles. Highlight a situation that was challenging but not colossally damaging to your career. An example of an answer to this question would be; managing a difficult staff member and the innovative ways you implemented in order to remedy the situation. Again you don't want to confess that you make regular mistakes when facing challenges. Rather attempt to display your proactive stance in order to avoid such situations.

3. Why are you looking for a new job?

The most important thing to keep in mind when faced with this tricky interview question is never slate your previous employer. As tempting as this may be or as much as the job interviewer pry's, never ever bad mouth a previous employer. Although you may have valid reason to want to leave, it never looks professional when Job Seekers blame their employers for having to look for a new job. You are entitled to your opinion but remember to use tact and always be respectful. Try to answer this difficult job interview question with a positive statement such as seeking greater job satisfaction, career advancements or the desire to apply your skills to a new industry.

4. Yes or No questions.

Never answer a job interview question with only a yes or no answer. Closed ended answers are just as bad as the interviewer asking you a difficult, closed ended question. Always justify a yes or no answer with substantial back up. Give examples and display your comprehensive knowledge on the matter so as to ensure you are giving an impressionable answer.

5. Why should we hire you?

While no one likes to advertise where their weaknesses lie, society has also taught us to be modest and humble. When asked this difficult job interview question, the most important thing to remember is to sell yourself as best you can. When approached with such a question, this is your opportunity to blow your trumpet loud and clear. The pre job interview preparation will come in handy now, as you will need to be on your toes when answering such a tricky question. Highlight relevant accomplishments and abilities you possess that are specific to the interviewer's requirements. Be sure to assess the details of the job ad prior to your interview in order to answer this difficult question.

6. What salary expectations do you have?

Money matters are bound to come up during a job interview. One of the most difficult questions to answer during a job interview is what salary package you are looking to receive. Prior to your job interview research salary surveys so that you have a clear indication of what the industry standard is. Market related salaries are a good basis to motivate your salary requirements with. The more flexible you are and open to negotiations you are the better. Don't forget to take into account fringe benefits that may be offered to you. While fringe benefits may not be tangible funds, they do contribute significantly to your total cost to company.


The most common feature when looking for ways in which to address difficult job interview questions is to prepare before. The more research and preparation you put in before your job interview, the better your answers will be. Preparing ahead of time is always the best way to eliminate anxiety and job interview stress. Eventuate for these difficult job interview questions and answer them articulately and without any hesitation.

Fresh Graduate / 3 Tips to Dazzle in a Job or Promotion Interview
« on: August 10, 2012, 10:42:58 PM »
Tip 1: Dress to enhance your personal brand


You know that your visual impact is very important. It's your first way of sending the right message. Ways to do this effectively are:

    *Think about your environment and audience before deciding on your attire.
    *Think about what message about yourself you want to send to your interviewer. Do you want him/her to think you are highly controlled, independent thinking, powerful or creative?
    *Make sure your outfit makes you feel confident and enhances your strong points and minimizes your weaknesses. If you need to wear a power suit, bring in some colour to compliment your skin tone.
    *You want to look natural. You don't want those 'You look smart, are you going for an interview?' comments.


Tip 2: Be prepared and know your strengths

Much like you update your CV, you need to anticipate questions and prepare responses that highlight your key achievements or strengths. Consider the following when you prepare:


    *Write your key achievements and positive qualities down.
    *Ask yourself what the ideal profile would be for the opportunity and then link your qualities to this.
    *Keep responses concise, one of the key mistakes people make during interviews is to give too much in an effort to impress. If they want to know more they will ask.
    *Phrase responses neutrally and don't start every sentence with 'I'. Yes you are talking about yourself but too many 'I' messages can become too much.


Tip 3: Relax and interact

An interview is stressful and even if you are well prepared, your body will react and produce stress responses, apply the following to ensure that nerves don't sink your performance:

    *Acknowledge the nerves and frame it as 'excitement' this will help you to portray enthusiasm.
    *Open your posture and breathe deeply to add physical relaxation.
    *Listen actively, we often become so preoccupied with 'saying' the right thing that we tend not to listen fully to the questions.
    *Slow the rate of your speech down. This will generate confidence and will give you time to structure responses.

Pages: 1 [2] 3 4 ... 12