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Topics - M H Parvez

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Marketing / How Children react to TV food advertisements
« on: May 04, 2018, 10:33:35 PM »
Many companies advertise food and have a tendency to include fantasies when targeted towards children. This is one of the persuasive ways which companies can use to advertise to children, along with promotional characters and premium offers. A study from Australia found that the rate of promotional characters in advertisements is twice as high during popular children's programs compared to popular adult programs. Examples of promotional characters include celebrities, cartoon characters and sports stars, this is as these characters increase the persuasiveness of the advertisements on both children and adults. Premium offers is another persuasive marketing which includes competitions, giveaways and vouchers, the same study found that unhealthy food advertisements contain 18 times as many premium offers during children's program in comparison to adult programs.

Often children do not have an understanding of the persuasive intent that advertising has. This starts to develop in children by the age of eight and young children lack any insight into the purpose of advertisements. This can lead to a potentially deceptive and manipulative understanding of promotional advertising that may be biased. Evidence of this was seen in a study by the Journal of Advertising who saw that children are more absorbed in the advertisement if it has a fantasy appeal due to children having a preference towards it. Children become absorbed in the fantasy making them more susceptible to these advertisements and placing less emphasis on the facts such as nutritional information or ingredients. Examples of these fantasies would be advertisements which are animal related, adventurous or the product comes alive creating a hyperreality/ fantasy driven world, in which the children are drawn to and associates with the product.

Another study found that there are four routes in which advertising can affect children. The first route is the motivational arousal created in the advertisements. This generates expectations which can direct consumer behaviour, occasionally more powerfully that physical consumption does. The second route is the psychological linkage between exposure to advertising and purchasing of advertised products. This aspect refers to the feelings and emotion that accompany the purchase and consumption of the advertised product such as satisfaction and happiness. Resulting in some consumers feeling an emotional connection during decision making which can lead to less cognitive noise. The third aspect refers to the entertainment dimension of advertising which regularly creates a positive mood and increases the possibility of positive judgement. On the other hand, can result in reduced systematic information, this minimizes children's ability to recognise and understand the persuasive purpose of advertising. The final factor links the 3 other factors together and refers to children's capability to interpret the persuasive nature of advertising.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / Different Reactions Between Younger and Older Children
« on: May 04, 2018, 10:31:55 PM »
Younger children have different understandings of advertisements they see on TV, in comparison to older children. All children can be influenced and persuaded by the advertisements they see. A study by Moore and Lutz questioned children about TV advertisements and found how young and older children's understanding of advertisements differs.

Younger children are influenced by what they see and do not have as much understanding of the message behind the advertisement. They are more trusting and believe that the product shown in the advertisement will be exactly how it is show on TV if they were to buy it. An advertisement may show children having fun playing with a new toy; when young children see this they expect that they will have that much fun too if they were to purchase that toy. Surroundings of the product shown in the advertisement also influence how young children view the advertisement. A colourful, fun environment will capture their attention and make the advertisement more memorable to a young child. Young children view advertisements as a form of entertainment; they are often able to enjoy advertisements similarly to how they would enjoy a TV programme. Advertisements also help young children to discover new products that they want and, as found in the study, young children use advertisements to create lists of things they want and wish to own in the near future.

Older children are better able to understand the meaning behind advertisements and can recognise certain aspects of the advertisement, which influence their purchase decisions. They can acknowledge that things aren't exactly as they are depicted in the advertisement, so their expectations, if they were to buy what is being advertised, are more realistic. Older children recognise that humour, music and action are used to capture their attention, as well as helping them to remember the advertisement. Older children enjoy advertisements that they find entertaining, regardless of whether they are interested in what is being advertised, unlike young children who are more likely to be interested only in advertisements that show things they themselves want or have. Older children look at what is being communicated and are able to focus on the product itself.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / Implications of TV advertising on children
« on: May 04, 2018, 10:30:31 PM »
There are positive and negative implications to TV advertising on children, for both marketers and the children who view the advertisements. Marketers are affected by the broadcasting laws for advertising on TV to children. There are many stereotypical roles presented to boys and girls within adverting today. These advertisements show children how society views their gender stereotypes in different categories. Young boys can be seen to play in a more active role than girls with diggers and cars, where as girls are displayed in a more nurturing and caring role playing with dolls or in miniature kitchen play sets. Presenting these stereotypes to children at such a young age can have a greater effect on them in their later years. It can effect the way they think about themselves and impact their judgement on others if the standards of society are not met.

TV advertising content has become more restricted because parents are concerned about the inappropriate content that are exposed to children through advertisements on the TV, the messages that will influence a child's attitude, cognition and behavior, and encouragement of violence or harm. Some countries have broadcast codes that suggest that TV advertisements should not contain exaggerated claims that will mislead or deceive children, abuse their trust or lack the understanding of persuasive intent in an advertisement. Another implication for marketers would be that children do not possess the same attention towards advertising, as an adult would. When children are exposed to the first few seconds of an ad, these seconds are vital because it will determine the attentiveness of the child throughout the advertisement. It is important for marketers who are targeting children, to take into consideration, the actors, entertainment value, and quality of words and images used to keep children engaged throughout the advertisement. Although children have shorter attention spans from adults when viewing TV advertisements, they have better recognition of products and brands.[citation needed]

Studies say that it is common for parents to be pestered by their children for the product they have seen on TV. This is a result of children feeling the need to conform through pressure created by their friends. A study showed that Mothers are more likely to purchase a product for their children due to the emotional appeal of advertisements and marketers are taking advantage of a Mothers response to their children reacting to an advertisement shown on TV. This emotional manipulation is an implication of TV advertising to children because marketers are exploiting the bond between a mother and her child.

An implication inflicted on children through TV advertising outweighs the effects on marketers because the factor that affect a child's well-being and relationship with their parents. For instance, children have developed aggressive behaviour because parents have denied their request to purchase products advertised on TV, which has created weak relationships between children and parents. Some children may not be able to comprehend the persuasive intent of an advertisement and do not necessarily feel pressured but are at risk of deception. Some argue that companies should stop targeting children with advertisements because children have become brand savvy from being constantly exposed to them on a daily basis and pestering their parents to purchase a certain product. People argue that it is important for children to develop analytical skills of consumerism and children should know the distinction between advertising and other media content, so they are not vulnerable to manipulation.


Marketing / How Children react to TV advertisements
« on: May 04, 2018, 10:27:47 PM »
Studies estimate that children between the ages of 6 and 11 spend on average 28 hours a week watching television and are exposed to as many as 20,000 commercials in a single year. With companies in the fast food industry right through to alcohol and drug industries all using television as an outlet for advertising, organizations are left to decide what is suitable for children to view and how children will react to the messages they receive through their advertisements. Since the 1970s there has been a large amount of concern as to whether or not children are able to comprehend advertisements and the extent to which they do so. A study conducted by Goldberg, M. E., & Gorn, G. J. in 1983 looked at the acquisition of children's cognitive defences and found that, until the age of 8 most children are unable to understand the selling intent of televised advertisements. Between the ages of 8 and 11 children only have a partial understanding of selling intent, and it is not until at least the age of 11 that a child is able to fully understand the selling intent of televised advertisements. The study concludes that there is a large difference in basic understanding of the purpose of advertising between children of a younger age and of an older age, and as a result different age groups have different reactions to televised advertisement.


Marketing / History of Advertising to Children
« on: May 04, 2018, 10:26:08 PM »
In the nineteenth century, the compulsory education of children was established. Consequently, children began to be targeted by an increasing number of publications.Commercial appeals to children, however, did not become commonplace until the advent and widespread adoption of television and grew exponentially with the advent of cable television. Also, Comic books started appearing around this period but were not initially targeted to children because they were largely uneducated. However, it was apparent that the majority of readers were children nonetheless. Publishers realized the importance of marketing comic books to teenagers in order to raise their potential sales. This resulted in the rise of comic book promotion to the youth market in the 19th century.

Radio and then television (broadcast media) grew. For advertisers, these tools expanded the ability of communicating to consumers effectively through advanced visual and oral medium. It is described in (Blades, et al., 2014) that, during the 19th century, a broadcasting system was utilised effectively to enhance advertisements within The United States of America.

Spot Advertising
Spot advertising, a novel form of promotion in this era, came to be known as a prodigious way of advertising. Spot advertising is television advertising, which appears shortly between programmes.

However, spot advertising was not the only commercial promotion that came to be popular. Sponsorship arrangements also began to appear. Advertisers linked their name with certain programmes and supported some of the production cost. American advertisers sponsored TV programmes or films in order to promote their products through broadcast media. A significant opportunity arose for advertisers and marketers with increased numbers of internet users due to the invention of the household computer in the early 1990`s. This movement expanded more ways of advertising and intensified the relationship between marketers and consumer. Concern grew that children had a significant disadvantage in this secretive form of marketing. This is because advertising could easily manipulate children as they are less able to comprehend the implicit objective of advertisers.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / Corporate brand identity
« on: April 24, 2018, 01:08:55 PM »
Simply, the brand identity is a set of individual components, such as a name, a design, a set of imagery, a slogan, a vision, etc. which set the brand aside from others. In order for a company to exude a strong sense of brand identity, it must have an in-depth understanding of its target market, competitors and the surrounding business environment. Brand identity includes both the core identity and the extended identity. The core identity reflects consistent long-term associations with the brand; whereas the extended identity involves the intricate details of the brand that help generate a constant motif.

According to Kotler et al. (2009), a brand's identity may deliver four levels of meaning:

1. Attributes
2. Benefits
3. Values
4. Personality


Marketing / Brand names and trademarks concept of a brand.
« on: April 24, 2018, 01:06:53 PM »
A brand name is the part of a brand that can be spoken or written and identifies a product, service or company and sets it apart from other comparable products within a category. A brand name may include words, phrases, signs, symbols, designs, or any combination of these elements. For consumers, a brand name is a "memory heuristic"; a convenient way to remember preferred product choices. A brand name is not to be confused with a trademark which refers to the brand name or part of a brand that is legally protected. For example, Coca-Cola not only protects the brand name, Coca-Cola, but also protects the distinctive Spencerian script and the contoured shape of the bottle.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / What is Brand advocate?
« on: April 24, 2018, 01:00:47 PM »
Fuggetta highlights that a brand advocate is a marketing term for "highly satisfied customers and others who go out of their way to actively promote the products they love and care about, they are a different breed altogether.[21] " Further, he states that they are 50% more influential than an average customer. Often a positive experience with a brand, successful customer-service relationship motivates a brand advocate to express their positive feelings towards a brand. Traditionally, a brand advocate would sing praises of a brand and this would circulate through 'word of mouth' or other similar channels. However, in the digital age social media tools have allowed brand advocates to express themselves on forums such as Twitter, Facebook by 'tweeting' about a brand experience or 'liking' the brand itself. Rubin believes, "when customers seek you out via social media, they're looking for an opportunity to build an emotional connection. So give it to them.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / Testimonial for a brand in advertising
« on: April 24, 2018, 12:59:34 PM »
Testimonial is simply a way of conveying assurance, in this case assurance is provided by the testimonial of the company or product/service in question in a written or spoken manner. A testimonial does not advertise the product freely unlike the role of the brand ambassador. A brand ambassador performs the function of a testimonial but a testimonial is not a brand ambassador. By simply providing a testimonial for a product/service, one need not be an ambassador for the same. For example, a customer can be a testimonial, since a testimony could be formal or informal "word of mouth" advocating the positive facets of the product. On the other hand, a consumer could not always be brand ambassador, since the latter is more commercial and is often considered as a position bound by monetary and professional liabilities. To a certain degree, celebrity endorsements provide testimonials for the product/service they are marketing. However, with the advent of the digital age testimonials have reached an all-time high. A large number of websites feature a "go to" tab where one can put down reviews or testimonials for the product/service. This has led to an increase in fake reviews, where companies have chosen to pay people to get their positive feedback. According to a study conducted by the research firm Gartner, "one in seven reviews/testimonials posted online by the end of next year is likely to be false. Other estimates put the number as high as one in three.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / Promotional model for advertising.
« on: April 24, 2018, 12:57:44 PM »
A promotional model exists in the form of a spokesmodel, trade show model and convention model. Each of these models carry out functions beyond representation of the company in a positive light. The main difference between a brand ambassador and a promotional model is in the way they represent the product/service. In many cases, unlike brand ambassadors, a promotional model may give the audience a live experience that reflects the product or service being branded. They may be required to promote the brand at simply one to many occasions while a brand ambassador is often tied down to one particular brand through the means of a contract over a period of time.Promotional models are required to be physically present at the venue as per the requirements of the marketing campaign, however brand ambassadors are most often referred to as the face of the brand. Promotional models are most often found in trade shows exhibits (in some cases referred to as "booth babes"), conventions and in print, digital or selected advertisements for the brand from time to time. The employment of so-called "booth babe" models at trade show exhibits and conventions has been criticised by some.

As previously stated, promotional models are said to be different as opposed to brand ambassadors, however in some ways, they feature similar attributes. There's a saying which states how all promotional models are brand ambassadors, yet not all brand ambassadors are promotional models. This is due to the fact that promotional models are seen as a specific type of brand ambassadors. Furthermore, the working conditions of a promotional model varies depending on many factors, these can include the company, target audience, venue, etc. Despite variations of promotional modeling work, most assignments involve handing out some form of literature or product samples.

Source: Wiki

Marketing / What is Goodwill ambassador?
« on: April 23, 2018, 02:00:37 PM »
A Goodwill ambassador is an honorary title and often linked with non-profit related causes. Their primary function is to help non-profit organizations spread their message across. Predominantly, goodwill ambassadors are celebrity advocates or known personalities, who use their fame and talent to get funding, donations, encourage volunteers to participate and raise awareness towards the organization's cause. In the past many organizations such as UNESCO have endorsed their cause through UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador. These celebrities or known personalities are picked according to the organizations' intended audience and if fully invested in the cause they are promoting they can greatly influence the process of persuading others. Goodwill ambassadors make widely publicized visits to the world's most troubled regions, and make appeals on behalf of their people and the organization. For example, the United Nations Goodwill Ambassadors include famous celebrities like Angelina Jolie for UNHCR, David Beckham, Shakira for UNICEF, Christina Aguilera for WFP and Nicole Kidman for UN Women.

Source: Online

Marketing / What is Self-branding?
« on: April 23, 2018, 01:34:02 PM »
According to Giriharidas,"the personal-branding field or self-brand traces its origins to the 1997 essay "The Brand Called You," by the management expert Tom Peters. Contemporary theories of branding suggest that brand ambassadors do not need to have a formal relationship with a company in order to promote its products/services. In particular the Web 2.0 allows all individuals to choose a brand and come up with their own strategies to represent it. Biro believes that "everyone owns their own personal brand. Companies and leadership must see the value of this concept for a successful social workplace recipe. If a brand ambassador chooses to represent the company and/or its brands, the individual should do so in a transparent way. Self-branding is an effective way to help new businesses save the hassle of hiring brand ambassadors, training them and then realizing they are not good enough for the company. In addition, it is an effective tool in order to target a niche audience and allows one to take sole control of their own brand representation. On the other hand, branding one's own product/service creates an instant connection with the audience and helps the brand stand out in comparison to other known brands that use popular celebrities or hire brand ambassadors. Reis propagates her branding mantra, "think about other people. Think about the impressions you are making on friends, neighbors, business associates. Think about your brand. Creating a personal branding strategy is an effective way to attract audience attention. She gives the example of Marissa Mayer, CEO Yahoo. According to Laura Ries, Marissa is successful because she has what most people don't – "she has a brand."

Self-branding also known as personal branding is a way in which an individual may promote or build their reputation. Wheeler also highlights how sending an email can contribute towards an individuals personal brand and how personal branding has become important over the past few years due to the increase of self-employees individuals. The importance of personal branding increasingly rises due to modern audiences often trusting people as opposed to corporations. This falls down to the fact that audience members tend to believe that corporate organizations only have the final sales of product in mind as opposed to the publics interest instead. Furthermore, a personal brand is also a clear indication of who you are and what best features you can offer, showing employees or clients what they could expect. The promotion of a personal brand is also essential in order to create and build a successful network of contacts, which in its self can lead to more business and future clients as well.

Source: wiki

Marketing / What is Celebrity branding?
« on: April 23, 2018, 01:29:07 PM »
Using celebrities as brand ambassadors is hardly a new concept. Creswell highlights that, "film stars in the 1940s posed for cigarette companies, and Bob Hope pitched American Express in the late 1950s. Joe Namath slipped into Hanes pantyhose in the 1970s, and Bill Cosby jiggled for Jell-O for three decades. Sports icons like Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods elevated the practice, often scoring more in endorsement and licensing dollars than from their actual sports earnings."

Large corporations realized that the overall image of a brand ambassador within society is an integral element to attract consumer attention. As a result, there was a substantial increase in celebrities as brand ambassadors, it was assumed that integrating a celebrity to a brand would increase chances of it being sold, which made companies value the business ideal of a 'brand ambassador.' The case study of the famous watch brand Omega, illustrates that the brand faced a severe crash in sales in the 1970s due to the Japanese Quartz phenomenon. Michault believes that, "by the time Omega had seen the error of its ways, the damage to its reputation was done. From the 1970s to the end of the 1990s, it was no longer seen as a luxury watch company. It was then for the first time in 1995, that Ms. Cindy Crawford became the new face of Omega, introducing the age of the celebrity brand ambassador. The man behind this marketing ploy was believed to be Jean-Claude Biver, whose strategy changed the entire landscape for branding in the future. During this time, many companies expanded their annual budgets to meet the financial liabilities that came with celebrity endorsing.

Celebrities are popular and followed by many people so it makes sense that marketers benefit from using them in order to get their message across. A celebrity can capture consumers' attention link the brand with their own personal image and associate their positive attributes with those of the product concerned. However, in some cases celebrity branding could go terribly off the script and affect product revenue.For example, recent doping charges on Lance Armstrong cost him $30 million in endorsements. Celebrity, world-famous athlete, he stepped down as the chairman of Livestrong. On the other hand, Nike sponsor to the athlete and U.S cycling team stated in a press release,"due to the seemingly insurmountable evidence that Lance Armstrong participated in doping and misled Nike for more than a decade, it is with great sadness that we have terminated our contract with him.

Despite celebrity endorsements known to play a beneficial part in gaining awareness for a selected brand, challenges as well as further risks may arise. This is effective when controversy or ill-behaviour is associated with the selected celebrity, later forming a negative impact towards the endorsement and brand themselves.

Source: Online

Marketing / College campus brand ambassadors
« on: April 23, 2018, 12:49:30 PM »
Campus ambassadors (also known as “brand representatives” and “brand ambassadors”) are college students who spread the word about the company that they represent. The goal of campus ambassadors is to help the company with marketing programs on campus to target the college demographic. This can be achieved by throwing events, hosting workshops, and utilizing social media to promote the brand or company.

Source: Online

Marketing / Evolution of brand managers to brand ambassadors
« on: April 23, 2018, 12:47:43 PM »
From the 1990s to early 2000s, brand management itself evolved as brand asset management. Davis defined Brand Asset Management Strategy as "a balanced investment approach for building the meaning of the brand, communicating it internally and externally, and leveraging it to increase brand profitability, brand asset value, and brand returns over time.

Source: Online

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