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Business Administration / New prospects in Bangladesh blue economy
« on: November 24, 2017, 09:57:35 AM »
New prospects in Bangladesh blue economy
“Blue Economy” is marine-based economic development that leads to improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.
The recent visits of the USA-based international luxury cruise line Silversea with tourists to Bangladesh have ushered in a new era of sea tourism in the country.
Recently, the Silver sea made a couple of trips to Sundarbans and Maheshkhali island, which could be new prospects for the country’s blue economy, according to the sector people.
“Blue Economy” is marine-based economic development that leads to improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.
The recent Silversea visits helped local business earn a sum of Tk70 lakh while the government also earned a significant amount, the people familiar with the business said.
After fixing the maritime area at the Bay of Bengal, the policymakers started analysing the prospects of blue economy through sea resources and minerals while sea tourism has appeared as first output such specialised economy by the visits, experts said.
With the trips, sea tourism had unveiled another dimension of blue economy in the country’s maritime sector, said Civil Aviation and Tourism Minister Rashed Khan Menon, at a recent meeting in the Secretariat.
He said: “About Tk35 lakh revenue was deposited to the state treasurer by the first trip of Silver Discoverer. By this initiative, sea tourism prospect in Bangladesh will attract international companies which carry more earning for the country.”
National Oceanographic and Maritime Institute on February 7 organised a seminar on future planning of blue economy and environmental research where the research head Sirazur Rahman Khan said about 10,000 tourists visit Saint Martin’s island everyday where the number is only 3,000 in 2010.
In the seminar, he suggested making an appropriate survey on the sea to discover its all resources and prospects; initiating a well-informative database over the blue economy and introducing more international-class facilities for the tourists.
The international tourists were scared to visit Bangladesh after the Gulshan cafe attack last year.
But the trips of 162 foreign tourists by sea to Bangladesh without any untoward incident proved that Bangladesh is “safe and better place for tourists,” said sources in Bangladesh Tourism Board.
Amongst the 162 tourists, the highest 66 visitors were from the USA. Visitors from the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and many European countries were in the trips, said Journey Plus, partner of Silversea in Bangladesh.
The cruise ships “Silver Expeditions” anchored in Maheshkhali island of Cox’s Bazar district and Sundarbans.
Tourists in small boats of the ship visited the places and expressed their joy after sight-seeing and interaction with local people, said the organiser of the trips.
Marveling at the natural beauty of Sundarbans and Maheskhali island, a sailor of the ship wrote letter to the tourism minister expressing his delighting experience.
The tourists did not disclose their names because of security concerns.
“Bangladesh is now on the world’s cruise map and this voyage will help boost future tourism of the country,” said Journey Plus Chief Executive Officer Taufiq Rahman.
Cox’s Bazar Deputy Commissioner Mohammad Ali Hossain said the tourists visit different historical places and pagoda.
Maheshkhali Upazila Nirbahi Officer Abul Kalam said such type of visits would help develop positive image of Bangladesh in tourism sector.
Chittagong Chamber of Commerce and Industry President Mahbubul Alam said the initiatives may inspire tourists from other countries to visit the world’s longest sea beach and the world’s biggest mangrove forest.
Silversea has started carrying tourists on two routes through Bay of Bengal. One is Colombo-Kolkata via Cox’s Bazar and another is Kolkata-Thailand via Bangladesh and Myanmar.
The government had announced 2016 year as the “Tourism Year” while the ruling party strongly tried to convince foreign tour companies to initiate operation in Bangladesh.  The Silver Discoverer’s visit shows the signs of a new trend.
Tiger Tours Limited Chief Operating Officer Sumala Chowdhury said: “The sea tourism has a huge prospect for our economy. But we have to flourish and nurse the sector without doing any harm to our natures, heritage and tourist environment.”
Sohel Rana, member of traveler group Oronyopremi, said the government should take more tourism-friendly initiatives to inspire many more tourists to visit the world’s longest sea beach and the world’s largest mangrove forest.
Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh urges the government to bring all bureaucratic formalities under an umbrella for tour operators so that they can easily do any formality promptly.
Prospects and challenges of Blue Economy in Bangladesh
The concept of Blue Economy has opened a new horizon for economic development of the coastal countries through utilizing sea and marine resources at national and international level. The concept has become a buzzword for sustainable development particularly in drafting the post-2015 development goals. Estimates suggest some 30 million Bangladeshi directly depend on oceanic economic activities like fisheries and commercial transportation. Coastal and Island developing countries have remained at the forefront of this Blue Economy advocacy, recognizing that the oceans have a major role to play in humanity's future.
We consider Blue Economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication as one of the important tools available for achieving sustainable development. We emphasize that it should contribute to eradicating poverty as well as sustained economic growth, enhancing social inclusion, improving human welfare and creating opportunities for employment and decent work for all while maintaining the healthy functioning of the earth's ecosystem (Para 56, The future we want, UNCSD 2012). Blue Economy conceptualizes oceans as 'Development Spaces' Where spatial planning integrates conservation, sustainable use, oil and mineral wealth extraction, bio-prospecting, sustainable energy production and marine transport.
Bangladesh's economy is sea borne to a good extent and with $130 billion GDP the country's economy stands the 44th. Sovereign rights have been established on more than 118,000 sq km of maritime territory, 200 nautical miles (NM) of exclusive economic zone, and 354 NM of continental shelf after positive verdicts in international courts. In the same way , the verdict with India declared on 7 July 2014 also allowed Bangladesh's sovereign rights on all the living and mineral resources of the Continental Shelf extending up to 354 nautical miles.
Fundamental principles of Blue Economy
1. Optimizing the benefits received from the development of their marine environments eg fishery agreements, bio prospecting, oil and mineral extraction.
2. Promoting national equity, including gender equality, and in particular the generation of inclusive growth and decent jobs for all.
3. Having their concerns and interests properly reflected in the development of seas beyond national jurisdiction, including the refinement of international governance mechanisms and their concerns as States proximate to seabed development.
Bay of Bengal partnership
The Bay of Bengal is the largest bay in the world that forms the north-eastern part of the Indian Ocean. The foreign minister last month gave an idea of the collaboration that could take place and said it must be based on certain universal principles of engagement-mutual trust, respect, mutual benefits, and equitable sharing of benefits. The collaboration will have to be research, observation, surveillance and in respect of sharing of analyses, outcomes, observations.
Challenges ahead of Bangladesh
The role of marine resources in poverty alleviation, acquiring autarky in food productions, protecting environmental balance, facing adverse impacts of climate change and other economic possibilities are unlimited. But with the potentialities and possibilities the challenges also accompany. The following may be the challenges: i. Ensuring the sovereignty over the total coastal area. ii. Maintaining the security over the economic area. iii. Establishing marine friendly infrastructure for marine tourist. iv. Protecting the area from the international smugglers and fish pirates. v. Maintaining investment friendly environment in the awarded area. vi. Sustainable use of biodiversity. vii. Maintaining marine and coastal ecosystems. viii. Preserving mangrove and sea grass. ix. Addressing climate change and managing carbon emission. x. Maintaining sea level rise and change in ecosystem and temperatures, from coral bleaching. xi. Addressing ocean acidification and blue carbon. xii. Keeping the sea area free from pollution and marine debris. And xiii. The growing human population, intensification of agriculture.
Potentialities of Blue Economy in Bangladesh
Food security
Food security is very closely related to the sustainable use of biodiversity particularly where it pertains to the exploitation of wild fisheries. One billion people in developing countries depend on seafood for their primary source of protein. Bangladesh can have it now.
Globally 350 million jobs are linked to marine fisheries, with 90 per cent of fishers living in developing countries. The value of fish traded by developing countries is estimated at $25 billion, making it their largest single trade item. Global catch rose from four million tonnes in 1900 to 86.7 million tonnes in 2000, but has stagnated subsequently.
Marine and coastal tourism
Marine and coastal tourism is of key importance to many developing countries. Despite the global economic crisis international tourism continued to grow. In 2012 international tourist arrivals increased by 4 per cent despite the global economic crisis and constituted 9 per cent of Global GDP (direct, indirect and induced impact). International tourism has grown from 25 million in 1950 to 1,035 million in 2012 and WTO forecasts of 1.8 billion further growth in 2030.
Harvesting power generation
Researchers have recently completed the first ocean tests of a system that uses a so called artificial muscle to generate power from the motion of a buoy riding up and down on the waves. Although the prototype produces very little electricity, the researchers say that wave farms based on the technology could eventually rival wind turbines in power output providing a significant source of clean energy which we can hugely benefit a power hungry nation.
Energy from waves
A new device being developed by the UK-based Checkmate SeaEnergy could help tap an important portion of this wave power. The device is a long, water-filled rubber tube closed at both ends. It will be capable of generating one megawatt of power at about 12 cents (BDT 9.30) a kilowatt-hour, which is competitive with electricity costs from other wave-power technologies.
Shipping and port facilities
Eighty per cent of global trade by volume, and over 70 per cent by value, is carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For developing countries these percentages are typically higher. World seaborne trade grew by 4 per cent in 2010 despite the economic recession. Coastal countries and SIDS need to position themselves in terms facilities and capacities to cater for this growing trade to optimize their benefits.
Available of crude oil
In 2009 offshore fields account for 32 per cent of worldwide crude oil production and this is projected to rise to 34 per cent in 2025 and higher subsequently, as almost half the remaining recoverable conventional oil is estimated to be in offshore fields a quarter of that in deep water.
The global market for marine biotechnology products and processes is currently estimated at $2.8 billion by 2017. Marine biotech has the potential to address a suite of global challenges such as sustainable food supplies, human health, energy security and environmental remediation.
Submarine mining & exploration of oil and gas
The world is gearing up for the exploration and exploitation of mineral deposits on and beneath the seafloor. Industry, due to rising commodity prices, is turning its attention to the potential riches of poly-metallic nodules, cobalt crusts ND massive sulphides deposits the latter a source of rare earth elements, such as yttrium, dysprosium and terbium, important in new ICT hardware and renewable energy technologies.
There would be international bidding for the exploration of oil and gas. There will be a major breakthrough to enrich our economic growth in real terms. The primary assessment indicates few trillion gas in a few zones available within our premises.
Port tax or levy
At present, around 600 ships arrive in Bangladesh per year and anchor in the ports of Chittagong and Mongla. With this new opening of Blue Economy, obviously, a huge number of ships will anchor in the ports of Bangladesh, and earning from this sector is likely to increase tremendously. There will be many shipping agencies to operate and activate with freight forwarding resulting in huge growth in our banking and insurance sector as well.
Steps to be taken
1. The prime minister said steps have been taken to strengthen Bangladesh Navy and Coast Guards to resist illegal use of animal and mineral resources in the exclusive economic zone as well as to keep international sea line open and safeguard the free movement of commercial ships.
2. Coordination agency is to be established: However, in furtherance of ensuring effective maritime security, Bangladesh Navy must be able to coordinate with other maritime forces, which include coast guards and other government agencies charged with sovereignty, security, law enforcement and constabulary functions at sea. If require we should establish one for the sake of the national prosperity and security and sovereignty.
3. Given the current global and regional security environment comprehensive maritime security is required. It includes Bangladesh ports, shipping, fishing, off-shore oil and gas facilities and shipping lanes in Bangladesh water. This needs not only Bangladesh national measures but also at concerted effort among littoral states, landlocked states, flag states and maritime industry partners.
4. Maritime space belonging to Bangladesh has to be secured from military and non-military threats. The mechanisms often employed include physical security measures, naval operations, crisis management. Preventive and protective measures against infringement of maritime boundaries and security incidents affecting ships offshore resources, crews, cargoes, port facilities and the people who work in sea areas surely demand concerted efforts by many maritime authorities besides the navy.
5. Besides national efforts, regional or global cooperation is also necessary to ensure maritime security, in particular against transnational non-maritime security, in particular against transnational non-military threats. All nations demonstrate a clear awareness of the importance of maritime security in the 21st century.
Blue economy is a relatively new jargon in Bangladesh but very common in global economy even in Indonesia. This is a hope and means of development in the near future. Experts opine that Bangladesh can rise to a middle income country by using this Blue Economy concept. The international workshop on 1st and 2nd of September last also opined like this. Now all it depends on how efficiently we can utilize it.
Bangladesh is currently the 41th (nominal) world economy and three sectors are working as the moving tires of its economic growth. Apparel industries and Remittances with Agriculture are the main contributors of Bangladesh economy. However, Bangladesh is dreaming to upgrade its ranking on the list and is now aspiring to become a middle income country by 2021 as per the United Nations’ classification. In this context, it is very important to assess the capacity of the country’s economic infrastructure in achieving the desired level of economic growth rate and subsequently the targeted per capita income level. Without product diversification, Bangladesh will face difficulties to keep up its 6.5%+ annual GDP growth and fulfilling its dream of becoming a middle income country. Thus Bangladesh needs a new economic sector to gain financial leverage over its competitors. Blue Economy, a sustainable economic concept, in this context can unveil a wide horizon for the economic growth of Bangladesh. Bangladesh now has a total of 1, 21,110 square kilometers (sq km) of marine area including Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The Bay of Bengal is the largest among 64 bays in the world and an estimated 1.4 billion people live along its coastline in Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Myanmar. Nearly 30 million people of Bangladesh are directly dependent on oceanic activities like fisheries and commercial transportation for their livelihood. So, promotion of blue economy will safeguard the interest of those coastal living inhabitants.Around 600 ships arrive in Bangladesh per year and anchor in the ports of Chittagong and Mongla. With this new opening of Blue Economy, a huge number of ships will anchor in the ports of Bangladesh, and earning from this sector is likely to increase rapidly.
Blue Economy as an idea was first introduced by Professor Gunter Pauli in 1994. It achieved large amount of attention only in recent 2012 Rio+20 Conference. Blue Economy in Bangladesh is often mistaken as only the economic activities which taken place on ocean. Certainly oceanic economic activities are integral parts of Blue Economy but not all kinds of oceanic activities and not only oceanic activities are Blue Economy. Twenty six maritime economic functions can be identified from among the fishery, maritime trade and shipping, energy, Tourism, coastal protection, maritime monitoring and surveillance as integral part of Blue Economy. Blue Economy as a philosophical economic movement acknowledges that some aspects of so-called “green living”, such as buying organic food and using certain forms of renewable energy, can be economically out of reach for large sections of the population. The primary goal of the Blue Economy is to identify examples in nature where organic recycling or up cycling occurs and mimic these processes to find out where and how the waste that we generate can be innovatively used again. In other words, Blue Economy can be equated with sustainable economy. Thus Blue Economy requires a balanced approach between conservation, development and utilization of marine and coastal eco-systems, all oceanic resources and services with a view to enhancing their value and decent employment, secure productive marine economy and healthy marine eco-systems. It is needless to say that for most developing States particularly for Bangladesh, making transition to Blue Economy would entail fundamental and systemic changes in their policy regulatory–management–governance framework(s) and identification of various maritime economic functions.
This systemic change in policy-regulatory –governance framework is justifiable for potential rapid economic growth. Transforming and accelerating economic activities in oceanic areas which are also known as “Development spaces”, Bangladesh can surely jump upward on the global economy list. Rear Admiral M. KhurshedAlam in one of his writings explained the whole potential. He wrote, “The objective of the Blue Economy initiative – the maritime pillar of the future strategy – is to promote smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and employment opportunities in Bangladesh’s maritime economic activities in the short, medium and long-term time frames. The Blue Economy initiative specifically aims to promote synergies and foster framework conditions that support specific maritime economic activities and their value chains. The extensive review and analysis of Blue Growth potential have confirmed the potential of the Blue Economy as an untapped resource.” Mr. Alam categorically mentioned 26 maritime activities to be recognized as the part of blue economy. This writer also agrees with this categorization. But explaining all those activities are beyond the capacity of this op-ed. However, few crucial ventures are discussed to project the prospect of Blue Economy in the context of Bangladesh.
Shipping and Port facilities are considered as the backbone of Blue Economy. 80 percent of global trade by volume, and over 70 per cent by value, is carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For developing countries, on a national basis, these percentages are typically higher. World seaborne trade grew by 4% in 2011, to 8.7 billion tons despite the global economic crisis and container traffic is projected to triple by 2030. Bangladesh as a coastal state needs to position itself in terms of facilities and capacities to cater for this growing trade and optimize their benefits. Shipping is the safest, most secure, most efficient and most environmentally sound means of bulk transportation – with declining rates of accidents, zero terrorist incidents, improving turnaround of ships and significant reductions in discharges to sea or emissions to air. More than 90% of the Bangladesh’s external freight trade is seaborne – and ongoing globalization has made this flow ever more important. Unfortunately there are only 74 registered (2014) Bangladeshi merchant ships which are not sufficient to carry even a fraction of our cargo.  Considering the average import growth rate of 15.79% (last 10 years) and export growth rate of 15.43% (last 10 years), projected freight value for next ten years would be around USD 435 billion. In order to retain parts of the USD 400 billion in the country, over the ten years, Bangladesh must facilitate local shipping companies to add more ships to the existing fleet, freight operators to establish freight services including container liner services to carry goods to/from Bangladesh using our own as well as chartered ships and freighters. Statistics reveals that economy of Bangladesh is heavily dependent on international trade where maritime ports play the key role of transporting 94% of our foreign trade. Bangladesh must enhance the existing handling capacities of ports and develop deep sea ports with more capabilities and modern handling equipments in Sonadia, Matarbari and Payra to cater for increased trade and commerce. Establishment of seaports can significantly reduce export lead times and earn steady flow of revenue for the country.
Fish accounts for 15.7% of the animal protein consumed globally. The value of fish traded by developing countries is estimated at U$$ 25 billion making it their largest single trade item. In 2009 marine capture production was 79 million tons.There are about 475 species of fish found in Bangladeshi EEZ compared to 250 species on land. Fish still provides the much needed protein of Bangladeshi people. About 57,000 artisanal mechanized and non-mechanized wooden boats and 200 industrial steel body trawlers are engaged in fishing in the coastal waters up to 60 km (within 40m depth) from Bangladeshi coastline having very limited capability in catching pelagic fishing-shoals closer to surface. A considerable amount of fish are salted and dried, mainly for human consumption. Incidentally, the use of dried fish as a source of fishmeal is gradually increasing due to intensification of fish and poultry farming. However, there are hardly any capabilities of catching demersal fishes below 50m depth of water. Long lines fishing are totally absent in deep waters. There is tremendous scope for increasing marine catch introducing technology and long line, incentives for bigger ocean going trawler, huge scope for higher end industry in venturing beyond 60 km coastline.
Opportunities do not arrive without potential threats. Researcher Krishna KR Sharma, have identified five threats to the bio-diversity of the Bay of Bengal, namely overfishing, predator loss, pollution, climate change, and habitat destruction. Overfishing depletes the stocks of fish beyond their ability to recover. This disrupts the ecosystem and eliminates a valuable source of food and income. Predator’s removal can cause a potentially-irreversible cascade of complex knock-on effects, destabilizing marine ecosystems. Pollution can poison marine life and decimate entire marine environments. Vast quantities of solid and chemical waste from human activities are continually dumped and flow into the sea thus plastics, sewage, oil and toxins accumulate in food webs. Climate change will create vast dead zones as plankton and corals – the primary producers for nearly all marine life – struggle to survive under increasingly inhospitable conditions.Habitat destruction physically limits the suitable living space available to marine life. Coastal development, trawling, and aquaculture all destroy important marine habitats vital for supporting sea health, such estuaries and mangrove systems that function as nurseries.
The following may be the challenges for the Blue Economy of Bangladesh: i. ensuring the sovereignty over the total coastal area. ii. Maintaining the security over the economic area. iii. Establishing marine friendly infrastructure for marine tourist. iv. Protecting the area from the international smugglers and fish pirates. v. Maintaining investment friendly environment in the awarded area. vi. Sustainable use of biodiversity. vii. Maintaining marine and coastal ecosystems. viii. Preserving mangrove and sea grass. ix. Addressing climate change and managing carbon emission. x. Maintaining sea level rise and change in ecosystem and temperatures, from coral bleaching. xi. Addressing ocean acidification and blue carbon. xii. Keeping the sea area free from pollution and marine debris. xiii.Growing population and intensification of agriculture.
In final words, it is suggested that Bangladesh needs to generate more awareness and broaden the horizon towards utilizing maritime resources and bring about socio-economic changes in the lives of people of Bangladesh. Bangladesh must consider Blue Economy as inclusive and people-centric.Bangladesh Navy along with other coastal security agencies must be equipped with modern and adequate platform and equipment to undertake vested responsibilities of maintaining security and safe guarding economic resources of vast maritime areas. All maritime agencies must allocate and integrate their resources so that all maritime tasks can be performed synergistically, effectively and efficiently.
Bangladesh is currently one of the most emerging world economies and it is mainly developing based on three sectors. Readymade garment industries, agriculture and foreign remittances sent by the migrants have been contributing to shape the country’s economy.
The country of 160 million people can add another sector in the list if it can maximise the potentials of blue economy. After two verdicts of International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea regarding the settlement of maritime dispute initially with Myanmar in March 2012 and then with India in July 2014, Bangladesh obtained its complete maritime territory of 118,813 square kilometers with total control over a region of 200 nautical miles across sizeable area and sovereign rights in the seabed extending as far as 354 nautical miles from Chittagong coast. It is like that we have earned another Bangladesh at the deep sea as the whole area of the country has doubled through it. It has opened up a new window of possibilities for extracting resources and enhancing existing benefits in terms of natural resources and external trade. What types of potentials actually Bangladesh has regarding blue economy? Are we prepared enough to exploit this advantage? After 50 months of achieving our full maritime area what initiatives our government has taken to evaluate the prospects and challenges related to blue economy? Let’s try to find out the answers of these questions.
Bangladesh, a unique delta, has been blessed with the sea outlet but the potentials in the Bay of Bengal have never been exploited properly. Thus it remains as a covered mystery which has many things to offer. The Bay of Bengal and coastal areas can be a powerhouse of our national economy. A sustainable marine economy, extending close to the coast, can bridge the shore and off-shore divide. The Bay of Bengal itself is the largest one among 64 bays in the world and 1.4 billion people live along its coastline in Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Myanmar. So, in terms of vast sea area and huge people living in the adjacent region of the seabed of the Bay of Bengal, it can provide immense opportunities. Taking advantage of it, people living in the coastal area can contribute in molding our progress as a nation. At least twenty six maritime economic functions can be operated including fishery, shipping, maritime trade, energy and seabed tourism as integral part of blue economy.
Fishery is an essential sector of blue economy. Fish accounts for 15.7% of the animal protein consumed globally and the value of fish traded by developing countries is estimated at USD 25 billion. There are about 475 species of fish found in Bangladesh EEZ compared to 250 species on land. Marine fisheries contribute at least 20% of total fish production in the country and 500,000 people are directly dependent on this sector. About 57,000 artisanal mechanized and non-mechanized wooden boats and 200 industrial steel body trawlers are engaged in fishing in the coastal waters. While about 800 million metric ton of fishes are caught every year in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh fishermen can reap only 70 million tons and the rest are taken away by the fishermen of India, Myanmar, Thailand and other countries. That is why at present Bangladesh is not in the list of top twenty marine fish producers of the world where India, Myanmar and Thailand are advancing in the ranking every year. There is an international attempt to increase the harvest of genetically engineered (GE) fish. As GE fish would adversely affect water quality and surrounding ecosystems, government has to prevent such tendencies. Improved, faster and bigger fishing ships and techno friendly fishing facilities are the demands of the time to patronise our long lines marine fishing.
Shipping and port facilities are considered as the backbone of blue economy. 80 percent of global trade by volume, and over 70 percent by value, is carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. World seaborne trade grew by 4% and is projected to triple by 2030. Bangladesh as a coastal state needs to position itself in terms of facilities and capacities to cater for this growing trade. Shipping is the most efficient and environmentally sound means of bulk transportation with declining rates of accidents. Statistics reveals that economy of Bangladesh is heavily dependent on international trade where maritime ports play the key role of transporting 94% of our foreign trade. Considering the average import growth rate of 15.79% (last ten years) and export growth rate of 15.43% (last ten years), projected freight value for next one decade would be around USD 435 billion. In order to retain parts of the USD 400 billion in the country in the following ten years, Bangladesh must facilitate local shipping companies to add more ships to the existing fleet, freight operators to establish freight services including container liner services to carry goods. Bangladesh must enhance the existing handling capacities of ports and develop deep sea ports with more capabilities and modern handling equipments to facilitate increased trade and commerce. Around 600 ships anchor in the ports of Chittagong and Mongla per year. Certainly the number can be increased and Bangladesh can earn more as port tax with the opening out of blue economy.
Bangladesh discovered 26-gas fields till date. We have 27.12 trillion cubic feet (tcf) proved reserve of gas, from where we already have expensed 12.96 tcf gas. So, now we have only 14.16 tcf gas as our reserve. There is no real probability of finding more gas fields in the land area. If the current rate of gas consumption continues, we will be able to use gas till 2031, which equals to next 14 years. But as the total use of gas increases 10% every year, our reserve will be finished within the next 8-10 years. Under such circumstances there is no choice other than exploring gas blocks in the Bay of Bengal. A survey conducted by Petrobangla and The United States Geological Survey (USGS) indicated that we may have a large amount of gas reserve there. Bangladesh government initially worked on centre located in 28 deep offshore blocks, invited bids and awarded 2 blocks to a US-based multinational company. Still the exploration in the Bangladesh’s maritime border area with Myanmar and India hasn’t started, though Myanmar began their exploration works in Bangladesh border three and a half years ago. Though the government knows that in case of any dilly dallying we may lose our deserved national asset, the whole process remains very slow and full of bureaucratic complications. Still there is no effective step taken to discover the oil blocks in the deep sea. Reserve of a handsome amount of oil as well as hydrocarbon is anticipated in the Bay of Bengal. Government has to take advanced scientific approach and be alert about the oil-related pollution while drilling. Besides, Bangladesh can work on developing renewable energy thorough wind, wave, tidal, biomass and thermal conversion and salinity gradients. There is scope for the production of industrial salt using advanced technologies and extraction of other mineral resources beneficial to Bangladesh, like gas, copper, magnesium, nickel and precious metals such as cobalt. There is a possibility of discovering rare earth elements including yttrium, dysprosium and terbium, which are important for new ICT hardware.
Again the extraordinary beauty of the world’s longest unbroken sea beach, another unique beach from where the visitors can watch both sunrise and sunset and great cultural diversity of our coastal areas, have made them the preferred destination for the holidaymakers. Bangladesh can think about cruise ship tourism at deep sea and develop a number of spectacular sea aquariums. The activities directed towards coastal area development and creation of Marine Protected Area (MPA) can open up new avenues of coastal tourism. People would be attracted to visit these special places to enjoy their favourite coastal activities including wildlife watching, surfing and diving. Besides, increasing recreational features, night life activities and establishing separate tourist zones for the foreign tourists in the coastal area can inspire vacationers to explore the beauty of the beaches of Bangladesh. Their visits will benefit the local economy.
The role of marine resources in alleviating poverty, acquiring autarky in food productions through marine fishing and aquaculture, protecting environmental balance, facing adverse impacts of climate change and exploring other economic possibilities is unlimited. But with the potentialities there are some challenges. Ensuring sovereignty over the total coastal area, maintaining security of the economic area, establishing marine friendly infrastructure for marine tourists, preventing international smugglers and pirates, conducting gas and oil exploration, securing state interest in the agreements with different companies, developing investment friendly environment in the awarded area, ensuring sustainable use of biodiversity, preserving mangrove and sea grass, protecting marine and coastal ecosystems from coral bleaching, bringing a control over sea level rise, addressing climate change and managing carbon emission, reducing ocean acidification and blue carbon and keeping the sea area free from pollution and marine debris will not be that much easy.
Bangladesh is in the middle of a prime strategic location from where the West enters Asia and it is in the centre of a region that is going to build an economy of USD 100 trillion by 2030. But being a South Asian country with such a blessing of the sea channel and prospects of the blue economy the country has to face some risks of geopolitics. Bangladesh needs to take geo-strategic advantages and the potentials of blue economy must not turn into strategic trap, where we may fall into a shaky position due to rivalry and competition between regional and global powers. Bangladesh has to handle everything very carefully to walk smartly so that the country can take required benefits without annoying any of its international friends. If we can handle the geopolitics in a matured way by using the resilience of our people, Bangladesh can rather emerge as a strategic bridge between the superpowers for collective benefits.
In order to boost the naval power in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh already has bought two diesel-electric submarines. Besides, government has to equip Bangladesh Navy along with other coastal security agencies with modern and adequate arms and tools to undertake vested responsibilities of maintaining security and safeguarding economic resources of vast maritime areas. All marine agencies must allocate and integrate their resources so that all maritime tasks can be performed effectively and efficiently.
Well, Bangladesh has lack of knowledge, skilled manpower and technology to take maximum benefits from blue economy, especially for exploiting deep-sea fishes and seabed resources. That’s why the government officially launched a Blue Economy Cell to coordinate among its agencies involved in exploring offshore resources and potentials in January this year. Chittagong University has the Department of Marine Fisheries for years. In the meantime introduction of the Department of Oceanography at the University of Dhaka and Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography at Chittagong University has initiated the process of creating skilled manpower on marine sciences, which will meet the requirements of human resources for the new sector. Besides, the first National Oceanographic Research Institute is going to be established in Ramu, Cox’s Bazar, with a view to creating a marine scientific community for research.
In today’s world there is nothing more significant than the economic development of a country. Blue economy has become a part and parcel of the post-2015 development agenda. The goal 14 of the proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by United Nations says, “Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.” Besides, the present Bangladesh government is also advancing with some prefixed development visions aiming to make Bangladesh a middle income country by 2021 and a developed country by 2041. If we want to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and materialize the visions, there is no alternative other than focusing on blue economy. We have to think about forming a master plan focusing on the entire coastal belt and targeting extra-regional players. We need a combination of visionary political leaderships, efficient bureaucracy, investors of real entrepreneurial attitude and innovative development thinkers to succeed in that plan. If we can do this, only then we can cash in on blue economy and change the fate of our people sustainably.

Business Administration / Budget Development and Revenue Budget
« on: November 24, 2017, 09:57:01 AM »
Budget Development
Definition of “Budget”: a detailed statement outlining estimated project costs to support the sponsored project. A budget should include all the Direct Costs and Facilities and Administrative (F&A) (or overhead) costs required to carry out the project objectives. Proposal budgets in Kuali Coeus should match the level of detail submitted to the sponsor. Specific requirements, including cost principles as defined by the federal government in the Office of Management & Budget (OMB) Circular A-21and OMB’s Uniform Guidance, must be adhered to at the proposal stage and when the funds are expended. Proposals to non-federal sponsors requesting approval of direct costs which are unallowable for federal reimbursement should clearly include and justify those costs in the budget.
•   Direct Costs – Expenses that are specifically associated with a particu¬lar sponsored project or activity and/or can be directly assigned to that project or activity with a high degree of accuracy for example graduate student stipend and tuition.
•   F&A Costs – Institute expenses that cannot be specifically identified with a particular project or activity.
Examples of Development Budget in a sentence
1.   All expenses shall be charged to the proper Budget Category in the Development Budget, and no expenses may be classified or reclassified for the purpose of avoiding an excess in the budgeted amount of a Budget Category without Owner's prior written approval.
2.   If, notwithstanding Targacepts exercise of Commercially Reasonable Efforts, in any year, the aggregate FTE Cost plus the External Targacept R&D Costs [********] FTE Costs and External Targacept R&D Costs in the applicable Targacept Research Budget (and the Total Research Budget), ARP Budget or Targacept Development Budget (as the case may be) [********] in accordance with the applicable Annual Research Plan, Additional Research Plan or Product Development Plan [********].
3.   As used in this Section 16, each of the following terms has the meaning for that term provided in the Project Administration Agreement: "Architect"; "Architect's Contract"; "Commencement of Construction"; "Construction Schedule"; "Final Construction Schedule"; "Final Development Budget"; "General Contract"; "General Contractor"; and "Project".
What Is a Revenue Budget?
Revenue budgets are forecasts of a company’s sales revenues and expenditures, including capital-related expenditures. It is essential that you establish whether you possess enough financial means to conduct operations, grow your business and ultimately make a profit. Without this planning, your company's future may be uncertain as you may not know how much money you’re taking in or spending. Revenue budgets ensure that businesses efficiently allocate resources -- and in doing so they save time, effort and money.
Determine Sales
The revenue budget helps businesses predict the amount they will earn when they sell their products and services. At times, this can be difficult for small businesses to calculate, especially for those that have just started -- and therefore have no historical data. You must formulate a business plan and maintain it. Business plans reflect the true state of an organization’s current business and help to analyze every aspect the business, including expected revenues. The sales revenue budget can be straightforward to construct. It includes the number of units you expect to sell, along with the number of customers that you expect will buy your products or services. It also includes the price you will charge for those products and services.
Determine Production Costs
The next step in the process is to form a production budget; this summarizes the costs associated to the production of your goods or services. You must include the cost of labor, material and purchases. Materials are the raw material or other items that your use when you produce your goods and services. The rate that the cost of raw materials fluctuates depends on the market in which you operate; therefore, you must keep a close eye on price fluctuations when you formulate your production budget. You pay salaries, unemployment taxes and other benefits for employees who produce your goods and services; these make up your labor costs.
Daily Expenditures
General and administrative budgets track the non-production costs associated with your business’ daily operations. These costs include rent expense, insurance and asset depreciation. Costs associated with staff members such as sales staff, clerks and other support staff that don’t directly affect the production of your goods and services come under the heading of general and administrative expense. You must calculate your depreciation costs so that you do not overrate your assets.
Investing Within Your Means
Capital expenditure budgets calculate costs associated with the investments that you plan to make during the year. Capital investments include buildings, machinery and other equipment that you use to increase or expand your business. You make capital purchases to replace older equipment or add new equipment to meet the demands of your business. Once you determine the equipment that you must purchase in the current year, you can compute the costs associated with your equipment.
Budget vs. Performance
Once you have successfully constructed a revenue budget you can compare it with your actual performance. This analysis can help you determine if you should continue your current practices or take corrective measures. If your business performed as expected or better, you may determine that current practices are adequate -- but if your company fails to meet expected goals, it may be necessary to adjust your practices. You can incorporate your finalized revenue budget with financial performance analyses and scrutinize the growth of your business.
The revenue budget consists of revenue receipts of the government (revenues from tax and other sources), and its expenditure.

Revenue receipts are divided into tax and non-tax revenue. Tax revenues are made up of taxes such as income tax, corporate tax, excise, customs and other duties that the government levies.

In non-tax revenue, the government's sources are interest on loans and dividend on investments like PSUs, fees, and other receipts for services that it renders. Revenue expenditure is the payment incurred for the normal day-to-day running of government departments and various services that it offers to its citizens.

The government also has other expenditure like servicing interest on its borrowings, subsidies, etc.

Usually, expenditure that does not result in the creation of assets, and grants given to state governments and other parties are revenue expenditures. The difference between revenue receipts and revenue expenditure is usually negative. This means that the government spends more than it earns. This difference is called the revenue deficit.

Football / FOOTBALL
« on: November 16, 2017, 11:27:58 AM »
FOOTBALL. The game of American football as played today by high school, college, and professional teams grew out of rugby-style football which in the mid-1870s replaced a largely kicking game known as association football. Although initially played on village greens and on college fields, the first intercollegiate game took place on 6 November 1869 when Rutgers defeated Princeton 6–4 in a soccer-style game. Five years later, Montreal's McGill University playing at Harvard introduced rugby football, which would be rapidly adopted by eastern teams.
Collegiate Development
For the first fifty years of football, college teams enjoyed a virtual monopoly of what they called the gridiron (the term applied to the football field because of the lines drawn at five-yard intervals). In 1876, students at Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, and Yale met to form the Intercollegiate Football Association, all agreeing to play by rugby rules. Of the four schools, only Yale chose to re-main an independent. Nevertheless, Yale continued to meet with the other schools and played a crucial role in the adoption of new rules and in the popularization of American football. Beginning in the 1880s, the eastern institutions led by Yale played "big games" before large crowds in the New York and Boston areas. From 1880 to 1888, changes in the intercollegiate rules led to the transformation of British rugby into American football. The possession rule of 1880, which decreed that the team with the ball would keep possession if tackled, led to a series of further changes. The result was a game of physical contact and deception that had progressively less in common with rugby and association football.
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The possession rule and the changes that accompanied it were associated with Walter Camp, a player for Yale in the late 1870s. A gifted strategist and promoter, Camp served as a coach or adviser to the Yale team from 1879 to 1910 and as the key figure on various rules committees. Through devices such as his All-America teams, he was also instrumental in making football a nationwide intercollegiate sport. Led by Camp, the handful of youthful rules-makers enacted the yards and downs rule (three downs to gain five yards), numerical scoring, interference in front of the ball carrier, and tackling between the waist and the knees (rather than above the waist). Players could move forward before the snap of the ball (momentum plays), and push and pull the ball carrier through the defense (mass play). As a result of these rules changes, football became noticeably rougher and by the late 1800s was criticized by clergy, newspaper editors, and some older college faculty and administrators for its dangers and brutality.
In the 1890s, football spread rapidly to colleges in every part of the country. Spearheaded by former players or "missionary coaches," the teams closely followed the rules and rituals of eastern colleges, including Thanksgiving Day rivalries such as Michigan and Chicago or Stanford and California. As football gained in popularity with students and alumni, criticism of the game among faculty, college presidents, and crusading journalists grew more shrill, especially at a time when several players were killed or seriously injured each year.
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On 9 October 1905, just after the beginning of the football season, President Theodore Roosevelt met with six alumni gridiron advisers from Yale, Harvard, and Princeton, including Camp and Coach Bill Reid of Harvard. Roosevelt secured their pledge to draw up a statement in which they would agree to eliminate brutal and unsportsmanlike play. Contrary to a widely held belief, Roosevelt did not issue an edict to the colleges, nor did he have a direct role in reforming the rules. In October and November 1905, football at all levels had eighteen fatalities—three in college play—and 159 serious injuries.
Following the death of a Union College player in a game against New York University, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of NYU called a meeting of nineteen colleges to consider the evils of football. That gathering in early December 1905 of twenty-four delegates led to a second, larger conference, which met in New York late in the same month. The more than sixty colleges represented appointed a reform rules committee. In addition, they organized themselves into the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (ICAA), predecessor of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), to challenge the older, big-college football committee. Meeting together, the two committees agreed to sweeping gridiron reforms, including the ten-yard rule (ten yards to be gained in three downs), six men on the line of scrimmage and a defined neutral zone between the teams, stiffer penalties, and the forward pass. Although the number of injuries declined under the new rules, another round of deaths and injuries in 1909 led to the enactment of more comprehensive rules between 1910 to 1912.
Football in the 1920s and 1930s
After World War I, both college football and the fledgling professional version of the game prospered as a result of the booming economy and the remarkable popularity of major sports. Thousands of gridiron enthusiasts flocked to the newly constructed stadiums modeled after the Harvard, Yale, and Princeton stadiums. In October 1924, Harold "Red" Grange of Illinois became football's best-known player when he ran for five touchdowns and passed for a sixth in a game against Michigan. After his final college game, Grange signed a contract with the professional Chicago Bears of the National Football League (NFL). He immediately played to overflow crowds in Chicago and New York and agreed to lucrative deals for endorsements and movie appearances. The highly publicized and profitable entry of the "Galloping Ghost" into pro football was a precursor to the wealth of NFL players later in the twentieth century.
Just as football grew at the college level, it also took hold in the high schools. Football had been played at private secondary schools since the 1880s, and some public schools fielded teams in the 1890s and early 1900s. Promising players at private schools and high schools became the object of fierce recruiting struggles by the colleges. In the early 1900s, the emergence of the larger consolidated high schools created a need for football as a means of forging loyalties among large and diverse student bodies. Even before World War I, some coaches became known in high school football before moving up to the college level.
Football was also widely played as an unorganized, sandlot sport, or as a supervised playground recreation. By 1929, many of the serious injuries and occasional deaths in the first three decades of the twentieth century occurred during unsupervised play. Because of the need for protective equipment and adult supervision, youth leagues gradually evolved. What became the Pop Warner Leagues began as a local Philadelphia area football club in 1929. The organization was later renamed for Glenn Scobie "Pop" Warner, best known as a college coach at Carlisle Indian School, the University of Pittsburgh, and Stanford University. Beginning in 1947, the Pop Warner Leagues initiated their own national championship modeled after college and professional competitions in football and other sports.

Professional football had originated in the towns of western Pennsylvania and taken root in the smaller cities of Ohio. In 1920, a group of midwestern teams met to form the American Professional Football Association, changed the next year to the National Football League. In the 1920s and 1930s, NFL teams often went bankrupt or moved and changed names, and professional football ranked a distant second to college football in popularity

and prestige. Only after World War II, with the advent of television and air travel, did the NFL and other leagues challenge the college game.
Post–World War II Football
Television, a medium that rapidly expanded in the 1940s and 1950s, proved well-suited to the gridiron game. After setting records in the first years after World War II, attendance at college football games began to slump from 1949 on. The alarmed NCAA members ceded to their TV committee the right to control or even to ban college football telecasts. In 1951, the NCAA contracted with Westinghouse (CBS) television network to televise one game each Saturday, later broadening the agreements to include several regional games. This cartel would help to strengthen the power of the NCAA, but it would also lead to near rebellion within the association in the 1980s.
Although college football attendance revived, professional football rapidly surpassed its collegiate parent. A national audience watched a gripping telecast of the NFL championship game in 1958 when the Baltimore Colts won a dramatic sudden-death overtime victory against the New York Giants. Frustrated by the NFL's cautious approach toward expansion, the oil billionaires Lamar Hunt and Bud Adams began the American Football League (AFL) in 1959, with its first game in 1960. Bolstered by a network contract, the AFL challenged the NFL for blue-chip draft choices and TV audiences. In 1966, the AFL and NFL agreed to merge, and an annual championship known as the Super Bowl was played between the two leagues after the following season, though they would not become one league with two conferences until 1970. That year, ABC Sports innovator Roone Arledge teamed up with NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle to launch "Monday Night Football," an instant hit on prime-time evening television. Professional football franchises, which had once struggled for attendance, became businesses worth millions of dollars.
Although the players' salaries rose, they would not reach the levels achieved by major league baseball until the 1990s. Strikes in 1974 and 1987 led to victories by the owners, who effectively blocked the free agency that had resulted in soaring salaries in major league baseball. Attempts to found new professional leagues—the World Football League in 1974–1975, the United States Football League in 1983–1985, and the XFL in the winter of 2000—failed to breach the NFL cartel. Only the Canadian Football League (CFL), arena football played indoors, the World League of American Football (an NFL minor league with teams mainly in Europe), and the Women's Professional Football League (WPFL) offered an outlet for players who could not play in the NFL.
Following World War II, African American players appeared in rapidly growing numbers both in college and professional ranks. In college football, a handful of black players had participated since the 1890s in the East, Midwest, and West. In addition to being subjected to harassment and brutality, these players were by mutual consent "held out" of games with southern teams. In the postwar years, colleges outside the South refused to accept these "gentlemen's agreements" that kept blacks out of games. Except in the South, the number of African American players grew steadily in the 1950s. Southern teams were not integrated until the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1961, Ernie Davis of Syracuse became the first African American Heisman Trophy winner.
African Americans had played professional football in the early 1900s. A handful played in the early years of the NFL. In 1934, the league's last players, Jack Lilliard and Ray Kemp, were forced out of pro football. After World War II, the Cleveland Browns of the new All America Football League (AAFL) and the Los Angeles Rams of the NFL both integrated their teams, and the number of black professional players would show a steady increase after 1950.
College Football in the Age of the NFL
In the 1960s, college football enjoyed a brief period of prosperity and relative calm. In the fall of 1966, 33 million viewers watched a fierce struggle between Michigan State and Notre Dame, the college game's version of the Giants-Colts showdown in 1958. ABC's innovations in telecasting and the advent of color television brought more revenue and recognition to big-time teams and their coaches.
Following World War II, many teams adopted two-platoon football in which teams had separate defensive and offensive units (the innovation doubled the need for scholarships and players). Unnerved by rising costs and wedded to past practice, the NCAA football rules committee attempted in the 1950s to banish two-platoon football but returned to unlimited substitution by the end of the decade. (Unlike the colleges, the NFL never tried to abolish separate offensive and defensive teams.)

In 1951, nearly fifty institutions dropped football because of rising costs and dwindling attendance (some of these such as Georgetown, Fordham, and Detroit were ranked in the top twenty in the 1920s and 1930s). In the East, eight Ivy League institutions adopted joint rules deemphasizing football. They began less costly round-robin play in 1956 and eliminated spring practice, football scholarships, and postseason contests.
After World War II, the NCAA failed in its first attempt to regulate subsidies for supposedly amateur players. The subsequent scandals created support both for deemphasis of big-time football and for a nationwide system to enforce athletic codes of conduct. Other scandals involved booster clubs that funneled illicit payments to players and recruits. Beginning in 1956, a series of pay-for-play schemes were uncovered at five institutions in the Pacific Coast Conference, contributing to the conference's demise in 1959. Stepping into the vacuum, the NCAA levied stiff penalties against offenders, including bans on TV appearances. The commercial model pursued by many college football conferences led to charges that colleges had become the minor leagues for professional football. To some extent, the charges were true. Not only did the colleges supply the training for NFL recruits, but coaches also moved easily between the professional and collegiate ranks.
The quest for revenues in college football proved both a motivator for top teams and a cause of internecine quarrels. Faced with rising expenditures in the 1970s, big-time college teams opposed sharing TV revenues with NCAA members who had smaller football teams or no teams at all. Formed in 1976 as a lobbying group within the NCAA, the College Football Association (CFA) proposed to negotiate their own TV contracts. In 1984, two CFA members, Georgia and Oklahoma, won a Supreme Court decision against the NCAA, thereby ending the association cartel. Institutions and conferences within the association would now be responsible for their own TV contracts.
Unlike professional football, Division I-A football, comprising the most prominent intercollegiate football institutions, had no playoff championship. Beginning in 1998, the NCAA initiated the bowl championship system to replace the mythical champion chosen by sportswriters and coaches. Using a variety of methods, including computer ratings, the NCAA chose the top two teams to play in one of the major bowl games, the designations of which rotated from year to year. Critics pointed out that college football still was the only college or professional sport that did not choose the champion by playoffs.
Beginning in the late nineteenth century, American football developed far differently from rugby football and association football (soccer, as it is referred to in the United States). Unlike baseball and basketball, American football has been largely confined to the United States and Canada. It has remained a predominantly male game, though a women's professional league has fielded teams, and female place kickers have competed at the high school and college levels. Whereas baseball was once clearly the American pastime, football has gained preeminence at the high school, college, and professional levels. In addition, football has developed a distinctive fan culture. Tailgating or picknicking in the parking lot, participating in booster clubs, and traveling vast distances for Bowl games or intersectional rivalries have become part of the football culture of dedicated spectators. Moreover, the availability of football through cable and network TV has transformed millions of television viewers who seldom attend a major contest into knowledgeable and enthusiastic football fans.

Fresh Graduate / Student Resume Objective
« on: November 16, 2017, 11:20:19 AM »
Student Resume Objective Examples
Why do you need an objective?
An objective is a person's future based act which enables him/her to obtain the decided task. Objective makes us efficient for having desired results. By having objectives in life, one may achieve success in his/her task.

About the job description Brief description)
Student's job contains the jobs like student assistants, student worker, and student coordinator as well as student council secretary, and student teacher etc. Student workers work in any department in the college while pursing their study. By doing so, they can use their spare time as well as earn something. A student teacher has to teach the graduate and undergraduate students.
Skills to appear in the Student Resume Objective
Should have the ability to research on things
Should have excellent communication and written skills
Should have the deep knowledge of various subjects
Should have Technical skills
Should attend some training program or lectures
Should have the sound idea about the administrative field
Should know how to handle the class
Skills based Professional Student Resume Objective
For Experienced
I have all essential skills that need to be for a good student teacher. As I have gone through this stage, I know the needs of students. I know their psychology. I can tackle any problem regarding the students. I have deep knowledge of my subject which will help me to give the hundred percent.
For Entry Level
I will have to adopt the new concepts and things as I am a new face in this field. By doing so, I can keep myself updated. I will always learn innovative things. I will use my ideas and conceptions in order to get the fruitful results of my work.
For Internship Level
It will be better for me to know about the working scenario at this step. It will help me to realize where I should work and what plans should I have for improving my performance. However, I will seek the advice of my superiors and try to follow it.
Aim & future based Student Template Resume Objective
I would like to flourish as a student teacher. I am familiar with the various activities that form the teacher's job. I know how to teach, what to teach, and why to teach. I have an idea about how to plan a lesson. I can assist the other teachers. I know the various processes that come under this area.
For Entry Level
I have the capacity to learn things within less time. I know how to prioritize my work. Also, how to prepare myself for a particular task. I have the ability to accomplish any task within the deadline.
For Internship Level
I will learn the working culture at this step. On the other hand, I will observe the companions i.e. how they do their work and what plans they have for converting their work into fruitful results. I will examine the whole process of working.
Business & company improvement based Student Resume Objective
For Experienced
The progress of this field will be my first and foremost goal. I will always keep myself ready for completion of any task so I can contribute in the progress of the company. I will implement my plans for the sake of the development of my company.
For Entry Level
I have the qualities like devotion towards work, honesty, integrity, analytical approach, and time management. With the help of these qualities and by using them in order, I can get the expected results I can get name and fame amongst my staff. I will discuss various tasks and plans with my seniors. I will try to convince them that how my plan will be useful for them. Whatever feedback I get from them, I will implement it.
General tips for writing Student Resume Objective
If a candidate wants to flourish in his/her career in this field, they have to include the all skill sets and qualities in the Student Resume Objective. Consequently, they may get the better opportunity to work in this field as well as desired position in the related field.

Fresh Graduate / A fresh graduate's guide to personal finance
« on: November 16, 2017, 11:18:23 AM »
Financial order is impossible without a well maintained budget. This does not just help form a visual picture of where your money goes, but makes you want to cut down on your daily expenses as well. Having lunch outside everyday may not look too significant until you add up your monthly lunch expenses, which is why you would definitely want to take lunch boxes from home.
If you do not know how to make a budget, there are numerous templates and tables available online. You can also use mobile apps, such as Money, Goobudget and Money Lover, some of which even have financial advice based on your income and expenditure patterns.
It is wise to allot certain percentages of your income for each category of your expenses after around three months of thorough observation, e.g. you could allocate 40 percent on housing and utilities, 15 percent on food, 10 percent on transport, 10 percent on clothing and entertainment, and 25 percent on savings. These obviously vary among individuals, but anything is alright as long as your expenses do not exceed your income.
However, try to allocate more for savings, especially at an early age. You will not just grow a good habit out of it, but also understand why Warren Buffet says, “Do not save what is left after spending, but spend what is left after saving.”
You might find a lot of your friends doing this already, but the smart decision is to keep savings in a high-interest savings account, as bonds or stocks, to make sure your savings are well protected from the effects of inflation.
Personal finance management may seem very intimidating and complicated at first, but just a bit of reading up, trial and error will get your money in order. It is important to invest and save, but do so wisely. You are definitely advised to spend cautiously, but a bit of self-pampering now and then does not hurt either.

Chess / History of chess
« on: October 06, 2017, 10:51:54 PM »
The history of chess goes back almost 1500 years. The game originated in northern India in the 6th century AD and spread to Persia. When the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently, through the Moorish conquest of Spain, spread to Southern Europe.

In Europe, the moves of the pieces changed in the 15th century. The modern game starts with these changes. In the second half of the 19th century, modern tournament play began. Chess clocks were first used in 1883, and the first world chess championship was held in 1886. The 20th century saw advances in chess theory, and the establishment of the World Chess Federation (FIDE). Chess engines (programs that play chess), and chess data bases became important.
The exact origin of chess is a great mystery. There are few ancient texts referring to the very beginning of chess, and fewer chess pieces left as physical evidence of the game's early existence. But myths, theories and opinions abound! Most historians believe it started in India, Persia, or China.But there is much that we do know. The form of chess which finally arrived in Europe was already being played in Persia some 1,350 years ago, when that area of the world was conquered by Muslim armies in the mid 7th century. The game became very popular in the Muslim world, and it was carried back, throughout Islam, across North Africa and eventually into Europe.
hough different from the chess we play today, the ancient game has striking similarities to the modern game. It is easy to learn the ancient rules of play, and to get a feeling for chess as it was experienced by Persians and Arabs long ago.

Let's look at the old game, known throughout ancient Islam as shatranj, starting with features that are familiar to a modern chess player. The game was played on a board of 8 by 8 squares, just as our game is, but the board was not checkered. The pieces were arranged like ours are, but some of their identities were a little different.
A reproduction of the early Persian chess set, all set up and ready to play
reproduction of the early Persian chess set
the chess king and rook, from ancient shatranj and modern chess
ancient and modern kings, ancient and modern rooks

The king of the old game was a king, like our king, and had the same move. No change there in over 13 centuries. The rook was called "rukh" which meant "chariot." It's interesting that we maintain essentially the same word in English, although the meaning of "rook" or "rukh" has long been lost to us. The ancient rook also had exactly the same move as our modern rook.

The modern knight also retains its ancient move and is still depicted, as it has been for centuries, as a horse. And the ancient pawn, although it could move only one space forward (never two spaces like our modern pawn), was always considered to be a foot soldier. His forward move and forward-diagonal capture were the same then as they are today.

You must understand scope of an organization’s legal and ethical responsibilities
To minimize liabilities/reduce risks, the information security practitioner must:

Understand current legal environment
Stay current with laws and regulations
Watch for new issues that emerge

Laws: rules that mandate or prohibit certain societal behavior
Ethics: define socially acceptable behavior
Cultural mores: fixed moral attitudes or customs of a particular group; ethics based on these
Laws carry sanctions of a governing authority; ethics do not
   1. pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
   2. in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice, esp., the standards of a profession.

Should companies collect and/or sell customer data?
Should IT specialists monitor and report employee computer use?
   1. pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
   2. in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice, esp., the standards of a profession.

Should companies collect and/or sell customer data?
Should IT specialists monitor and report employee computer use?
   1. pertaining to or dealing with morals or the principles of morality; pertaining to right and wrong in conduct.
   2. in accordance with the rules or standards for right conduct or practice, esp., the standards of a profession.

Should companies collect and/or sell customer data?
Should IT specialists monitor and report employee computer use?
Civil law represents a wide variety of laws that are recorded in volumes of legal “code
Criminal law addresses violations harmful to society and is actively enforced through prosecution by the state.
Tort law allows individuals to seek recourse against others in the event of personal, physical, or financial injury.
Private law regulates the relationship between the individual and the organization, and encompasses family law, commercial law, and labor law.
Public law regulates the structure and administration of government agencies and their relationships with citizens, employees, and other governments, providing careful checks and balances.  Examples of public law include criminal, administrative, and constitutional law.
Types of law: civil, criminal, tort law, private, public
Relevant Nepalese Acts/Regulation/Policies:
Electronic Transaction Act 2063 B.S.
Telecommunication Act 2053 B.S.
National Broadcasting Act 2049 B.S.
Copyright Act 2059 B.S.
Patent Design and Trademark Act 2022 B.S.
IT Policy 2067
Date of Authentication and Publication: 22 Mansir 2063 ( December 8, 2006)
Consider as landmark law for the development of Nepalese IT sector.
Provision for any person to authenticate to any electronic record by his/her personal digital signature.
Provision of IT tribunal
consisting of one member each of law (Chairman), Information Technology and Commerce
To Pirate, Destroy or Alter computer source code
 Unauthorized Access in Computer Materials
Damage to any Computer and Information System
Publication of illegal materials in electronic form
Confidentiality to Divulge (disclose)
To commit computer fraud
Punishment in an offence committed outside Nepal
One of the hottest topics in information security
Is a “state of being free from unsanctioned intrusion”
Ability to aggregate data from multiple sources allows creation of information databases previously unheard of

Public Health / 10 simple weight loss tips 
« on: September 24, 2017, 02:10:47 PM »
Losing weight doesn’t have to feel like a chore. Simple changes to your lifestyle will produce results.  
Most of us know that eating a little less, and exercising a little more does the trick, but in an industry crowded with mixed messages on tips to lose weight, it can get confusing.
These simple weight loss tips have been tried and tested. They might not transform your body overnight, but they will help it attain a slightly better, healthier shape in the longer term.
Because water is involved in many metabolic processes in your body, being dehydrated has the potential to slow your metabolism down, which can hamper weight loss.
TBecause water is involved in many metabolic processes in your body, being dehydrated has the potential to slow your metabolism down, which can hamper weight loss.
There’s also a theory that having a glass of water before a meal can make you feel satisfied faster, meaning you eat less’s also a theory that having a glass of water before a meal can make you feel satisfied faster, meaning you eat less calories.
Because water is involved in many metabolic processes in your body, being dehydrated has the potential to slow your metabolism down, which can hamper weight loss.
There’s also a theory that having a glass of water before a meal can make you feel satisfied faster, meaning you eat less calories.5. Savour. Every. Mouthful.
Focus your mind on your food and enjoy every fork. This is the art of mindful eating. Not only are you likely to enjoy it more, you’re allowing yourself to listen to your stomach and when it is feeling full.

Many watch television or multitask while eating, which distracts the mind and can result in over eating. Eating on the go can also contribute to bloating.
6. Exercise more
Adding more activity to your daily routine – walking to work or using the stairs – is a sure fire way to aid weight loss. Weight lifting is also really important to stop your body losing muscle mass.
When you introduce a calorie deficit into your diet and your body notices low energy levels over a prolonged period, it may enter 'starvation mode' where it starts to break down muscle for energy and your metabolism slows down.
Lifting weights and other resistance exercises will prevent you losing muscle mass and speed up your metabolism fast.
7. Use smaller plates and bowls
Trading in your huge dinner plate for a slightly smaller one is a very simple but effective weight loss tip. You can ‘fill your plate’ without breaking the rules. This can help with portion control.
8. Keep a food diary
Weight loss is all about changing lifestyle habits. Record what you eat and when and it should be easy to spot bad habits. This will also allow you to block out meal times so you can practice mindful eating.

a new study shows that this spike in temperatures is unprecedented going back over one hundred centuries. They looked at global temperature anomalies—deviations from an average or standard temperature—for 73 sites distributed across the planet, using fossils in sediments as a proxy for temperature. The chemical and isotopic composition of the fossils yields a fairly accurate measure of the environment temperature at the time the animal or plant making up the fossil lived.
What they found is simply stunning: The rate at which the globe is warming right now is far, far faster than it ever has going back as far as they could measure, up to 11,300 years ago. In fact, over the past 5000 years, the Earth actually cooled by about 1.3°F…until the last 100 years, when our temperature spiked upwards by about the same amount.
Mind you, this is the rate of warming, how quickly the global temperature is increasing. But they also showed the actual temperature of the planet is warmer now than it has been for 70-80 percent of the past over that time period. There have been times when the Earth was warmer, but the important point isn’t the actual temperature, but what it’s doing.
And what it’s doing now is skyrocketing.

Have you ever read anything good about global warming? Why is all the news always bad?
Objectively speaking, any environmental change should have both positive benefits and negative effects. For example, theory predicts and observations confirm that human-induced warming takes place primarily in winter, lengthening the growing season. Satellite measurements now show that the planet is greener than it was before it warmed. There are literally thousands of experiments reported in the scientific literature demonstrating that higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations — cause by human activity — dramatically increase food production. So why do we only hear one side about global warming?
Perhaps because there’s little incentive for scientists to do anything but emphasize the negative and the destructive. Alarming news often leads to government funding, funding generates research, and research is the key to scientists’ professional advancement. Good news threatens that arrangement.
This is the reality that all scientists confront: every issue, be it global warming, cancer or AIDS, competes with other issues for a limited amount of government research funding. And, here in Washington, no one ever received a major research grant by stating that his or her particular issue might not be such a problem after all.
A recent story is typical. Two American scientists, Thomas Knutson and Robert Tuleya, published an academic paper forecasting an increase in the power of hurricanes (typhoons) because of global warming. Specifically, they used a computer model in which the sea surface temperature was warmed, and they found that nearly 60 percent of the changes in the computer’s hurricanes could be attributed to that effect.
The real world is not the world of the computer. In reality, only 10 percent of the behavior of hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean (where there are the best long-term records) is related to sea surface temperatures. When that is factored in, any changes in hurricanes related to global-warming become undetectable over the next century.
How could there be such a disconnection between a computer simulation and reality? Why don’t scientists check for this before they publish their papers? And why don’t other scientists who peer-review the research papers point out inconsistencies before they are published?
Computers only do what they are told, and they don’t do what they are not told. One factor that was ignored in this study is global warming is likely to increase winds, several kilometers aloft, that actually destroy hurricanes. In fact, as the planet has warmed, maximum winds measured by hurricane-research aircraft in the Atlantic Basin have declined.
This tempering effect of upper-atmospheric winds on hurricanes is one reason that oceanic heating explains so much less of hurricane behavior in the real world than it does in the computer’s imagination.
There’s no need to single out the recent hurricane story. There are plenty of similar examples concerning global warming.
How many times have scientists stated publicly that human-induced global warming is destroying the glaciers of Africa’s Mt. Kilimanjaro? Again, a larger constellation of facts changes the story

DHAKA, Bangladesh – Bangladesh may be Mother Nature's punching bag, but in the battle for survival against climate change, this tiny, riverine nation isn't going down without a fight.

Already, Bangladesh has invested 10 million taka, the equivalent of about $150,000, to build cyclone shelters and create a storm early-warning system. Earlier this year, it allocated another $50 million to the country's agriculture and health budgets to help "climate-proof" certain development sectors. The nation's agricultural research centers are devising salinity-resistant strains of rice. And the South Asian nation was one of first to deliver to the United Nations a strategy outlining what it needs in order to cope with the worst effects of climate change.

"They're not waiting," said Saleem Huq, lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's most recent report on sustainability.

Leaders throughout Bangladesh say the nation desperately needs money from the West to adapt to problems that the world's leading climate scientists agree are caused by the emissions of industrialized nations. But they also point out that the country's history with catastrophe has in some ways given Bangladesh a head start in knowing how to cope with climate change.

Environmental Science and Disaster Management / Global warming
« on: September 18, 2017, 04:30:36 PM »
Recently, European Research Agency has revealed their research on ice melting in the Antarctica. In those revelations, they have found that the current rate of melting of the ice in the Western Antarctica is two times greater than what was 4 years before. The research finds that the Western Antarctica is loosing 159 billion tonnes of ice per year which may increase the sea-level by 0.5 mm per year . According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report published recently, the sea-level of the Bay of Bengal is rising at a rate of 1.5 mm per year. Bangladesh with the Bay of Bengal on the South will be directly affected by the sea-level rise because of its low elevation.  If the sea-level rises by 45 cm, a permanent loss of up to 15600 square kilometres of land is expected. If one meter rise happens, around 14000-30,000 sq. km land are expected to be flooded, which means more than 20% of Bangladesh will be under water . Scientists predict that rising sea-levels to submerge 17 percent of Bangladesh's land area will displace 18 million people in the next 40 years by 2050.

Jokes / Ranking the Jokers From Worst to Best
« on: August 05, 2017, 08:11:42 PM »
A hero is only as good as the villain he’s up against. Batman is famous for his gallery of rogues, but the Joker will always be at the top of the top. He’s been portrayed by a variety of actors over the years. Here’s how they line up, from worst to best:

5. Jared Leto, “Suicide Squad”
If you’re the bad guy in a movie full of bad guys, you’re going to need to bring your demonic “A game,” and that’s just what Leto does — at least, in the early scenes of “Suicide Squad.” He’s the first hip-hop Joker, with dead eyes and a mouth full of silver-capped teeth that turn his menacingly-switched-on-and-off smile into a gangsta grimace. He’s the most coldly homicidal of all Jokers, and also, ironically, the first one to have a girlfriend (Margot Robbie’s psychotic baby doll Harley Quinn). All in all, he’s got a lot on his villainous plate, but the joke is on him: Leto’s steely yet revved performance is just getting started when he’s relegated to the sidelines, where no good Joker should ever be left to laugh alone.

4. Mark Hamill, “Batman, The Animated Series”
In the far-off days of 1992, it seemed an utterly wack idea: Let’s cast the earnest and slightly mopey Luke Skywalker as … the most gleefully high-on-himself villain in the history of villainy. But Hamill, to a degree no one could have predicted, got in touch with his inner deranged demon-clown. Where a lot of famous actors recede in animated roles, he tapped deep into a hidden side of himself. He has said that his key influences in creating the character were Hannibal Lecter and Jerry Lewis, but at times he sounds like a demented aristocrat out of Noel Coward, and his laugh is like a mood ring — it’s got a hundred shades of crazy.

No wonder Hamill has been voicing the Joker ever since — on Batman and Justice League cartoon series, for videogames, and in the recently released version of “The Killing Joke.” Some say he’s the greatest Joker ever, though really, that’s an overreaction to the fanboy novelty of seeing the hero of “Star Wars” flip his lid. But an inspired flip of the lid it is.

3. Jack Nicholson, “Batman” (1989)
It’s not unusual to see a villain steal the show, but Nicholson didn’t just steal Tim Burton’s “Batman.” He stole it, danced on it, ate it for lunch, and came out the other side the way that only the Joker could: smiling! It’s the one “Batman” movie that could have been called, instead, “The Joker,” and Nicholson, pushing the sarcastic lunacy he first perfected in “The Shining” to the extreme breaking point, gave a performance that was pure, exuberant palm-buzzer vaudeville. In Burton’s vision, Batman and the Joker have more in common than they once did — they’re both creatures of the night, driven by the darkness of their obsessions. But it’s Nicholson’s Joker who’s got the bats in his belfry.

2. Cesar Romero, “Batman” (1966)
Outside of the original comic books, Romero really invented the template — the maniacal cackle, the blissed-out revenge — because, of course, he got there first. And when you consider that it was all part of a high-camp ABC TV series that debuted 50 years ago, it’s easy to feel a touch of awe for how radical and unhinged and gleefully out there Romero’s Joker really was. The actor was nearly 60 when he took on the role, but with eyes just about popping out of his head, he gave the Joker an operatic pizzazz, rolling his “R’s” like the Hollywood Latin lover he once was, speaking in a voice as high-pitched — or maybe just high — on hysteria as his deranged laughter. He set the standard for every Joker to come.

1. Heath Ledger, “The Dark Knight” (2008)
Maniac. Torture victim. Terrorist. Party host. “The Dark Knight” came out six months after Ledger’s death, but it left no doubt that he was the most audacious actor of his generation. His Joker starts from the place all other Jokers leave off: the sheer fun of sadism. What makes his performance hilarious, and scary, and visionary is the way it shows us the damage behind the fun, and the giggle behind the damage, and the insanity behind that. He’s the first Method supervillain, sucking on his mouth scars, and Ledger plays him like Brando as a psychotic pain freak. He made evil into something mesmerizingly derelict, and timeless.

Photo Gallery / Photography
« on: August 05, 2017, 08:05:31 PM »
Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

Photography is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g., photolithography), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

Career Advice / 7 Ways to Create a Friendly Environment at Work
« on: August 05, 2017, 07:53:42 PM »
Let’s face it, whether we mainly hire freelance help or manage a large office staff, we all have to work with people. Your company will run like a well-oiled machine if you learn to create positive relationships with your colleagues and co-workers.
Here are seven tips that will help develop great relationships at work.

1. Develop a positive attitude.
When you own your own company, your co-workers and employees look to you to set the tone for the business and the office environment. A positive attitude is key to an enjoyable, more comfortable workplace. A positive or negative attitude also spills over into how your customers perceive your business, which translates into their willingness to do business with you. They can tell when everything is clicking, and they can also tell when things are amiss.

2. Treat everyone with respect.
Everyone you work with deserves respect in the workplace, even when you differ on opinions. Look at each and every person as a vital member of the team. Respect that they have different opinions and ways of looking at the world. This respect will go a long way in developing the trust and teamwork that will take your business to the top.

Related: To Boost Your Business Treat Employees as Well as Your Customers

3. Practice active listening.
Effective communication begins with active listening. Encourage your co-workers to share their thoughts and be open to hearing them all the way through without interrupting or interjecting your own opinions. To foster an environment where everyone feels they have a voice, make your approach “yes, that’s a possibility” rather than “no, that would never work.”.

4. Connect on a personal level.
Develop meaningful bonds with your fellow workers. Exchange ideas and personal opinions. Show your empathy and concern for their well being as people, as well as co-workers. Take time to learn about their families and their goals. When you show a genuine interest in others, you foster a happier workplace.

5. Develop relationships outside of work.
Go to lunch with your co-workers or plan an off-site event like a bowling night or a day at the ballpark. Get to know each other outside of the office. You’ll be pleasantly surprised to learn more about what makes them tick and you’ll develop even stronger bonds when you discover you have shared interests.

Related: The Hidden Benefits of Happy Co-Workers (Infographic)

6. Work together for a larger good.
Most people feel good when they’re helping others. Take on a charity campaign and encourage your co-workers to participate in fundraising events, a charity race or a Habitat for Humanity project. You will build trust and form a bond when you share common goals and activities for the good of others. Post regular reports around the office or in your newsletter. Recognize everyone for their hard work and dedication.

7. Say thank you.
There are all sorts of ways to provide rewards, including praise, recognition, money, prizes, gift cards, celebratory meals, trophies and certificates of achievement. Be liberal with positive feedback and show gratitude when employees go above and beyond their normal duties and responsibilities.

Everyone likes to feel valued and appreciated for what they do everyday. An attitude of gratitude goes a long way. Offer respect, kindness, openness, caring and trust and you will be sure to reap the returns many times over.

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