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Topics - farahdina

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English / Sweet Memories of Our Childhood
« on: February 26, 2020, 01:40:34 PM »
Please see the attachment.

English / The benefits of teaching second-language literature
« on: February 23, 2020, 04:25:57 PM »
Three models of literature-based teaching in the language classroom have been developed, each one based on a different and compelling reason for the practice:

The Cultural Model. Advocates of this model believe that the value of literature lies in its unique distillation of culture. In this model, the class reads fiction or poetry as part of their instruction about history, politics, social mores and traditions.

The Language Model.
Given that literature is built from language, it opens a path for students to construct their own understanding of words and phrases. According to this model, reading is of value for the same reason it’s valuable in a student’s native language: it gives them the tools for more effective communication.

The Personal Growth Model. In this model, the focus is on engagement. Teachers use literature to help students understand themselves better and connect with the world around them in a deeper way by exploring universal themes.

To reap the full benefits of literature in the classroom, you can certainly combine all three models. Language, culture and personal growth are intrinsically connected and it makes sense to teach them in conjunction with each other.
Here are the specific ways in which students expand their language, culture and personal growth from the experience of learning literature in a second language:

•   Literature offers experiences that can only be accessed through the target language. That funny play on words in a scene of Shakespeare won’t have any meaning if explained out of context. The relationship between France and African countries like Algeria comes to life more vividly in light of the writings of Camus. Such experiences give students a front-row seat to history and culture which would be impossible to replicate otherwise.

•   Literature gives students a unique understanding of the target culture. Teaching idioms from a textbook is not memorable. But reading an idiom in a conversation between two strong characters will surely stick out in your students’ minds. They can also witness life through the eyes of soldiers, preachers, writers and statesmen in a way that gives insight into the people and events that shaped the culture.

•   Literature makes seamless connections between the language and other subjects. We all know that language is more relevant to students if they can connect it to other disciplines like art, history, math or instruction in their native language. Sometimes language teachers need to explicitly spell out the connections between the target language and these other disciplines. But literature makes these connections effortless, allowing us to teach to the whole person rather than targeting language solely.

•   Literature provides better understanding of the universal nature of language. How many times have you told your students that learning a second language helps them understand their own language better? Literature brings that point to life. Students will see examples of metaphors, symbols, puns and analogies that make them think about similar constructions in their native language and the universal truths behind them, connecting language and personal growth in a meaningful way.

Internet Source:

English / “Toward a Concept of Postmodernism” by Ihab Hassan
« on: February 23, 2020, 04:13:20 PM »
An excellent piece of writing to understand Postmodernism.

Bangla Literature / Some Interesting Facts about Bengali Language
« on: May 04, 2019, 01:47:30 PM »
Some Interesting Facts about Bengali Language

Bengali is often known as the second most beautiful language in the world after French because of its charm and touch of love and sophistication.  Once a Bengali poet said that – ‘A mori Bangla bhasa, moder garab moder asha’ which roughly translates to – ‘Oh! How I praise Bengali language, it is our pride, it is our only hope’. Bengali is the seventh most spoken native language in the world, with over 210 million speakers. Here are some interesting facts about Bengali Language;

1)   Official Status of Bengali Language
Bengali is the national language of Bangladesh and one of the 23 official languages in India. It is the official language of the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and in Barak Valley of Assam. It is also a major language in the Indian union territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is also an official language of Sierra Leone. In 2002, Bengali was named an honorary official language of Sierra Leone in honor of the 5300 Bangladeshi troops who were part of the Sierra Leone Peacekeeping Force.

2)   Bengali Grammar

The Bengali grammar is gender free! That’s good news for English speakers. Although there are no gendered nouns in Bengali, but there is a lot of subtle inflection in spoken Bengali which can take some time to master. Verbs are especially difficult because they are heavily inflected, and the wrong inflection changes their case and your overall meaning. It can either turn into a hilarious situation or a horrifying one.

3)   National Anthem of India is written in Bengali

Jana Gana Mana, the National Anthem of India is written in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore. Rabindranath Tagore was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music. He has been awarded the Nobel Prize for Gitanjali, which was written in Bengali and has probably written the best poems and songs in Bengal so far.

4)   Some English words are borrowed from Bengali
Various words are shared with lots of languages. There are some common English words that we use too often, but we don’t know where they have been derived from. Two such words are Bungalow and jute that are actually derived from Bengali.

5)   Bengali Words of different origins

Bengali has as many as 100,000 separate words, of which 50,000 are its own, 21,100 are originated from Sanskrit, the mother of all languages and the remainder loanwords from Austro-Asiatic and other foreign languages. Because of centuries of contact with Europeans, Turkic peoples, and Persians, the Bengali language has absorbed numerous words from foreign languages. The most common borrowings from foreign languages come from three different kinds of contact. After close contact with several indigenous Austro-Asiatic languages and later the Mughal invasion whose court language was Persian, numerous Chagatai, Arabic, and Persian words were absorbed into the lexicon.


Departments / Ten Fascinating Facts About Gabriel García Márquez
« on: March 17, 2019, 10:00:17 PM »
1. He had one of the more iconic literary feuds of the last century.
2. His relationship with his mother was a bit odd.
3. He determined he was going to marry his wife when she was just nine years old.
4. He was inspired to write by an incorrect translation of Kafka’s The Metamorphosis (1915).
5. He once toured the American South in a Greyhound.
6. He had a strong interest in politics, and was a committed socialist.
7. As a result, he was labeled a subversive in the United States.
8. Over the years, he maintained a friendship with Fidel Castro.
9. An obscure Mexican ventriloquist’s poem was published under Marquez’s name.
10. He never let anyone adapt One Hundred Years of Solitude into a film.


18th Century Literature / Some Famous Quotes of Alexander Pope
« on: July 15, 2018, 03:25:24 PM »
1.   To err is human; to forgive, divine.                                                                       ‘An Essay on Criticism l. 525 (1711)’

2.   Teach me to feel another's woe, to hide the fault I see, that mercy I to others show, that mercy show to me.                                                                                                       ‘The Universal Prayer' (1738)

3.   Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.                                                            An Essay on Criticism l. 625 (1711)

4.   It often happens that those are the best people whose characters have been most injured by slanderers: as we usually find that to be the sweetest fruit which the birds have been picking at.

5.   Act well your part, there all the honour lies.

6.   Strength of mind is exercise, not rest.                                                                                  Owen Ruffhead (1769)

7.   A little learning is a dangerous thing; Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring.               
An Essay on Criticism l. 215 (1711)

8.   To be angry is to revenge the faults of others on ourselves.

9.   Some people will never learn anything, for this reason, because they understand everything too soon.

Every Obstacle Presents an Opportunity to Improve Our Condition

There once was a very wealthy and curious king. This king had a huge boulder placed in the middle of a road. Then he hid nearby to see if anyone would try to remove the gigantic rock from the road.

The first people to pass by were some of the king’s wealthiest merchants and courtiers. Rather than moving it, they simply walked around it. A few loudly blamed the King for not maintaining the roads. Not one of them tried to move the boulder.

Finally, a peasant came along. His arms were full of vegetables. When he got near the boulder, rather than simply walking around it as the others had, the peasant put down his load and tried to move the stone to the side of the road. It took a lot of effort but he finally succeeded.

The peasant gathered up his load and was ready to go on his way when he say a purse lying in the road where the boulder had been. The peasant opened the purse. The purse was stuffed full of gold coins and a note from the king. The king’s note said the purse’s gold was a reward for moving the boulder from the road.

The king showed the peasant what many of us never understand: every obstacle presents an opportunity to improve our condition.

English / Failure is a Part of Learning
« on: March 19, 2017, 10:53:37 AM »
The Elephant Rope

As a man was passing the elephants, he suddenly stopped, confused by the fact that these huge creatures were being held by only a small rope tied to their front leg. No chains, no cages. It was obvious that the elephants could, at anytime, break away from their bonds but for some reason, they did not.

He saw a trainer nearby and asked why these animals just stood there and made no attempt to get away. “Well,” trainer said, “when they are very young and much smaller we use the same size rope to tie them and, at that age, it’s enough to hold them. As they grow up, they are conditioned to believe they cannot break away. They believe the rope can still hold them, so they never try to break free.”

The man was amazed. These animals could at any time break free from their bonds but because they believed they couldn’t, they were stuck right where they were.

Like the elephants, how many of us go through life hanging onto a belief that we cannot do something, simply because we failed at it once before?

Failure is part of learning; we should never give up the struggle in life.

English / Shake off Your Problems
« on: March 19, 2017, 10:47:28 AM »
Shake off Your Problems

A man’s favorite donkey falls into a deep precipice. He can’t pull it out no matter how hard he tries. He therefore decides to bury it alive.

Soil is poured onto the donkey from above. The donkey feels the load, shakes it off, and steps on it. More soil is poured.
It shakes it off and steps up. The more the load was poured, the higher it rose. By noon, the donkey was grazing in green pastures.

After much shaking off (of problems) and stepping up (learning from them), One will graze in GREEN PASTURES.

English / Few Ways to Remove Depression Naturally
« on: March 15, 2017, 01:31:43 PM »
1.  Consider why you might feel depressed: Sometimes depression is a symptom of something circumstantial in our life, rather than biochemical imbalances. Are we suffering from creative blocks? Is our body failing us? Are we facing financial ruin? We need to be honest with ourself about what might be the problem of our life, and make an effort to get to the root of why we might be feeling depressed.
2.  Move your body: Exercise releases happy-making endorphins, which act like natural anti-depressants.
3. Never skip a meal: Keeping our blood sugar stable reduces mood swings.
4.  Expose yourself to sunlight, which can boost mood and increase Vitamin D levels.
5.    Meditate: Meditation's effects on mood are well documented. Settling our mind can lift our mood, in addition to a whole host of other health benefits.
6. Make efforts to boost your mental health by being more authentic in all aspects of your life: Too often, we walk around wearing masks, pretending to be something we're not. We fake it at the schoolyard, in the boardroom, in the bedroom, with friends and neighbors-- and then we wonder why we wind up depressed. So, we need to stop that.
7.  Talk it out: Sometimes just finding someone we trust who will help us work through our feelings can make all the difference in the world.

English / Some Famous Quotes About The Importance Of Teachers
« on: November 19, 2016, 11:39:54 AM »
1.   “Teachers can change lives with just the right mix of chalk and challenges.” ― Joyce Meyer.
2.   “The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires.” ― William Arthur Ward.
3.   “Good teachers know how to bring out the best in students.” ― Charles Kuralt.
4.   “When you study great teachers... you will learn much more from their caring and hard work than from their style.” ― William Glasser.
5.   “The older I got, the smarter my teachers became.” ― Ally Carter.
6.   “A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops.” ― Henry Adams.
7.   “It is the supreme art of the teacher to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge.” ― Albert Einstein
8.   “A teacher who loves learning earns the right and the ability to help others learn.” ― Ruth Beechick.
9.   “The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery.” ― Mark Van Doren.
10.   “True patience is grounded in wisdom & compassion.” ― Allan Lokos.
11.   “Teachers, I believe, are the most responsible and important members of society because their professional efforts affect the fate of the earth.” ― Helen Caldicott
12.   “The average teacher explains complexity; the gifted teacher reveals simplicity.” ― Robert Brault.

English / Origin Story of ATM
« on: July 14, 2016, 01:22:02 PM »
The first money giving machine was installed in New York at 1939. Its inventor, Luther George Simian, saw in his mind a machine out of a hole in the wall that will allow customers to withdraw money without the need to go inside a bank. At the beginning only prostitutes and gamblers used this service, so it disappeared completely after 6 months. The real breakthrough arrived at 1969 when Donald Wetzel developed an automatic money machine for a company called Docotel – the machine was installed in Chemical bank in New York. To make the thieves turn away the machine was covered with thick iron that his making took approximately 8 hours. 4 years later there were already 2,000 ATMs around the United States. Now it’s being used widely even in a developing country like Bangladesh.

English / Discipline in Life
« on: July 14, 2016, 01:05:56 PM »
1. Being focused: Being disciplined helps one stay focused towards his work, activities or goals. A person with strong goals is more focused and keeps up to work in time in everyday life. Vice-verse any one with discipline has to keep his mind focused on his work or goals avoiding mental disturbances. If not he cannot complete his work in time and also be undisciplined.
2. Respected by others: Discipline helps command respect from others. Many struggle to gain respect from others in the workplace. But the easiest way to get respect is to be disciplined. People around and also the sub-ordinates respect a person who is disciplined.
3. Stay healthy: Disciplined life includes regular habits like taking food, medicine (if any), having bath, exercise, waking and sleeping at right time. Exercise and other regular habits will tune the body and mind so well that always the person remains healthy. Even in case of chronic disease taking medicines at regular time helps get well soon. Having food in time is very important because even food is also a medicine.
4. Stay active: Discipline is a way of positive outlook to life. There is an enthusiasm and self confidence from within. So it keeps one active and not lazy instead.
5. Self control: A person with self discipline has more self control over himself. He is careful in his use of words while talking, his behavior etc. avoiding himself from being entangled in silly problems. This way he also builds good relations with people.
6. Better Education: Discipline in education is very important for better education. Classroom discipline helps students to listen to teachings well and also cover the entire syllabus. While coming to school in time helps them awake early, attend nature calls, have bath and breakfast in time. Hence discipline in schools helps students to stay healthy which is good for growth of both body and mind.
7. Have more time in a day: A disciplined person have more time in a day than an undisciplined person. So more time means there is more chance to do extra works or other pending works. We can overcome procrastination and laziness in work.
8. Stay stress or tension free: One has tension during exam or daily routine work. This is an internal anxiety or unknown fear about the outcome of the work. Staying disciplined helps one study well in advance and not just before exams so he remains tension free. If it is a work place, due to discipline the work is planned well and executed in time so there is no stress. So discipline helps one stay stress free rise your self esteem and also get out of possible depression.

English / 6 Amusingly Stupid Computer Viruses
« on: October 10, 2015, 07:25:11 PM »
                                                                           6 Amusingly Stupid Computer Viruses

1) Trojans and WormsVirus: Trojan, Worm - the very words conjure up crossbones and skulls, the symbol of danger. These malicious programs are the scourge of the Internet, the proof that every innovative and useful technology has an equivalent downside - one that has the most adverse consequences at times. They steal your passwords, corrupt your files memory and OS, open backdoors to your systems, install quirky programs that replicate and spread, and generally cause your computer to behave abnormally.
But there was a time not so long ago when viruses were written just for the fun of it - not to create any real harm, but rather to see if they worked. The creators were usually extremely clever young programmers who spent most of their time in front of their computers. Though the files spread rapidly from one system to another, all they did was produce some funny faces or a cascade of raindrops on your screen. But then, these form just a drop in the ocean of malware that roams through the Internet.
2) The "Very Funny" or "I Love You" Virus: This one hit the Internet in the year 2000 and corrupted image and music files on user systems. Identified initially by the words "I love you" or "Joke: Very Funny" in the subject line of an email, the virus was later passed around as newer, more malicious versions that overwrote important files needed to boot the computer. These masqueraded as Mother's Day messages or Lithuanian flirting techniques - some email came with the tag "Let's meet for a cup of coffee," in Lithuanian, of course. Bolder versions took advantage of the scare created by their predecessors, and pretended to be representatives from anti-virus providers. They asked users to execute the attachment to eradicate all viruses from their computers!
3) The HPS Virus: The first of its kind written for the Windows 98 OS, this virus took its name from a dreaded disease transmitted by rats. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is known to cause acute respiratory distress in the human body, but its digital namesake was nowhere near as harmful. If present on your system, the HPS virus went into action on Saturdays and flipped over uncompressed bitmaps horizontally. In plain English, it produced a mirror image of your screen. An interesting snippet about this virus: HPS hit the Web in early 1998, even before the Windows 98 operating system was available for commercial use.
4) The Caric-A Worm: Former US president Bill Clinton provided a lot of fodder for the gossip mills during his tenor at the White House, and as late as 2002 as this famous worm proved. Also known as the Bill Clinton and the MyLife-B worm, this malicious program was activated after opening an email's attachment and displayed a cartoon of Clinton playing the saxophone equipped with a bra popping out of the sax's mouth. The writers of this worm tried to be clever by adding a line to the end of the email, supposedly from anti-virus vendor McAfee, which claimed the email contained no viruses.
 5) The Brain Virus: The brainchild of two Pakistani brothers in 1986, this virus was not meant to be a virus at all. The siblings had written it with the intent to protect their medical software from being pirated. It ended up being the first ever virus to infect the PC. Known by various names, including Lahore, Pakistani, Pakistani Brain, Brain-A, UIUC, Ashar, and Pakistani flu, this pretty-large virus affected the boot sector, changed the disk label to (c)Brain, and displayed the text:
Welcome to the Dungeon (c) 1986 Brain & Amjads (pvt) Ltd VIRUS_SHOE RECORD V9.0 Dedicated to the dynamic memories of millions of viruses who are no longer with us today - Thanks GOODNESS!! BEWARE OF THE er..VIRUS : this program is catching program follows after these messages....$#@%$@!!
6) The Skulls Trojan horse: The rapid advances in the field of mobile technology meant that the malware guys were not far behind. The year 2004 saw this Trojan horse unleashed on Nokia smartphones that ran the Symbian operating system. Users infected with Skulls A found their screen icons replaced with ominous skulls and crossbones, and their handsets being reduced to mere telephones. They could only make and receive calls, other smart functions were disabled. Skulls or Skulls A spawned a series of alphabetical versions, like B, C and L each affecting the phones in a different manner. Version B rendered the phone almost useless just like A, but did not display skulls; C tried to disable the F-Secure anti-virus software; L was probably the most dangerous version - it pretended to be the F-Secure mobile anti-virus solution. All versions of the Trojan snuck the Cabir worm into the phones. This proof-of-concept malware for mobile phones spread through Bluetooth connections and used up the handset's battery power by constantly searching for other devices with open Bluetooth connections to infect.

English / Some Unbelievable Places that are hard to Believe Really Exist
« on: October 10, 2015, 07:00:51 PM »
Some Unbelievable Places that are hard to Believe Really Exist     :) :)

•   Tunnel of Love, Ukraine
•   One of the World’s Largest Mirrors, Bolivia
•   Hitachi Seaside Park, Japan
•   Mendenhall Ice Caves, Juneau, Alaska
•   Red Beach, Panjin, China
•   Bamboo Forest, Japan
•   Street in Bonn, Germany
•   Wisteria Flower Tunnel in Japan

These places seem amazing in pictures. To watch them please visit the link......

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