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Research Ideas / How to write a research methodology
« on: July 10, 2019, 12:41:52 PM »
n your thesis or dissertation, you will have to discuss the methods you used to do you research. The methodology or methods section explains what you did and how you did it, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of the research. It should include:

The type of research you did
How you collected and/or selected your data
How you analyzed your data
Any tools or materials you used in the research
Your rationale for choosing these methods
The methodology section should generally be written in the past tense.
Step 1: Explain your methodological approach
Begin by introducing your overall approach to the research. What research problem or question did you investigate, and what kind of data did you need to answer it?

Quantitative methods (e.g. surveys) are best for measuring, ranking, categorizing, identifying patterns and making generalizations
Qualitative methods (e.g. interviews) are best for describing, interpreting, contextualizing, and gaining in-depth insight into specific concepts or phenomena
Mixed methods allow for a combination of numerical measurement and in-depth exploration
Depending on your discipline and approach, you might also begin with a discussion of the rationale and assumptions underpinning your methodology.

Was your aim to address a practical or a theoretical research problem?
Why is this the most suitable approach to answering your research questions?
Is this a standard methodology in your field or does it require justification?
Were there any ethical or philosophical considerations?
What are the criteria for validity and reliability in this type of research?
In a quantitative experimental study, you might aim to produce generalizable knowledge about the causes of a phenomenon. Valid research requires a carefully designed study with controlled variables that can be replicated by other researchers.

In a qualitative ethnographic case study, you might aim to produce contextual real-world knowledge about the behaviors, social structures and shared beliefs of a specific group of people. As this methodology is less controlled and more interpretive, you will need to reflect on your position as researcher, taking into account how your participation and perception might have influenced the results.

Step 2: Describe your methods of data collection
Once you have introduced your overall methodological approach, you should give full details of the methods you used to conduct the research. Outline the tools, procedures and materials you used to gather data, and the criteria you used to select participants or sources.

Quantitative methods
Describe where, when and how the survey was conducted.

How did you design the questions and what form did they take (e.g. multiple choice, rating scale)?
How did you find and select participants?
Did you conduct surveys by phone, mail, online or in person, and how long did participants have to respond?
What was the sample size and response rate?
You might want to include the full questionnaire as an appendix so that your reader can see exactly what data was collected.

Give full details of the tools, techniques and procedures you used to conduct the experiment.

How did you design the experiment (e.g. between-subjects or within-subjects)?
How did you find and select participants?
What tools or technologies did you use in the experiment?
In experimental research, it is especially important to give enough detail for another researcher to reproduce your results.

 Existing data
Explain how you gathered and selected material (such as publications or archival data) for inclusion in your analysis.

Where did you source the material?
How was the data originally produced?
What criteria did you use to select material (e.g. date range)?
Quantitative methods example
The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions and 10 questions that the respondents had to answer with a 7-point Lickert scale. The aim was to conduct the survey with 350 customers of Company X on the company premises in The Hague from 4-8 July 2017 between 11:00 and 15:00. A customer was defined as a person who had purchased a product from Company X on the day of questioning. Participants were given 5 minutes to fill in the survey anonymously, and 408 customers responded. Because not all surveys were fully completed, 371 survey results were included in the analysis.

Qualitative methods
 Interviews or focus groups
Describe where, when and how the interviews were conducted.

How did you find and select participants?
How many people took part?
What form did the interviews take (structured, semi-structured, unstructured)?
How long were the interviews and how were they recorded?
 Participant observation
Describe where, when and how you conducted the observation.

What group or community did you observe and how did you gain access to them?
How long did you spend conducting the research and where was it located?
How did you record your data (e.g. audiovisual recordings, note-taking)?
 Existing data
Explain how you selected case study materials (such as texts or images) for the focus of your analysis.

What type of materials did you analyze?
How did you collect and select them?
Qualitative methods example
In order to gain a better insight into the possibilities for improvement of the product range, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 returning customers from the main target group of Company X. A returning customer was defined as someone who usually bought products at least twice a week from Company X. The surveys were used to select participants who belonged to the target group (20-45 years old). Interviews were conducted in a small office next to the cash register, and lasted approximately 20 minutes each. Answers were recorded by note-taking, and seven interviews were also filmed with consent. One interviewee preferred not to be filmed.
source :

Clinical Pharmacy / Are We Closer to Curing the Common Cold?
« on: January 22, 2019, 09:31:16 AM »

Imagine if the common cold, something that affects billions of people every year, could be cured.

Perhaps we are a step closer to that dream.

Scientists say they’ve made a breakthrough by analyzing a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome of the human parechovirus (HPeV), a virus that causes the common cold and polio, along with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

Experts say the news is promising, but curing the common cold is nothing to sneeze at.Cracking the code
Scientists from the University of York, University of Leeds, and University of Helsinki, announced their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

“The common cold infects more than two billion people annually, making it one of the most successful viral pathogens, so we are excited to make this crucial step forward,” Professor Reidun Twarock, a mathematical biologist at the University of York’s Departments of Mathematics and Biology, and the York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis, said in a release.

The breakthrough stems from the discovery of a “hidden code” found within HPeV that is responsible for formation of the virus.
Imagine if the common cold, something that affects billions of people every year, could be cured.

Perhaps we are a step closer to that dream.

Scientists say they’ve made a breakthrough by analyzing a ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome of the human parechovirus (HPeV), a virus that causes the common cold and polio, along with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

Experts say the news is promising, but curing the common cold is nothing to sneeze at.

Read more: Get the facts on the common cold »

Cracking the code
Scientists from the University of York, University of Leeds, and University of Helsinki, announced their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

“The common cold infects more than two billion people annually, making it one of the most successful viral pathogens, so we are excited to make this crucial step forward,” Professor Reidun Twarock, a mathematical biologist at the University of York’s Departments of Mathematics and Biology, and the York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis, said in a release.

The breakthrough stems from the discovery of a “hidden code” found within HPeV that is responsible for formation of the virus.

Now that the code has been found, the research team is trying to figure out what drugs to use to target and destroy it.

“The coding works like the cogwheels in a Swiss watch,” Professor Peter Stockley from the Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology at the University of Leeds, said in a release. “We now need a drug that has the same effect as pouring sand into the watch. Every part of the viral mechanism could be disabled.”

Dr. Andrew Nye, DO, of the Orlando Health Physicians Family Medicine Group, says the research is fascinating.

“The common cold is actually not just one virus, but a whole host of many different viruses,” he told Healthline. “One of the largest groups is the coronavirus, and there’s a number of different subviruses that belong to that family. So the researchers have identified a structural weak point, if you will, in terms of how all of these viruses package and assemble the shield around themselves. It’s very promising because if a medication could be developed to attack those specific sites, you would ideally be able to attack that whole family of viruses — not just one species, but many different species.”

Nye said it appears the researchers have identified some valuable targets.

“A medication or class of medications that attack these sites would likely be effective for a good amount of time, so that’s pretty exciting,” he said. “The more basic level you can attack a virus on, its basic level of construction, the more success you’re going to have.”

“Being able to target the cold virus would be brilliant,” Dr. Hilary Hawkins, of the Orlando Health Physician Associates, told Healthline. “I’m not sure if it’s possible because there are so many variants of the cold virus. It’s exciting that they’re looking into this as a possibility, but it’s very early.”

Read more: Flu shots and the 2017 vaccine »

A persistent ailment
The common cold certainly lives up to its name. It’s very common.

The average adult gets two to four colds per year, while children typically get more. It’s the most frequent infectious disease in humans.

It’s a challenging illness because it presents differently depending on the individual patient, says Hawkins.

“It’s not just one discrete thing like strep throat or pneumonia,” she says. “A cold can manifest itself as coughing and sneezing, or congestion, or a sore throat. The duration is different in everybody. It seems to target the immune system differently, to the point where it’s difficult to tease out exactly whether it’s a cold or something else.”

The common cold’s diversity is one of the factors that makes it difficult to find a cure. Nye says realistically it’s unlikely that the common cold will ever be fully eradicated.

“The cold is not just one virus, it’s dozens and dozens of different viruses,” he says. “Even if this medication or class of medications was successful against the host family of coronaviruses, you’re still going to have other viruses that this will not be effective for. And at some point, likely, the coronaviruses will have some mutation that will benefit them to resist this medication or class of medications. Short-term, I think there’s a lot of benefit. In terms of elimination, no, that’s not really realistic, I don’t think, just because these viruses are so pervasive that you have to eliminate them on a global scale pretty much simultaneously, which is not going to happen.”

Get Answers from a Doctor in Minutes, Anytime
Have medical questions? Connect with a board-certified, experienced doctor online or by phone. Pediatricians and other specialists available 24/7.

Read more: Lower your risk of getting the flu »

Giving it the cold shoulder
While everybody catches a cold now and then, there are precautions that can be taken to avoid it.

Hawkins says that washing your hands with soap and water is key, pointing out that the virus lives on surfaces that people are likely to be touching.

“I would say that most people seem to get sick when they travel,” she says. “Part of that is because you’re exposed to a whole new set of germs that you’re normally not exposed to. Also, people don’t realize the nastiness of planes. There have been studies done that show that the places where viruses — the cold virus especially — will stay is the tray tables. Wiping down your tray table, washing your hands before you eat if you can, and turning your body away from someone who’s coughing next to you are all key.”

If you do catch a cold, it’s important to monitor your symptoms so you can not only get healthy again, but avoid infecting those close to you.

Hawkins says that anyone who works with children or elderly people should exercise extra caution when it comes to returning to work.

“Certainly, if anyone has a fever, they should not be at work — and they shouldn’t be at work for at least a 24-hour period, until their fever has broken,” says Hawkins. “If you’ve been sick for two or three days, make sure to get rest and get plenty of fluids, but if you can work, you’re not necessarily putting anyone at danger.”

Business Administration / What is a Green Bank?
« on: July 29, 2018, 03:56:23 PM »
A Green Bank is dedicated public or non-profit finance entity designed to drive private capital into market gaps.

    A finance institution dedicated to increasing and accelerating investment in clean power goods and services.
    Its mission is to use finance tools to mitigate climate change.
    Unlike typical “banks” it does not take deposits, and its operations can be funded by governments or charitable contributions or both.
    It may deploy capital from public or private sources, invest on its own or in conjunction with private sector investors.
As focused institutions with specialized market and financing know-how, Green Banks are able to spark greater public and private clean energy investment. Green Banks use a range of techniques and approaches to engage market actors and capital providers, bridging market gaps that allow capital to flow at scale.


The Definition of Fasting

What makes fasting seem so novel is that, with all the diet advice out there, the easiest might be to simply not eat. Of course, fasting isn’t the same as starving yourself, which is what many people think when they hear “fasting.” And yet, fasting isn’t a diet, either. The literal definition of fasting is to abstain from food and drink from a specific period of time; it’s been around for thousands of years, as spiritual fasting is a part of many religions. But in this context, I prefer looking at fasting as simply a change in eating patterns.

In place of three square meals a day or a handful of smaller meals throughout the day, you’ll have a specific window of time when you’re eating, whether it’s a few hours a day or certain days of the week. During that time, you can eat whatever you want. Of course, I say that within reason.

If you’re eating processed foods and potato chips, it’s unlikely you’ll reap the benefits of fasting. If that’s you, I encourage you to examine your diet before trying a fast. But if you practice fasting and stick to a mostly whole food diet, rich in fruits, veggies, lean proteins, healthy fats and raw dairy, you will see changes — and those occasional splurges on chocolate or cheese won’t have as big of an impact as they might if you were on a calorie-restrictive diet.

The beauty of fasting is that there isn’t one “right” way to do it. In fact, there are several types that are popular.
Different Types of Fasting
Intermittent Fasting

This type of fasting is also known as cyclic fasting. Intermittent fasting is a catch-all phrase for eating (and not eating) intermittently. In fact, almost all of the fasting methods below are types of intermittent fasting! Typical intermittent fast times range from 14 to 18 hours. The longest period any one of these plans would require you to abstain from solid food would be about 32–36 hours.
Time-Restricted Eating

If you practice time-restricted eating, you’ll abstain from food for anywhere between 12–16 hours. During your eating window, you can eat as much of your favorite healthy foods as you’d like. This is one of the most common methods of fasting.

Time-restricted eating is pretty simple to implement. If you finish dinner at 7 p.m., for instance, you wouldn’t eat anything again until at least 7 a.m. If you wanted to take it further, you’d extend the no-eating time until about 11 a.m. or 12 p.m. Because you’re sleeping for a large chunk of the “no eating” time, this is a good way to introduce fasting into your lifestyle and experiment without any major changes.
16/8 Fasting

Basically another name for time-restricted eating, here you’ll fast for 16 hours a day and then eat the other eight.
Alternate Day Fasting

Another type of intermittent fasting, alternate day fasting has you severely restricting the amount of calories you eat during fasting days, then eating to your stomach’s content on non-fasting days. Food isn’t completely off the table, but you’ll stick to about 25 percent of your normal caloric intake. Someone eating 2,000 calories would cut back to 500, for example. Alternate-day fasting isn’t necessarily a long-term plan, because it can become difficult to stick to, but it can be helpful to get a healthy habit in motion.
5:2 Diet

It’s very similar to alternate day fasting except here, you eat normally for five days of the week. On the other two, calories are restricted to about 500–600 calories a day.
The Warrior Diet

Here, you’ll stick to fruits and veggies during the day and then eat a well-rounded, larger meal in the evenings.
The Daniel Fast

This is a type of spiritual fasting. Based off of Daniel’s experiences in the Bible’s Book of Daniel, the Daniel Fast is a partial fast where vegetables, fruits and other healthy whole foods are featured prominently, but meat, dairy, grains (unless they’re sprouted ancient grains) and drinks like coffee, alcohol and juice are avoided. Most people follow this fast for 21 days in order to experience a spiritual breakthrough, have more time to reflect on their relationship with God or just to feel closer to what Daniel would have experienced in his time.

Business Administration / THE SEVENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2016-2020)
« on: June 02, 2018, 09:18:25 AM »
Over the past few decades, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in raising incomes, reducing poverty and improving social indicators. The economy faced numerous challenges on various fronts: the global economic downturn of 2008-09 and a series of natural disasters to which Bangladesh is regularly susceptible that caused disruptions to economic activity. Owing to the exemplary resilience of its hardworking population, the country continues to make significant strides even under heavy odds, and, in 2015, Bangladesh was classified by the World Bank as a lower middle income country.


The Government’s Vision 2021 defines several economic and social outcomes for Bangladesh to achieve by 2021. To convert this Vision into long-term development targets, a Perspective Plan 2010-2021 was prepared.  The targets of Vision 2021 and the associated Perspective Plan 2010-2021 were to be achieved through the implementation of two five-year plans, the Sixth Five Year Plan (2011-15) and the Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020). The 6th FYP made solid progress in increasing per capita income and reducing poverty through a strategy of pro-poor economic growth.

Without deviating from the main thrust of the 6th FYP, the 7th FYP articulates new strategies, institutions and policies, while strengthening existing ones, to complete the remaining agenda of achieving the social and economic outcomes of the Vision 2021 and the Perspective Plan. The Government recognizes that in a market economy like Bangladesh, where the bulk of the economy is privately owned and managed, the role of planning is essentially indicative and strategic in nature, aimed at stimulating the private sector.  Nevertheless, there is an important complementary role for public investment programmes, particularly in areas where private investment will not happen. The planning process therefore involves focus on policies and programmes to support the private sector and to also formulate a strong medium-term public investment programme.

Badminton / history of badminton
« on: May 26, 2018, 09:52:00 AM »

In the 5th century BC, the people in china then played a game called ti jian zi. A direct translation from this word 'ti jian zi' is kicking the shuttle. As the name suggest, the objective of the game is to keep the shuttle from hitting the ground without using hand. Whether this sport has anything to do with the History of Badminton is up for debate. It was however the first game that uses a Shuttle.

About five centuries later, a game named Battledore and Shuttlecock was played in china, Japan, India and Greece. This is a game where you use the Battledore (a paddle) to hit the Shuttlecock back and forth. By the 16th century, it has become a popular game among children in England. In Europe this game was known as jeu de volant to them. In the 1860s, a game named Poona was played in India. This game is much like the Battledore and Shuttlecock but with an added net. The British army learned this game in India and took the equipments back to England during the 1870s.

In 1873, the Duke of Beaufort held a lawn party in his country place, Badminton. A game of Poona was played on that day and became popular among the British society's elite. The new party sport became known as "the Badminton game". In 1877, the Bath Badminton Club was formed and developed the first official set of rules.

The International Badminton Federation (IBF) was formed in 1934 with 9 founding members.
- Ireland
- Scotland
- Wales
- Denmark
- Holland
- Canada
- New Zealand
- France

Since then, major international tournaments like the Thomas Cup (Men) and Uber Cup (Women) were held. Badminton was officially granted Olympic status in the 1992 Barcelona Games. From 9 founding members, IBF now have over 150 member countries. The future of Badminton looks bright indeed.

Basketball / history of basketball
« on: May 16, 2018, 11:54:05 AM »
Basketball is a relatively new sport, invented in 1891. It has now grown into one of the most popular sports in the United States.

Basketball was invented in December 1891 by Canadian James W. Naismith. An instructor at the YMCA Training School in Massachusetts, he sought a suitable indoor game to keep his students fit and warm during the cold New England winters. He formulated 13 rules, most of which still apply today. In 1893, the first women’s game was played at the Smith College, in Northampton, Massachusetts, USA.

Originally, basketball was played with peach baskets and balls had to be retrieved manually after each score. Subsequently, a hole was drilled into the bottom of the basket allowing the balls to be poked out with a long rod. In 1906, the peach baskets were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards

Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use.

In the early 1900s, students from abroad who had studied in Springfield, started to spread the game. In the 1920s, the first international games were played and by 1950 the first World Championship for Men was held in Argentina. Three years later, in 1953, the first World Championship for Women took place in Chile.

Basketball made its appearance at the Olympic Games in 1904 in St Louis as a demonstration sport, as the competition was held between only American teams and counted as an event of the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU of the USA) Championships.
At the Games in 1936 in Berlin, basketball joined the Olympic programme, where it has remained to this day. Women’s basketball debuted at the 1976 Games in Montreal.

The USA dominates international basketball and won all the titles up to 1972, the year it was defeated by the Soviet Union at the Munich Games. In the women’s event, the Soviets took gold in 1976, 1980 and 1992, and were later dominated by the Americans between 1984 and 2008, except in 1992.

In 1992 at the Barcelona Games, famous players from the National Basketball Association (NBA) were allowed for the first time to represent the USA. This team, known as the “Dream Team” in the international media, was undoubtedly the best basketball team ever formed. It delighted the public and widely dominated the Olympic tournament in 1992.

Meditation / 10 benefits of meditation for students
« on: May 15, 2018, 03:25:29 PM »
1. Rise in IQ levels
students-benefits-meditation-academic-improvment-iq w2Deep inside, everyone is an Einstein: students practicing meditation benefit from increases in brain function across the board.

Most dramatic increases occur in creative thinking, practical intelligence, and IQ (as measured by the ability to reason in novel situations, called “fluid intelligence”).
2. Academic stress goes down
Not only do their grades improve, but students who practice meditation report lower levels of stress.

six benefits of meditation for students_w
A STUDENT SHARES HIS EXPERIENCE on blog: “I used to hit a wall of fatigue about halfway through each day. Now, I meditate in the library for twenty minutes, and feel even better than I would if I had just gotten eight hours of sleep,” says Matthew Poulton (23) from Clementon, NJ.

They also have better concentration, more alertness, and greater resistance to the physical effects of stress during exams.
. Improved academic achievement
Meditating students show considerably improved academic performance — in one study, 41% of students allocated to the meditation group benefitted from improvement in both Math and English scores. Read more

4. Better focus
Thanks to their minds calming down, students doing meditation report a whooping 50% reductions in stress, anxiety, and ADHD symptoms.

This in turn triggers a positive chain reaction where an improved ability to focus better on tasks at hand results in increased brain processing and improved language-based skills. Read more

5. Brain integrity & efficiency
Not only does meditating make the brain sharper, it also helps to make it a more harmonious unit: university students who took up meditation were found to have changes in the fibers in the brain area related to regulating emotions and behavior.

Among other benefits, these changes again lead to better cognitive and intellectual performance.
6. Reduction in depression and anxiety
Doing meditation leads to significant reductions in depressive symptoms (an average of 48% lower than the non-meditating control group).

And that’s apparently true for everyone, including even those who have indications of clinically significant depression. Read more

7. Reduction in destructive addiction (drugs, alcohol)
There’s no harm in enjoying life. However, reigning in potentially addictive behaviour is a major key to success.

Studies looking at both students and adults find that daily Transcendental Meditation practice greatly reduces both substance abuse problems and antisocial behavior. In many cases, TM has been shown to be two or three times more effective than traditional drug prevention and education programs.

These results hold for all kinds of addictive substances — drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, prescription medications, and even food (which, by the way, can be as addictive as cocaine). Read more

8. Lower absenteeism, better behaviour
First step to academic glory: don’t miss a class!

Students who do meditation benefit from lower levels of absenteeism, lower levels of behavior incidents at school, and lower levels of suspension. Read more

students meditation happiness less stress anxiety

9. Lower risk of cardiovascular diseases
Stay healthy! Regular meditation practice helps students to reduce blood pressure, anxiety, and depression. It will all pay back in years to come.

As one study showed, students formerly at-risk of hypertension witnessed a major change in blood pressure already after a few months of meditating. These changes were associated with a 52% lower risk of developing hypertension later in their life. Read more

10. Happier, more confident students
Last but definitely not least — research finds that students who meditate daily get higher scores on affectionate, self-esteem, and emotional competence. Here’s your formula for happiness!
Source :

Chess / Rules of playing Chess
« on: May 03, 2018, 01:13:27 PM »
Basic Moves
Almost everyone has a general idea of what chess is, even if they don't know how to play. Common questions for both beginners and non-players alike include "What chess pieces can jump?" (knights), "What pieces can become a queen?" (pawns), "What pieces only move diagonally?" (bishops), "What chess piece is next to the knight?" (bishop on one side, and rook on the other), and so forth. Beginners want to know what chess pieces can move where, and how to get them there without losing the game.

Each side starts out with 16 pieces, consisting of 8 pawns, 2 rooks, 2 knights, 2 bishops, and a king and a queen, all in the same color.

One important thing to note, as it is one of the most commonly asked question in regard to playing chess: Who goes first? White always goes first in chess.

In this section, we will cover each individual chess piece, how it moves and captures your opponent's pieces, and tips and tricks that apply specifically to that piece. If you have a good grasp on individual pieces but don't know how to set up the board or where each chess piece starts, you may want to head over to our board setup section.

 Chess Pawn

The pawn chess piece is often the most overlooked of all of the chess pieces. The piece itself is very simple. On most chess sets, the pawn chess piece is the smallest piece on the board. Each player begins a chess game with eight pawns, standing in front of their other eight chess pieces.

How A Pawn Chess Piece Moves
Pawns are both simple and complex in their movements. The pawn piece has the fewest options of any chess piece on the board in where it can move and it can only move forward until it reaches the other side of the board. Here are a few things to know about how a pawn chess piece moves:

Pawn chess pieces can only directly forward one square, with two exceptions.
Pawns can move directly forward two squares on their first move only.
Pawns can move diagonally forward when capturing an opponent's chess piece.
Once a pawn chess piece reaches the other side of the chess board, the player may "trade" the pawn in for any other chess piece if they choose, except another king.
How a Pawn Moves
Pawn Names & Terms
Not all pawns are created equal. Each pawn is named after the piece behind it. For example, the two outer pawns are called "Rook Pawns", while the pawns in front of the King and Queen at the start of a game are called "King Pawn" and "Queen Pawn" respectively. In addition, pawns on each side of the board are named. This is to help clarify which pawn is which, when referring to a Bishop Pawn, Knight Pawn or Rook Pawn. The pawns on the Queen's side of the board are called Queen side and the pawns on the King's side of the board are called King side. For example, at the start of the game, the pawn on the far left side would be called the QR-pawn (Queen Rook Pawn). The pawn second from the right at the start of the game would be called the KN-pawn (King Knight Pawn). Often, pawns are referenced as opposition. Your opponent's pawn directly across the board from your own pawn is called the "Counterpawn". Each pawn on your board begins the game with its own counterpawn. At the start of the game, all pawns are considered "unfree", or not able to reach the opposite side of the board because of its counterpawn. Once its counterpawn has been captured, the pawn is then considered "half-free". Each pawn on the board also has opposing pawns called "sentries". Sentries are the opponent's pawn chess pieces that sit directly across from it, but are to the left and right by one square. These pawns are the pieces your opponent could use to capture your pawn. While sentries can make it difficult for your pawn to cross the board, their obstruction of your piece is not absolute. Each of your own pawn chess pieces has "helpers". These are its neighboring pawn pieces that can be used to help the pawn chess piece cross the board. When trying to reach the other side of a board, a pawn piece is known as a "candidate". In most cases, your candidate piece would advance first, followed by its helper pieces, trying to ensure its safety. Once the sentries of a pawn piece have been captured, the pawn is now considered "free". This means it no longer has any opposing pawns in its path to reaching the other side of the board.

The Pawn Ram
When two pawns meet at squares directly in front of each other, they are considered part of a "ram". In basic terms, a ram occurs when two pawn pieces are blocking each other's movements across the board. When helper pawns get involved, a ram can be broken, allowing the pawn chess piece to move forward. Avoiding rams is important when attacking an opponent as it eliminates your ability to use the pawn in the attack. Pawns can be very useful tools as you play the game of chess. Gaining a more in-depth understanding of how to use pawns in chess is crucial to becoming a better chess player. Here are some great books we recommend for studying pawn play in chess:
The straight piece. That's the easiest way to describe the rook chess piece. In traditional sets, the piece looks kind of like a castle tower and begins each chess game as the outside corner pieces. Each player has two rook pieces to begin.

How A Rook Chess Piece Moves
The rooks are the most simple-moving chess pieces on the board. Their movements are only straight, moving forward, backward or side to side. At any point in the game, the piece can move in any direction that is straight ahead, behind or to the side. Here are a few things to know about how the Rook chess piece moves:

The rook piece can move forward, backward, left or right at any time.
The rook piece can move anywhere from 1 to 7 squares in any direction, so long as it is not obstructed by any other piece.
The rook piece is the only piece on the board that can participate in a "castling" move with the King piece. This is a move where the King piece and the rook piece work together, allowing the player to move two pieces at the same time. We'll discuss castling later.
When it comes to your chess set, the Knight chess piece is often the defining piece in the set. This piece offers the most chance for variety and uniqueness in a chess set and it is often the piece with the most detail. When it comes to the game of chess, the Knight chess piece is often the favorite piece and most unpredictable piece in the game. Many a game has been ended because of the make-or-break tactics with the Knight.

How A Knight Chess Piece Moves
The Knight chess piece moves in a very mysterious way. Unlike Rooks, Bishops or Queens, the Knight is limited in the number of squares it can move across. In fact, its movement is a very specific movement. The piece moves in a shape similar to the uppercase "L". Here are the specifics:

The Knight piece can move forward, backward, left or right two squares and must then move one square in either perpendicular direction.
The Knight piece can only move to one of up to eight positions on the board.
The Knight piece can move to any position not already inhabited by another piece of the same color.
The Knight piece can skip over any other pieces to reach its destination position.
Basic Tactics
Most experts prefer their Knight pieces to be "close to the action". Because of their strange movement, they can often cover weaknesses that other pieces leave. Knight pieces are also best employed near the center of the board and they are often one of the first pieces to reach the center area of the board. The Knight also has a unique ability to attack another piece without risking being attacked by the same piece (aside from other Knights, of course).
The Bishop chess piece is easily the most forgotten piece of all the chess pieces. From the beginners' perspective, the piece cannot do a whole lot to help out your game, considering each piece can only cover half of the board at a time and is quite vulnerable to attacks from straight on. But the bishop does have his place in the game of chess. In most chess sets, the piece is very traditional. It is a tall, slender piece with a pointed tip that has a strange cut made into it. Usually, the design doesn't change much, unlike the Knight piece, which has a lot of flair in its design.

How A Bishop Chess Piece Moves
The bishop chess piece is stuck moving in diagonals. Each player starts out with two bishop pieces, each one residing on its own color of square. Between both pieces, you can cover the entire board, but one piece can only cover one half of the board, only the colors of squares it started the game on.

The bishop can move in any direction diagonally, so long as it is not obstructed by another piece.
The bishop piece cannot move past any piece that is obstructing its path.
The bishop can take any other piece on the board that is within its bounds of movement.

Life Science / Food-based dietary guidelines - Bangladesh
« on: May 02, 2018, 11:55:28 AM »
The guidelines are directed at the general public. The document includes messages for appropriate feeding of children under 2 years of age.

Food guide

Bangladesh uses a food pyramid divided into five levels of consumption. At the bottom of the pyramid is rice, bread and other cereals to be eaten liberally. On the second level one finds vegetables and fruits to be eaten liberally too. Then comes fish, meat, eggs and pulses followed by milk and dairy products, all to be eaten in moderation. Fats, oils and sugar are at the apex of the pyramid and should be eaten sparingly.


Eat a well-balanced diet with a variety of foods at each meal.
Consume moderate amounts of oils and fats.
Limit salt intake and condiments and use only iodized salt.
Consume less sugar, sweets or sweetened drinks.
Drink plenty of water daily.
Consume safe and clean foods and beverages.
Maintain desired body weight through a balanced food intake and regular physical activity.
Practise a healthy lifestyle with right cooking and healthy eating.
Eat additional food during pregnancy and lactation.
Practise exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and start adequate complementary foods in time.

Peace of Mind / It’s the habit of being mindful.
« on: May 01, 2018, 11:13:44 AM »
Mindfulness is often described as sitting still, breathing deeply and paying attention to your breath. Although that certainly can be a mindfulness practice, being mindful is simpler and can offer a wider array of benefits.

Being mindful is a shift from “being our thinking”—being that blabbering voice in our heads—to being aware of our thinking. This subtle inner shift allows us to see our thinking objectively, to see our emotions objectively, and to have better awareness of what we’re doing and who we’re with.

We can make this shift to being mindful at any time. In fact, most of us are likely do this many times every day, albeit unintentionally. But we don’t sustain mindfulness for more than a few seconds before we go right back to being our thinking again. As a result, we don’t see much benefit, just as we wouldn’t see much benefit from running for 30 seconds a few times a week.

We need to make the effort to intentionally become mindful and sustain that mindfulness for long periods of time to realize the benefits of mindfulness practice, including:

Increased resilience to stress
Improved decision making
Improved emotional intelligence
You might be wondering how something that sounds so simple can do so much. The reason mindfulness training has so many benefits is that it results in an optimally functioning mind. Everything we do, or fail to do, is the result of how our mind functions, and as brain research continues, scientists are discovering ways to increase its functionality.

For example you likely know at least one smart, talented person who hasn’t found success yet. This could be because that person’s mind isn’t functioning optimally. He or she might not be making very good decisions, or maybe they don’t have much self-discipline, or they aren’t very good at building and maintaining healthy relationships, or a combination of all three.

You also likely know at least one person who isn’t the most intelligent person in the room and isn’t the most talented, and yet they have a successful life. This person likely has an optimally functioning mind that allows them to make better decisions, have increased self-discipline, and develop and sustain healthy relationships.

Happiness / Happiness
« on: May 01, 2018, 10:17:16 AM »
Different definitions of happiness
Happiness can be defined in many different ways:

Three levels of happiness
Momentary feelings of joy and pleasure
Judgements about feelings
A higher meaning of life, flourishing and fulfilling one’s potential
Read more about the three levels.

Four levels of happiness
Happiness from material objects
Happiness from comparison: being better, more admired than others etc.
Happiness from doing good for others and making the world a better place.
Ultimate, perfect happiness - finding your calling
Read more about the four levels.

Five different dimensions of well-being
Positive emotion
Read more about the five dimensions of well-being.

The Benefits of Being Happy
If happiness is a universal goal, then we need to understand its cause and effect. But before we go on to the studies and definitions, we need to know why it’s so important to us. Why are we so hung up on being happy?

Aside from a greater appreciation of life, being happy…

Is good for our health. Happy people have stronger immune systems and have a longer lifespan, than depressed and unhappy people.
Makes you more giving. Since they are happy, they feel more contentment and tend to share their blessings with others.
Helps you handle stress better. Helps you recover from trauma faster.
Is beneficial to your relationships. Compared to discontented people with a lot of hang-ups, happy people have a higher chance of getting married and having successful relationships. They also have a broader and more meaningful network of friends.
Encourages success. Happy people are more creative and energized and this attitude translates to their work performance.
Happy people are reported to live 14% longer, increasing their lives by 7.5 to 10 years.
The Search for Happiness is Universal
The search for happiness is a human endeavor – a universal goal. We all want to be happy, and we empathize with each other’s need for it. We search for it with all our might, our thoughts and actions focused on only one goal in life – to be happy.

But what is happiness, really? Is it that feeling that rushes over you when you achieve a goal, when you have your first child, or when you love someone and they love you back? You know it when you’re happy or not, but can something so intangible really be defined and measured?

The Studies on Happiness
Since the 1960s, scientific disciplines have conducted research on happiness, to determine how humans can live happier lives. The scientific pursuit of positive emotion and happiness is the pillar of positive psychology, first proposed in 1998 by Martin E. P. Seligman.

The studies have come up with varied results and views on the cause of happiness. Here are some of their findings:

One result from the 75-year Grant Study of Harvard undergraduates show that loving relationships, especially with parents, have a great impact on our well-being in our later years.
Based on twin studies, Sonja Lyubomirsky concludes that 50% of our happiness level is determined by our genes, 40% is related to our self-control, and 10% is influenced by personal situations and life circumstances.
Finnish research on 701 individuals showed that happiness activates our whole body, from the head down to the legs.
People are able to extract more pleasure out of ordinary experiences as they age. Younger people defined their happiness more by extraordinary experiences.
Excessive money, beyond what we need to feed, clothe and house ourselves only increases happiness by a fraction.
A Harvard Business School Study found that we are happier when we spend money on others, rather than on ourselves.
Relationships are keys to long-term happiness. The effect is strongest on married couples, but deep meaningful relationships with others have the same impact.
Surveys by Gallup, the National Research Center and the Pew Organisation states that people who are more spiritual tend to be happier than those who are not.
Religious people who benefit from social contact and peer support also showed an increased tendency to be happy and satisfied with their lives. The practice of optimism and service to others are contributing factors.
Research findings show that 8 hugs a day can increase your levels of oxytocin, and result in a happier you. A higher level of oxytocin is attributed to feelings of trust and camaraderie.
People’s moods significantly improve after engaging in exercise. (University of Bristol, 2008)
Acts of kindness make people more well-liked and accepted. This leads to social acceptance and an improved self-image. (University of British Columbia, 2012)
In a significant study by the University of California in 2008, researchers concluded that surrounding yourself with happy people will increase the possibilities of your future happiness. Happiness is said to be contagious.
The experience of being able to buy material things causes happiness, not the possession itself. It satisfies our higher order needs for social connectedness and vitality, and heightens the feeling of being alive. (San Francisco State University, 2009.
What is Happiness? Different definitions of happiness
Happiness means different things to different people.

In her book, “The How of Happiness”, Sonja Lyubomirsky, a professor of psychology at the University of California, defines happiness as, “the experience of joy, contentment, or positive well-being, combined with a sense that one’s life is good, meaningful, and worthwhile.”
The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines happiness as: A state of well-being and contentment A pleasurable or satisfying experience
Author Ayn Rand says: “Happiness is that state of consciousness which proceeds from the achievement of one’s values“.
Mahatma Gandhi says: “Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony”.
To psychological researchers, the two components of Subjective Well-Being (SWB) are "feelings of happiness" and "thoughts of satisfaction with life".
Every individual has their own definition of what makes them happy. But the extensive research on happiness have shown that there are certain needs that must be satisfied in order to achieve this emotional state. What we are referring to is long-term happiness and not the momentary feelings of joy we experience in our everyday lives.

What Makes Humans Happy?
Psychologist Martin Seligman and the findings from Positive Psychology studies asserts that humans are happiest when they have the following:

Pleasure (delicious food, a warm bed, anything that pleases one of the 5 senses)
Engagement or Flow (the experience of an enjoyable and challenging activity)
Relationships (social ties are an extremely reliable factor of happiness)
Meaning (belonging to something bigger than ourselves)
Accomplishment (the achievement of goals)
Are you Happy?
Psychologists have long distinguished the difference of Life Satisfaction (your thoughts and feelings about your life as a whole) from Subjective Well-Being (your actual feelings of happiness at the moment.) One does not decide the outcome of the other.

If you were asked to rate your happiness right now, it will not be an accurate indicator of your Life Satisfaction. You may be feeling discontented with your work, or having a fight with your loved one – and you will give your state of happiness a low rating. Subjective Well-Being is dependent on current situations.

Maybe you just had a promotion or bought a new car and you’re feeling on top of the world. You’re happy. But if you were asked if you’re satisfied with your life in general, you may rate your Life Satisfaction differently. You probably have more plans for your life that have not come to pass.

This shows that happiness is not equal to Life Satisfaction or feelings of fulfillment, which equates to long-term happiness. Your overall sense of well-being cannot be determined by how happy you are today or last Friday.

Make a difference for others!
The studies suggest that to achieve long-term happiness, you need to see yourself as a person who is making a difference in this life, and improving the well-being of others. Someone who matters. If you focus on these areas, you will have a greater chance of achieving the state of happiness that every human being long for. What about you? What gives you happiness?

Wikipedia: Happiness
Scholarpedia: Psychology of Happiness
Psychology Today: How Should Psychology Define Happiness?
Greater Good: The Science of a Meaningful Life: What is Happiness?
Being Minimalist: 10 Positive Psychology Studies to Change Your View of Happiness
Psyche Central: 5 Reliable Findings from Happiness Research
Psyblog: Happiness: 10 Fascinating New Psychology Studies Everyone Should Know

Business Administration / Aggregate demand and Aggregate supply
« on: May 01, 2018, 10:03:27 AM »
Aggregate Demand :
In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time. It specifies the amounts of goods and services that will be purchased at all possible price levels. This is the demand for the gross domestic product of a country. It is often called effective demand, though at other times this term is distinguished.
The aggregate demand curve is plotted with real output on the horizontal axis and the price level on the vertical axis.
The aggregate demand curve illustrates the relationship between two factors - the quantity of output that is demanded and the aggregate price level. Aggregate demand is expressed contingent upon a fixed level of the nominal money supply. There are many factors that can shift the AD curve. Rightward shifts result from increases in the money supply, in government expenditure, or in autonomous components of investment or consumption spending, or from decreases in taxes.
According to the aggregate demand-aggregate supply model, when aggregate demand increases, there is movement up along the aggregate supply curve, giving a higher level of prices.
An aggregate demand curve is the sum of individual demand curves for different sectors of the economy. The aggregate demand is usually described as a linear sum of four separable demand sources:]
•     is consumption (may also be known as consumer spending
  is investment,
•     is government spending,
•     is net export, where
•     is total exports, and
•     total imports
Aggregate Supply :
DEFINITION of 'Aggregate Supply'
The total supply of goods and services produced within an economy at a given overall price level in a given time period. It is represented by the aggregate-supply curve, which describes the relationship between price levels and the quantity of output that firms are willing to provide. Normally, there is a positive relationship between aggregate supply and the price level. Rising prices are usually signals for businesses to expand production to meet a higher level of aggregate demand.
Also known as "total output".
There are two main reasons why the amount of aggregate output supplied might rise as Prises, i.e., why the AS curve is upward sloping:
•   The short run AS curve is drawn given some nominal variables such as the nominal wage rate, which is assumed fixed in the short run. Thus, a higher price level P implies a lower real wage rate and thus an incentive to produce more output. In the neoclassical long run, on the other hand, the nominal wage rate varies with economic conditions. (High unemployment leads to falling nominal wages which restore full employment.) Hence in the long run the aggregate supply curve is vertical.
•   An alternative model starts with the notion that any economy involves a large number of heterogeneous types of inputs, including both fixed capital equipment and labor. Both main types of inputs can be unemployed. The upward-sloping AS curve arises because (1) some nominal input prices are fixed in the short run and (2) as output rises, more and more production processes encounter bottlenecks. At low levels of demand, there are large numbers of production processes that do not use their fixed capital equipment fully. Thus, production can be increased without much in the way of diminishing returns and the average price level need not rise much (if at all) to justify increased production. The AS curve is flat. On the other hand, when demand is high, few production processes have unemployed fixed inputs. Thus, bottlenecks are general. Any increase in demand and production induces increases in prices. Thus, the AS curve is steep or vertical.
Aggregate supply is targeted by government "supply side policies" which are meant to increase productive efficiency and hence national output. Some examples of supply side policies include: education and training, research and development, supporting small/medium entrepreneurs, decreasing business taxes, making labor market reforms to diminish frictions that may hold down output, and investing in infrastructure.
Why AS is vertical ?
As a model, Long Run Aggregate Supply is made up of consumer goods, capital goods and public goods. Essentially it represents the real GDP of a country. Intuitively, a country's GDP level is too large to be significantly affected by price changes.

 As a result the LRAS is vertical (inelastic) as the country will continue to produce regardless of prices. Perhaps for the sake of other more important factors such as employment and overall health of its economy.

Factors that will shift the inelastic long run aggregate supply should also have largescale effects inorder to affect the overall GDP of a country. For example an increase in population will mean more workforce in the economy, technological advancement will mean the country can produce more faster and efficiently and a war could destroy some capital assets.
What Is Full Employment GDP?
Full employment GDP is a term used to describe an economy that is operating at an ideal level of employment, where economic output is at its highest potential. It is a state of balance in which savings is equal to investment and the economy is neither expanding too rapidly nor falling into a recession. This level of economic output, as measured by real GDP, is neither too high to cause rising inflation nor too low to bring about falling prices.
In economics, equilibrium is that perfect state of balance, like two friends on a teeter-totter that weigh exactly the same. Absent any external force or change in weight, two friends that weigh the same will sit on a teeter-totter and it will rest completely horizontal. But, as soon as the weight of one side changes, the other side reacts. The two economic forces that must be in equilibrium to achieve full employment GDP are unemployment and inflation.
When unemployment goes down, inflation tends to go up, and when unemployment goes up, inflation tends to fall. All economies have a state of balance like this that we call the full employment level of gross domestic product, or full employment GDP for short.
Illustrating Full Employment GDP
Here is how economists illustrate full employment GDP. The red upward-sloping curve is called the short-run aggregate supply curve, or SRAS for short. This curve represents the economy's total supply of goods and services. The blue downward-sloping curve is the aggregate demand curve, or AD for short. This curve represents the economy's total demand for goods and services. Finally, the black vertical line is called the long-run aggregate supply curve, or LRAS for short. It represents the economy's long-run potential output of goods and services.
When all three of these lines intersect, there is both a short-term and a long-term equilibrium. In other words, the teeter-totter is horizontal - everything is in perfect balance and everyone lives happily ever after.
Full Employment GDP and Economic Growth
However, life is not always like that. The ups and downs of the economy - the expansions and contractions - in real GDP that we continue to experience over time will bring it above or below full employment.
For example, during a recession, additional unemployment is generated, which we call cyclical unemployment, or unemployment that is directly caused by an economic slowdown. As firms and employees adjust their expectations to the ups and the downs, cyclical unemployment dissipates and the economy generally moves back towards its potential output, or full employment.
In the long run, economic output, as measured by GDP, returns to the full employment level, which classical economists refer to as potential output. Potential output is the highest level of real GDP that an economy can sustain over time.

DEFINITION of 'Below Full Employment Equilibrium'
A macroeconomic term used to describe a situation where an economy's short-run real gross domestic product (GDP) is currently lower than that same economy's long-run potential real GDP. Under this scenario, there is a recessionary gap between the two levels of GDP (measured by the difference between potential GDP and current GDP) that would have been produced had the economy been in long-run equilibrium.
The interaction of aggregate demand and aggregate supply determines macroeconomic equilibrium, and understanding macroeconomic equilibrium provides insight into changes in real GDP and the price level. In considering determination of real GDP and the price level, however, we must distinguish between the short run and the long run.
Short-run macroeconomic equilibrium occurs (geometrically) at the intersection of the short-run aggregate supply curve (SAS) and the aggregate demand curve (AD). This intersection indicates the price level at which the aggregate quantity of final goods and services supplied in the economy is equal to the aggregate quantity demanded, and indicates as well the coresponding level of real GDP.
To see that this point of intersection is an equilibrium point, consider first a situation where the price level is below that corresponding to the short-run equilibrium. At this price level, the quantity of real GDP that will be supplied by firms will be less than the quantity of real GDP that will be demanded by households, business firms, government, and net foreign demand. With firms unable to meet demand, inventories decline and back orders become the rule. In order to meet the strong demand, firms will begin to increase production; and in so doing will incur additional resource costs that will result in price increases (i.e., there will be a movement up along the SAS curve). As prices increase, this will lead to a moderating of demand (movement up along the AD curve). These movements will continue until quantity supplied equals quantity demanded -- at the point of intersection of the SAS and AD curves.
Similarly, if the price level is greater than the equilibrium level, the quantity of real GDP supplied will exceed the quantity demanded. In this case, inventories will accumulate, goods and services will go unsold, and eventually firms will lay off workers, cut production, and reduce prices in order to sell theor output. This translates into a movement down along the SAS curve, and as prices fall there will be a corresponding movement down along the AD curve. These movements will continue until equilibrium is reached.
Long-run macroeconomic equilibrium requires that real GDP be equal to potential GDP, and corresponds to a situation of full employment. That is, long-run macroeconomic equilibrium entails the economy being on its vertical long-run supply curve. This contrasts with the short-run equilibrium situation, in which real GDP may be less than or greater than (or equal to) potential GDP. Let's take a look at the different possible short-run situations vis-à-vis long-run equilibrium.
Consider first the case where there is a short-run equlibrium at a real GDP below the level of potential GDP. This is called a below full-employment equilibrium, and the difference between potential GDP and real GDP is called a recessionary gap. Note that this situation may correspond to a recession, but this will not necessarily be the case: if potential GDP has grown faster than real GDP recently, a recessionary gap may exist even with continued (slow) real GDP growth. In any case, the most obvious manifestation of a recessionary gap is the presence of high unemployment.
Short-run equilibrium at a real GDP in excess of potential GDP is called an above full-employment equilibrium. The excess of real GDP over potential GDP is called an inflationary gap. That is, this gap creates inflationary pressure. Unemployment in this situation would be below the full-employment level of unemployment.
The third possibility is with a short-run equilibrium at a real GDP just equal to potential GDP. This is a full-employment equilibrium, and is the only case where we have long-run equilibrium as well as short-run equilibrium.
Which of these three possibilities corresponds to the situation in which the U.S. economy presently may be found? Parkin notes that we experienced an inflationary gap in 1988-90, recessionary gaps in the early 80s and again in the early 90s, and he suggests that the economy was at full employment in mid-1994. What about now?
Fluctuations in real GDP around its long-term upward trend (reflecting increases in potential GDP) may stem from either fluctuations in aggregate demand or in aggregate supply. First consider the consequences of an increase in aggregate demand, as might occur in response to increases in expected future incomes, profits, or inflation; in response to a lower exchange rate or higher foreign incomes; in response to fiscal policy increasing government spending or transfer payments, or decreasing taxes; or in response to expansionary monetary policy (increasing the money supply) or lowering of interest rates.
Increased aggregate demand will result in a new short-run macroeconomic equilibrium, with a higher price level and a higher level of real GDP.
However, workers will now be receiving a lower real wage (since, by assumption, movements up along the SAS curve entail increases in output prices while wages and other factor prices remain constant), and profits of firms will have increased. In these circumstances, workers will seek wage increases and firms, eager to maintain employment and output levels, will grant such increases (without wage increases, firms risk losing workers).
But increased wages will shift the short-run aggregate supply curve to the left. This shift will cause a movement up along the aggregate demand curve, raising the price level and reducing the level of real GDP.

Note that we're looking at secondary effects of the increase in AD, and it will take time for the secondary effects to develop.
Similarly, changes in SAS can result in fluctuations in real GDP around potential GDP. For example, as we've just seen, a leftward shift of the SAS curve (as would occur with an increase in factor prices) will bring about a new short-run macroeconomic equlibrium, with higher prices and lower real GDP than prior to the shift. As Parkin notes, this combination of higher prices and reduced output -- stagflation -- was encountered following the increases in oil prices in the 1970s.
Note that in the real world, there are continual changes in various factors that influence either aggregate supply or aggregate demand. Hence, there are corresponding fluctuations in macroeconomic equilibrium -- the equilibrium price level and level of real GDP.

source internet


Are you an entrepreneur or investor? Do you need information on the best business ideas & investment opportunities in Bangladesh for 2018? Then I advice you read on.

Bangladesh happens to be the 8th most populous country in the world with a population that is well over 160 Million. It is located in the southern eastern part of Asia and is bordered by Burma, India and Nepal. The capital city and seat of power of Bangladesh is called Dhaka and its official language is Bengali, with English also widely spoken in the country. It’s important to state that Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

The economy of Bangladesh is a progressive one and it is considered to be among the next eleven emerging economies in the world. It is a fact that Bangladesh is the birth place of microfinance banking with credit to the Noble Peace Prize winner Muhammad Yunus. The economy of Bangladesh revolves basically around the exportation of textile and garments, seafood, jute and fish.

Agriculture is an important contributor to the economy of Bangladesh and the country is rated as one the largest cultivator and exporter of agriculture products such as; banana, mango, potato, tropical fruits, onion, rice, tea, fish, jute, pineapple amongst others.

The Government of Bangladesh is doing all they can to encourage foreign investors; hence the establishment of several export processing zones. If you intend to come into Bangladesh as a social entrepreneur, then you may be coming into a safer environment because the country has a vibrant social enterprise sector and it is noted as one of the most efficient production/manufacturing hub in the world.

Now let us run through some of the business opportunities that are available to investors heading to Bangladesh.
1. Food Processing Company
The food processing sector in Bangladesh is indeed a thriving industry simply because of the cheap labor and cheap raw materials that are available in the country. If you are an accredited investor and are looking for a place to establish a profitable company, then you should consider establishing a food processing company in Bangladesh because of all the positives you stand to gain.

2. Rice Farming

If you are game with farming as an investor, then you may want to consider giving rice farming a shot! Bangladesh is one of the largest producers and exporter of rice globally and the market is still very much open for new investors. If you mean serious business, you should not only engage in rice farming, you should also be involved in rice processing, bagging and exportation as these are ways to generate more profit.

3. Textile and Garment Manufacturing

No doubt Bangladesh is recognized globally as one of the leaders when it comes to the production of textile and garments. This is so because the country can boast of cheap and vibrant labor and also cheap raw materials. Some big – time textile manufacturing companies in developed countries have their textile and garment factory established in Bangladesh because of cost effectiveness. So, even if you don’t intend to live in Bangladesh as an investor, you can consider establishing your own textile and manufacturing company there and you will be sure to continue to reap good returns on your investment.

4. Open a Micro – Finance Bank

Bangladesh is the birth place of micro financing and if you choose to establish your own micro – finance bank, then rest assured that you would sure make profits, because the business concept is well understood and accepted by its citizens. If you intend establishing your own micro finance bank in Bangladesh, you would be required to have certain financial base and pay an amount before you can be granted a license operate.
5. Fruits Plantation

Bangladesh is highly suitable for the cultivation of crops such as banana, mango, tropical fruits, and pineapple amongst others. If you establish your own fruits plantation, you would not only have to supply to the local markets but also to international markets. Bangladesh is one of the largest exporters of tropical fruits simply because it is cheaper compared to what you can get from other countries.

6. Seafood and Fish Business

Another highly thriving business you can establish in Bangladesh is seafood and fish business. With a population of over 160 million people, you can be sure of loads of people patronizing you and if you choose to go into exportation, there will also be a large international market waiting for you.

7. Freight Forwarding Business

Most of the goods produced in Bangladesh are exported to the rest of the world hence a very thriving Freight forwarding industry. All you would need to do to enter into this line of business is to register your company, obtain your operational license from the government, get a good location for your office and then market your services to companies that are into the production of goods.

8. Tea Production Company

The soil composition and climatic condition in Bangladesh is highly suitable for the cultivation of tea. So, if you are thinking of a business to establish in Bangladesh, then you should consider starting your own tea production company. The good thing about this kind of business is that you might not only have the over 160 million people in Bangladesh as your target market, but also the rest of the world. It is a viable business and you won’t have to struggle to market your tea to the global market especially if it is well packaged and branded.

9. Barbing Salon

If you know how to give a good hair cut and you are looking for a business that requires low capital to start in Bangladesh, then you should consider establishing your own barbing salon. All you would need to get started are; a shop, one or more clippers, a big wall mirror, a small power generator, supplies of powder, after shaves, amongst others. Once you rent a shop in any part of town in Bangladesh, you are sure to have loads of people trooping to your barbing salon even without advert.

10. Water Refill Station

Good and portable water is a major requirement by many household and even offices in Bangladesh. If you are looking towards establishing your own business in Bangladesh, then you should consider starting a Water Refill Station. It is indeed a profitable venture.

These are some of the highly profitable and easy to start businesses in Bangladesh. It is important to point that one of the major challenges entrepreneurs face in Bangladesh is power; so if you intend establishing your own business in Bangladesh, then you should create a budget for power generating sets.

Business Administration / Consequences of Unemployment
« on: April 29, 2018, 07:24:05 PM »
Result of Unemployment :
a loss of GDP,
loss of tax revenue,
increased cost of unemployment benefits,
loss of income for individuals, and
greater disparities in the distribution of income.
The main cost of unemployment is a personal one to those who are unemployed, however, the whole economy suffers also.

Syllabus: Discuss possible personal and social consequences of unemployment, including

increased crime rates,
increased stress levels,
increased indebtedness,
homelessness and
family breakdown.
Individuals may become dispirited by unemployment and lose their self-esteem and confidence. This may affect their motivation to work. The longer individuals are unemployed, the more they may lose their skills and become uemployable which is bad for the economy as well.

On top of that, the problems associated with unemployment may result in the unemployed being less healthy, which leads to health-related costs. Areas of high unemployment and social deprivation may also experience higher crime levels, suicide rates and psychological problems. Certainly, both the national economy, and society in general, suffers from high rates of unemployment especially when it becomes long-term.

As well as these microeconomic and sociological effects, there will also be macro effects. These will include:

Loss of output to the economy - the unemployed could be producing goods and services and if they are not, then GDP is lower than it could be -this is the opportunity cost of unemployment.
Loss of tax revenue - unemployed people are not earning and not paying tax. The government has reduced revenues to spend on public services.
Increase in government expenditure - the government has to pay out benefits to support the unemployed - less revenue and more expenditure.
Loss of profits - with higher employment firms are likely to sell more and make higher profits. If they make less profit because of unemployment, they may have less funds to invest.
The true impact of unemployment will depend on two factors. These are:

The unemployment rate (see Page 79)
The duration of unemployment
Normally, the longer an individual is unemployed, the more difficult it is to find work. Similarly, a large number of unemployed people cause more social problems than a small number.

Unemployment has individual consequences. Some of those who are unemployed may seek a career change, while others may enjoy their additional leisure time! However, for the majority, there will be a fall in disposable income, since unemployment-related benefits seldom pay as much as salaried employment. Living standards will fall and some of the unemployed might be forced to over-use credit and loan-financed purchases. The longer they remain unemployed, the less training and development they are receiving and the more unemployable they become.

For businesses, unemployment means lower demand for some products and employee morale may suffer. Productivity could fall, as workers fear that they are next for the unemployment pile. However, a larger pool of unemployed will exist, so some employers might find hiring new labour easier (and perhaps cheaper).

The economy might also suffer as output falls (and therefore tax revenue falls) and government expenditure on benefits increases. Opportunity cost decisions will have to be made. The distribution of income will become more uneven, and unemployment might cause downward pressure on wage levels, as workers fear pricing themselves out of a job.

In summary,when unemployment exists, it means lost output, as the economy will be working below full potential and tax revenues will be lower. As unemployment rates increase more state benefits have to be paid, which involves a further economic opportunity cost. We have also noted the potential for social difficulties.

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