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Messages - nayeemfaruqui

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Latest Technology / How Biomechatronics Works
« on: March 04, 2014, 10:44:15 AM »
Biomechatronics is the merging of man with machine -- like the cyborg of science fiction. It is an interdisciplinary field encompassing biology, neurosciences, mechanics, electronics and robotics. Biomechatronic scientists attempt to make devices that interact with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems with the goals of assisting or enhancing human motor control that can be lost or impaired by trauma, disease or birth defects.

Consider what happens when you lift your foot to walk:
    1. The motor center of your brain sends impulses to the muscles in your foot and leg. The appropriate muscles contract in the appropriate sequence to move and lift your foot.
    2. Nerve cells in your foot sense the ground and feedback information to your brain to adjust the force, or the number of muscle groups required to walk across the surface. You don't apply the same force to walk on a wooden floor as you do to walk through snow or mud, for example.
    3. Nerve cells in your leg muscle spindles sense the position of the floor and feedback information to the brain. You do not have to look at the floor to know where it is.
    4. Once you raise your foot to take a step, your brain sends appropriate signals to the leg and foot muscles to set it down

This system has sensors (nerve cells, muscle spindles), actuators (muscles) and a controller (brain/spinal cord).  In this article, we will find out how biomechatronic devices work using these components, explore the current progress of biomechatronics research and learn about the benefits of such devices.

Latest Technology / Pencil Pusher
« on: March 04, 2014, 10:32:08 AM »
 "Please think before you print", now a trio of Chinese inventors hopes to add another device to the cubicle environment: the P&P Office Waste Paper Processor, which turns paper destined for recycling into pencils. The machine, looking a bit like a three-hole punch crossed with an electric pencil sharpener, was a finalist in the 2010 Lite-On Awards, an international competition that seeks to stimulate and nurture innovation.

Here's how the pencil-making gadget works: You insert wastepaper into a feed slot. The machine draws the paper in, rolls and compresses it, and then inserts a piece of lead from a storage chamber located in the top of the device. A small amount of glue is added before -- voilà -- a pencil slides out from a hole on the side. It's not clear how many pieces of paper form a single pencil, but you figure the average office worker could generate a decent supply of pencils in a month.

Astronomy / Mystery Diamonds
« on: February 27, 2014, 12:40:38 PM »
The origin of carbonado – more popularly known as black diamond – have long been a mystery to scientists. New analysis of the world’s toughest diamonds suggests they might have come from outer space, specifically from a star that exploded long ago, called a supernova. Researchers from Florida International University believe carbonados came from a large, diamond-bearing asteroid that may have fallen to earth billions of years ago, when the earth and moon were being heavily bombarded by space rocks.

The term “carbonado” was coined by Portuguese in Brazil in the mid 18th century because it resembles porous charcoal. Carbonado diamonds are so tough that it took a 20-ton hydraulic press to break one. This means it is almost impossible to work carbonado into jewelry settings, since they are too hard to be polished or cut – except with another carbonado. They get their hardness from their structure. While conventional diamonds are cut from a single crystal that breaks easily along a natural line, carbonados are made of millions of small crystals stuck together. Carbonados were first used to polish Brazilian hardwood before transporting it to Europe. In 1905 it was used to drill the rocks for the Panama Canal.

Conventional diamonds are formed deep in the earth, since the carbon requires intense heat and pressure to form diamond. Thanks to a series of volcanic eruptions between 1 billion and 100 million years ago, the diamonds came to the surface, where they can be mined. But carbonado is much older – as much as 3.8 billion years – and is found only in Brazil and the Central African Republic. The Florida researchers used infrared synchrotron radiation at Brookhaven National Laboratory to identify very tiny amounts of other elements in carbonado. They found hydrogen, which indicates an origin in hydrogen-rich interstellar space. They believe that carbonado diamonds formed in stellar supernova explosions, which formed large asteroids that traveled through space before landing on earth some 2.3 billion years ago.

thanks for useful post

Food / Re: 5 myths surrounding vegetarian diet
« on: February 27, 2014, 10:34:46 AM »
For health issue, the post you share has a significant aspect.

BBA Discussion Forum / Re: ISO
« on: February 27, 2014, 10:23:38 AM »
ISO social responsibility guidance is very good. thanks for sharing

Astronomy / Re: The Planet of Glass Rain
« on: February 27, 2014, 10:17:07 AM »
Wonderful post... thanks for sharing

Latest Technology / Worlds smallest e-vehicle revealed
« on: February 27, 2014, 10:02:30 AM »
The Urb-E can reach speeds of 15mph, and even has space for a handbag or briefcase. When not in use, the tiny trike can be folded - and pulled on its wheels like a piece of luggage.'The URB-E Commuter is the perfect vehicle for the highly congested urban environment,' the firm boasts.

'Its three wheel trike design allows for added stability and greater lower speed maneuverability, perfect for navigating pedestrian traffic. 'The two rear wheels also serve as a very stable way to roll the URB-E around while in its folded position, similar to pulling a piece of luggage.' The trike has disc brakes, and comes in two versions a normal and a GP, which is faster. The external USB plug also allows you to use the URB-E's Lithium Ion battery to charge any additional device such as a laptop or tablet. The trike also has a special smartphone mount which can charge your handset, and lets users see the special app for the vehicle.'The URB-E App is being developed for both IOS and ANDROID, and will monitor battery charge, range, speed, controls for LED lighting, music, and navigation,' the firm says. There will also be an optional power override feature which will allow you to utilize your mobile device as the URB-E's key.

Latest Technology / Construction of the floating lab 'Bond villain lair'
« on: February 27, 2014, 09:53:28 AM »
Almost two-thirds of the 170-ft tall ship will sit underwater making it possible to directly study ecosystems and fish levels at great depths. Between 18 and 22 marine biologists will be able to live on board the vessel at any one time because it has living quarters and kitchens. The laboratory part of the 1,000-tonne ship will sit below the surface to make the SeaOrbiter buoyant, but to also give a direct line of sight and access into the ocean to depths of up to 6,000 metres.

According to Rougerie, the SeaOrbiter will additionally feature a ‘fish-collection system for studies of the pelagic ecosystem, plankton biodiversity, and fish stocks.’ Architect Rougerie developed the concept of the ocean lab around 12 years ago. He built his first underwater house on 4 August 1977. In 1981 he launched the Hippocampe, a scientific base suspended in mid-water that slept two people. The Hippocampe was capable of diving to depths of around 12 metres and could stay underwater for between seven and 15 days at a time.The project costs $52.7 million and has support from Nasa and the European Space Agency because the conditions on the SeaOrbiter are similar to those found in space. Rougerie said: ‘SeaOrbiter is the only vessel in the world allowing a 24-hour exploration on long-term missions of the open sea and the abyss.’It is also environmentally friendly and sustainable because it is powered using solar, wind and wave energy.

Although the SeaOrbiter has been designed to drift with ocean currents, the European Defense and Space systems (EADS) is also said to be developing a biofuel that could be used as a secondary power source. Previously Rougerie told Inhabitat that the SeaOrbiter: ‘would become an essential tool in exploring the world’s oceans and an useful base to study the link between global warming and the oceans, which absorb about a quarter of all carbon emissions.’

Latest Technology / Car that runs on AIR
« on: February 27, 2014, 09:42:07 AM »
Peugeot has revealed plans to begin selling the first air powered car next year. Based on a Peugeot 208, it will combine a normal engine with a radical new system that runs on compressed air. The firm says the car could reduce petrol bills by 80% when driven in cities.

The system works by using a normal internal combustion engine, special hydraulics and an adapted gearbox along with compressed air cylinders that store and release energy. This enables it to run on petrol or air, or a combination of the two.

Air power would be used solely for city use, automatically activated below 43mph and available for ‘60 to 80 per cent of the time in city driving’. By 2020, the cars could be achieving an average of 117 miles a gallon, the company predicts. The air compression system can re-use all the energy normally lost when slowing down and braking. The motor and a pump are in the engine bay, fed by a compressed air tank underneath the car, running parallel to the exhaust.

The revolutionary new ‘Hybrid Air’ engine system – the first to combine petrol with compressed air – is a breakthrough for hybrid cars because expensive batteries will no longer be needed.Cars fitted with Hybrid Air will be about £1,000 cheaper to buy than current hybrid models. For more than two years, 100 elite scientists and engineers have been working on the air-powered car in top-secret conditions at Peugeot’s research and development centre at Velizy, just south of Paris. Hybrid Air is the centrepiece of Peugeot chief executive Philippe Varin’s efforts to restore the fortunes of the historic car maker.

The revolutionary system will be able to be installed on any normal family car without altering its external shape or size or reducing the boot size, provided the spare wheel is not stored there. From the outside, an air-powered car will look identical to a conventional vehicle. A spokesman said: ‘We are not talking about weird and wacky machines. These are going to be in everyday cars.’ Peugeot, which unveiled its prototype yesterday, envisages introducing it in smaller models such as the 208 at first.

Life Science / Detecting Disease in Less Than 60 Seconds
« on: February 19, 2014, 04:26:58 PM »
Bacteria, viruses are not cells; they consist of DNA or RNA molecules, containing the virus' genes, surrounded by a protein coat. A virus can attach itself to cells and inject molecules into the cell, or the cell may absorb it. Once inside, the molecules cause the infected cell to make new viruses that can spread to other cells.

Spectroscopy is a technique often used by astronomers and physicists to study the make-up of an object based on the light it emits. In this case, it is used to identify the scattering of light off of the DNA and RNA within viruses. This is possible because each chemical element has a unique signature, emitting or absorbing radiation at specific wavelengths. For example, sodium, used in street lights, emits primarily orange light. Oxygen, used in neon lights, emits green light. By passing the light from a star or other object through a special instrument, called a spectrograph, the light is "spread" into a spectrum in much the same way visible light is spread into its colors by a prism. By carefully studying how the spectrum becomes brighter or darker at each wavelength, scientists can tell what chemical elements are present.

Latest Technology / New way to measure electron pair interactions
« on: February 17, 2014, 02:02:02 PM »
Shoot a beam of light or particles at certain special materials and you will liberate electrons -- pairs of them -- a phenomenon known as "electron pair emission," which can reveal fundamental properties of the solid and reveal information necessary to design novel materials for future applications.

Measuring electron pair emission has always been difficult, however, because they were traditionally done using highly expensive synchrotron light sources, which are available in only a few laboratories worldwide. Nobody has found a way to routinely measure electron pair interactions on a standard lab bench.

Now a team led by researchers at the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics in Halle, Germany has done just that. They developed a new way to measure the emission of electron pairs directly by combining two common laboratory instruments called time-of-flight spectrometers, a setup they describe in the journal Applied Physics Letters, which is produced by AIP Publishing.

"Einstein received the Nobel Prize for his explanation of the photoelectric effect, which was published in 1905. Einstein considered the possibility that the photon energy can be transferred to more than one electron," explained Michael Huth, a postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics. "The existence of this process provides direct access to the electron correlation strength."

An electron pair is "excited" by a single photon; from an experimental point of view, this requires the combination of a suitable light source and electron spectrometers.

Developing such a setup involved "a significant effort," according to Huth. Comically, the team dubbed their setup's photoemission chamber "Hydra," because its two time-of-flight spectrometers give the chamber an appearance of having multiple heads.

Life Science / Cleaning up Our Water
« on: February 17, 2014, 01:52:56 PM »
BACKGROUND: Beach closings due to contamination are becoming more and more of a problem every year, thanks to sewage and storm runoffs. Instead of closing the beaches, why not clean up the water? A new technology not only removes pollutants from water, it also destroys bacteria that can cause illness.

THE PROBLEM : A recent report by the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) found 85 percent of the beach closings and health advisory days were caused by dangerously high levels of bacteria found in human or animal waste. The NRDC has urged the Environmental Protection Agency to tighten controls over sewer overflows and stormwater discharges to help ensure states and municipalities monitor water quality and notify the public when it does not meet bacterial standards.

THE SOLUTION: Smart Sponge Plus is a spongelike material that resembles popcorn and can be used to remove hydrocarbons, oil grease and other toxins in water. It also contains an antimicrobial agent to combat common bacteria such as E. coli and fecal coliform. Unlike other antimicrobials that poison harmful microorganisms, the Smart Sponge Plus ruptures the cell membranes, preventing the microorganisms from functioning or reproducing. It can also transform hydrocarbon pollutants into a stable solid for easy recycling. The Smart Sponge can be inserted directly into storm drains, so there is no need to break up roads, build vaults or create ponds. This makes it easier, cheaper and faster to use than other environmental remediation techniques.

IT Forum / Re: ইউটিউবের গোপন ১০ ফিচার
« on: February 12, 2014, 12:39:41 PM »
Informative post..

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