Show Posts

This section allows you to view all posts made by this member. Note that you can only see posts made in areas you currently have access to.

Messages - Shekh Moniruzzaman

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 5
Congratulations !!!

Finance & Banking / Banking And Its Classifications
« on: April 04, 2019, 10:54:02 AM »
It is not easy to define a bank because different experts have defined a bank highlighting its various functions. simple definition is "A bank is a financial institution whose main business is to accept money on deposit from some people and to advance loans on interest to some others."

Classification Of Banks:

Banks can be classified into various types on the basis of their functions, ownership, domicile, status, etc. The main types of banks in Pakistan are as under:

1.   Classification On The Basis Of Functions:

1.1 Central Bank: The most important bank in a country is the central bank. It stands at the top of all other banks. The main aim of a central bank is to maintain monetary and economic stability of a country. It enjoys the monopoly of note issue. Every country has a central bank of its own with different names.

1.2.   Commercial Bank: Commercial banks are the most common type of banks.They conduct their business purely on profit motive. The main function of a commercial bank is to accept deposits from those who have surplus funds and lend on interest to those who require funds.

1.3.   Industrial Bank: Industrial banks are those which meet the long-term credit needs of industries. The leading countries of the world have separate industrial banks to provide industrial finance. Bangladesh Development Bank Ltd(BDBL) is the leading industrial bank in Bangladesh. Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan was established in 1961 to provide long-term finance for the promotion of industries.

1.4.   Agricultural Bank: Agricultural banks provide long-term, medium-term and short-term finance to agriculture sector. Zarai Taraqiati Bank of Pakistan, the Federal Land Bank of America, the Agricultural Mortgage Corporation in England are some of the examples cf agricultural banks.

1.5 Exchange Bank: The exchange banks are those specialized banks which carry on foreign exchange business. Foreign trade transactions are settled through these banks. Exchange banks purchase, sell and collect foreign bills, issue letter of credit, facilitate foreign remittances through bank draft, telegraphic transfer, etc.

1.6. Saving Bank: The principal aim of saving banks is to collect and pool together the scattered savings of the community. Saving banks are usually departments of commercial banks. There may be separate saving-banks in some countries of the world. In Pakistan, there is-no saving bank. Commercial banks and post offices carry on saving banks functions. The saving banks invest funds in the safest government securities.

1.7. Investment Bank: Investment banks purchase and sell shares, bonds and securities. They assist joint stock companies and government bodies to raise money through the sale of shares and bonds. Investment banks also perform the usual banking functions of receiving deposits and advancing loans.

1.8. Mortgage Bank: Mortgage banks provide long-term loan against the mortgage of agricultural lands, houses and other such immovable property. House Building Finance Corporation is working as mortgage bank in Pakistan to provide funds for house building.

1.9. Micro-finance bank: The main objectives of micro-finance banks is to provide small loans to small traders, the loans are granted for short-term and medium terms. In Pakistan micro-finance banks and Khush-hali bank are the examples of this type of bank.

Tourism & Hospitality Management (THM) / Re: SAINT MARTIN
« on: April 04, 2019, 10:41:16 AM »

Thank you for sharing Madam.

MBA Discussion Forum / Re: Masterclass Workshop
« on: April 02, 2019, 12:46:01 PM »
Good Work.

Sir, Thank you for sharing.

BBA Discussion Forum / Re: Digital University
« on: May 28, 2018, 10:02:17 AM »
Great news for DIU students.

BBA Discussion Forum / Basic “Elements of Financial Statements”
« on: April 09, 2018, 11:26:06 AM »

Probable future economic benefits obtained or controlled by a particular entity as a result of past transactions or events.
   Future economic benefits
   Controlled by a particular entity
   Past transactions or events


Probable future sacrifices of economic benefits that arise from present obligations of a particular entity to transfer assets or provide services to other entities in the future as a result of past transactions or events.
   Sacrifices or outflow of economic benefits
   Obligations
   Past transactions or events

Equity is the residual interest in the assets of an entity that remains after deducting its all liabilities. In a business enterprise, the equity is the ownership interest.

Investment by Owners

Increase in net assets of a particular enterprise resulting from transfers to it from other entities of something of value to obtain or increase ownership interest (or equity) in it. Assets are most commonly received as investments by owners, but that which is received may include services or satisfaction or conversion of liabilities of the enterprise.

Distribution to Owners

Decrease in net assets of a particular enterprise that result from transferring assets, rendering services, or incurring liabilities by the enterprise to the owners. Distributions to owners decrease ownership interest (or equity) in an enterprise.

Comprehensive Income

Change in equity (net assets) of an entity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non owner sources. It includes all changes in equity during a period, except those resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners.


Inflows or others enhancements of assets of an entity or settlement of its liabilities (or a combination of both) during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations.


Expenses are decreases in economic benefits during an accounting period, other than distribution to shareholders. It can arises from outflows or other using up of assets or incurrence of liabilities (or a combination of both) during a period from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing major or central operations.


Increase in equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions of an entity and from all other transactions and other events and circumstances affecting the entity during a period except those that result from revenues or investments by owners.


Decrease in equity (net assets) from peripheral or incidental transactions of an entity from all other transactions and other events and circumstances affecting the entity during a period except those that result from expenses or distributions to owners.

BBA Discussion Forum / Understanding Annual report
« on: April 09, 2018, 11:17:34 AM »
An annual report is a comprehensive annual publication that a public limited company must provide to shareholders to describe their operations and financial conditions throughout the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested people, information about the company’s activities and financial performance. The front part of the report often contains an impressive combination of graphics, photos and an accompanying narrative, all of which chronicle the company’s activities over the past years. The back part of the report contains detailed financial and operational information.

In the case of mutual funds, an annual report is a required document that is made available to fund shareholders on a fiscal year basis. It discloses certain aspects of a fund’s operations and financial condition. In contrast to corporate annual reports, mutual fund annual reports are best described as “plain vanilla” in terms of their presentation.

Typically annual reports will include:

•   Chairman’s Report
•   CEO’S Report
•   Letter to the Shareholders
•   Narrative Text, Graphics and Photos, Listing of the company’s directors and executive officers
•   Summary of Financial Data
•   Corporate Information
•   Auditors report on corporate governance
•   Mission statement
•   Corporate governance statement of compliance
•   Statement of directors’ responsibilities
•   Invitation to the company’s AGM

As well as financial statements including:

•   Auditors report on the financial statements
•   Statement of Financial Position or Balance Sheet
•   Statement of Retained earnings
•   Comprehensive Income Statement or Income Statement
•   Cash Flow Statement
•   Notes to the Financial Statements
•   Accounting Policies

Other information deemed relevant to stakeholders may be included such as a report on operations for manufacturing firms or corporate social responsibility for companies with environmentally- or socially-sensitive operations. In the case of larger companies, it is usually a sleek, colorful, high gloss publication.

The details provided in the report are of use to investors to understand the company’s financial position and future direction. The financial statements are usually compiled in compliance with IFRS and/or the domestic GAAP, as well as domestic legislation (e.g the Company Act-1994 in the Bangladesh).

Pages: [1] 2 3 ... 5