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Study Abroad / Interview Tips for Student Visa
« on: February 17, 2012, 08:12:56 PM »
Interview Tips for Student Visa

1. How many universities did you apply to?

The question is a very basic. It should be answered with caution. See the explanation in the next question.

2. How many admits/rejects?

This question is interlinked with previous one. If you applied to 4, got admission in 1 and were rejected in 3, you don't have to be Mr. TRUTH. You may answer, applied to 4, accepted in 1, awaiting 2, 1 rejection OR applied to 4, got admission in 1, awaiting 3.But then you have to state as in Question 3, that this was supposed to be your first choice anyhow, so even if you would have had the admission offer from any of the other 3, you would certainly have gone for this one. But if you are one of those types who offered to 1 and got just 1, don't go about saying that!!! Say you applied to 4, got 1, awaiting 3. Put up the other university's names;-) because they think that someone who has applied to just one university isn't really serious about his admissions and so isn't
interested in educational purpose; which means a direct reject. If you applied to 11, got from just one, better say that you applied to just 4 or 5, and one reject, one admit and rest awaiting. Many a times its better not to carry the reject letters, though some people advise so, but the thing is some university reject on totally baseless matters.

3. What was your first choice?

The answer to this question also is depend on the earlier one.

4. What is your GRE/TOEFL score?

Always try to speak out the better score first. If you have a good TOEFL score, say 270, and a GRE of 1750, and speak out your TOEFL first and then GRE. Usually people think, they can go and lead them by answering long and sweet, like if asked for scores, the long answer might be:

"Sir, I took my Computer based TOEFL and scored 270 at it, while I took the GRE and scored 800 in Quantitative, 710 in Analytical and 430 in Verbal".

Well this can heat up the officer. He/She might feel you are taking him for ride, even if you are not. So keep it short. So let the answer be: "TOEFL 270, GRE: 1940". That's it, as much as he asked for. Make his job easier and so he doesn't get pissed off at any of your leading behaviors.

5. What are your grades like?

Spell it out as it has been at your university. Say "Sir, We have a percentage system, and I scored xx% overall" IF your final year marks excel the other semesters marks, spell that one out, because usually in some universities, they look at the final year marks to grade the student in the Certificate. When later asked as to why u said XX% whereas the total marks of all your mark sheets add up to XX-5/10% then clarify yourself...(They wont always go checking all your mark sheets, but then you weren't lying)

6. Which was your undergraduate college?

As per your details.

7. What was your bachelor's degree in?

As per your details.

8. What is the purpose of your trip?

MS in CS/Telecommunications/EE...whatever or PhD in MEngg/

9. Which university are you planning to go to?

The University of your choice and the univ you want the VISA for.

10.Who is planning to sponsor you?

As mentioned in your I-20. If you have a scholarship, say that. Else in case the I-20 says "Family funds" say that, and you may add that sir, my father and my mother are supporting me for my higher education.

11.Why do you plan to do MS?

Say that you felt that higher qualifications give a better place, a better standard in today's competitive world. You felt that you have a good know-how of your field, but a bit more technical knowledge in "the field you are going for MS in" will serve you greatly, when you come back here and join the industry of your choice.

12.Why do you wish to study in the US and not in Bangladesh?

The courses in the field I am interested in are not being offered (or very few institutions offer such courses). In addition to that the research going on is something I would like to be associated with. (Speak about the facilities as well). Talk about a few researches being conducted in that field. Technical words work out when other things don't.

13. Why did you select this University?

This question can be best answered when you do a bit of homework about your university. Browse the Web page of the University, visit the pages of the professors, and go through their projects. Now remember some of the key words, like the project a professor X is working on. Mention something about the project if the officer is listening and is giving you time to explain. When you do such things, they think that you are pretty serious about your studies and are really into it. Well, some people believe in mentioning about the rank of the university, or the student to faculty ratio. Well these all things don't affect how you are interested in it. You can say all these stuff such as rank and all, but you have to state what make you interested and it should be something about research or academics. You can also show letters of correspondence with your University professors. If you don't have those, build some. Click here to know how to build a Correspondence mail.

14. Your passbooks show that a large amount of money has recently been deposited. How would you explain that?

(NOBODY keeps huge sums of money in their savings account, so relax! If you have borrowed the money here is what you could do Its quite likely that in the past you may have received huge sums of money like selling of some property, retirement of parents etc so u could say something like) In year X we had received Tk. T and instead of depositing the amount in a bank at a low interest rate, we invested it in other sources which gave us high interest rates or we gave it to our needy friends.

Now we have taken this money back to finance my education. (Of course it's really dicey to answer this question, but if you are confident you shouldn't have a problem. If you have some proof of receiving a huge sum of money some years back, make sure you carry it)
You can also say that you had private FDs , i.e. you invested in private firms because they provide higher interest rates (say out figures like 16% per anum as compared to the mere 9% of banks. You can show this receipt and say that now you encased that amount, because you needed it for your educational purposes.

15. What does your father do? What if my dad has taken the VR?

Well this does have a specific reply, but then you can put it as "Sir, My father is working with a German collaborated company for the past 25 years as a Manager in XYZ department. The long reply helps over here. If your father has taken a voluntary retirement, don't mention that he has retired. Well there are two approaches to this. One, say that your father worked with this company for the last 30 years and now has his own consultancy dealing with (insert some financial or technical terms). Two, Say that your father worked as Asst Mgr./Mgr./GM with some company for the past 25 years, took a VR and now has a consultancy of his own. Never show him to be idle, because that means your income has drastically reduced and works as a negative point. Stating about the VR often helps because then you can assure him that most of the money you have shown is yours because usually people get huge amounts on taking a VR. So that does help on the financial grounds.

16. Does any of your relative stay in the US?

The answers to this vary from person to person. The two basic replies being: Either "YES" or "NO". But I believe that you be truthful at this instance. I have seen many people who have been true and weren't affected by that.In fact at an USEFI seminar, addressed by the Consulate Officer.. it was said by the officer himself that," We know that most of the student will end up staying there after completing their studies, but at least we can do our part of skimming them. We can at least play the part of sieving across the deserving people and not every pedestrian."This means that they evaluate you on the basis of your merits and not by what the person staying abroad is going to do for you. And the financial part is because they want to be assured that you can at least go through your studies fully. It just happens that many a times, they check your file. Based on details provided in your passport, and if they do apprehend you lying, that might spell trouble. So, I think telling the truth is the best thing.

If your uncle or cousin or distant aunt stays there, you don't have to say "YES" because that doesn't matter. All that matters is your immediate relatives i.e. own brother, sister, father or mother.

17. Your brother/sister is studying there too. How will your parents support both of you?

Now, you have your chance of taking the officer for a ride here. Even if your brother/sister doesn't have an aid/scholarship, you can say he got a TA/RA there and so he need not be supported by the family any more for his educational expenses.

18.Why is your GRE score low? (Or any section score low)

This is the most preferred answer. I answered the first few questions incorrectly and I couldn't improve my score later even after performing well later. (Low = <1800 Otherwise you can say that you think your score is average and on the basis of that the university has given you the admission). You can also mention that "This score is considered to be ideal for the Engineers (if you are one). or according to what you are. You can always build up a story, saying that the GRE Score interpreter sheet says that. Such as Engineers don't need to have an extra ordinary VERBAL Score, If the other sections complement it, you can show that the other sections are stressed upon by universities while selection for admission (Say this only when you think the situation is getting tense). If you have a low VERBAL score, but a good TOEFL score, you can always say that "Please look at my TOEFL score Sir, I have done well at that". Besides GRE is just one of the many aspects that the universities look at for admission (Say this line only when you think you are drowning).

19. What are you plans after Graduation?

Be really well prepared for this question. This answer is not fool proof, but it's you who can make it seem so. The basic things are:

1.Your field is what you will pursue
2.Your field is on a roll in Bangladesh
3.Your field has great opportunities
4.You get those opportunities even now
5.You get better opportunities once you do your MS
6.Show foreign companies coming to Bangladesh investing in your field
7.State some technical words expressing the advancements in your field
8.Make it seem, this field wont go ahead without guys like you Wink

20. Why are you changing your stream?

This generally occurs because people having done their BE in Civil go on to pursue MS in CS. I am giving this reply specifically for transfer to CS stream, because I don't think anyone from CS would be going to Mech. This is easy to get through. You can say either of the points:

1. Sir, during my third semester, when I was introduced to programming languages, I had a great exposure to computers. I gradually developed a liking for it and wished to deepen my knowledge in it.
2. I mastered a number of languages on my own, and am also into Web Designing and software debugging (push in technical words).
3. I always had it in my mind, that once I strength then myself in my field, I will go on to enhance my skills in the field of Computers.
4.There were a vast number of options available, viz. CS, CN, CE but I chose CS as I had esteem interest in Software and its working Always try to show that you have an interest for that subject. Never project that you are taking this up because the market is strong. This is because you are changing your stream. They might end up thinking that you just used your BE to get to this stage and that u dint do that on interest. They'll think you are fickle minded. Show that you do everything with your interest, you even did your BE in Civil or any other field because you had interest in it, and now CS is your interest too.

21. What is your father's annual income?

This question often decides your ability to pay for your expenses. They think that money can be put into banks, but annual income is a proof, which they heavily rely upon to decide the student's parent's capability to spend for his educational expenses.Whatever the officer asks. 1) What is your father's annual income? 2). What is your family's annual income? The moment the words 'Annual Income" creeps in, state your complete family annual income, i.e. if your mother is also an earning member, if you have agricultural income, if you have rental income plus the interests and dividends...State all of them together. Don't commit the blunder of stating just your father's income. Many a times it hampers your chances. If it seems low to them. Obviously a sum of mother's income, your father's income, agricultural (if u have), total will be more than a single one. And if they ask for the IT returns, hand over both of your parent's return statements, plus the agricultural papers plus the rental receipt (duplicate) at a time. And if he/she just argues (usually they don't) that you were asked about your father's income.
Then say" Sir, MY family is sponsoring me. Along with my father my mother is also an earning member and an income tax payer. Family funds is what the I-20 states, and so my family including my father and mother (opt brother, if u have one earning) are sponsoring me and here are their statements and proofs of other modes of income.

22.You look like potential immigrants OR I don't think you will come back to Bangladesh.

This is a real tricky question. Many get blue when they hear this and lose their senses as how to tackle this question. Stay calm and think what all you can say like: "I am from a very well-to do family and money is not at all essential for me. I stand to inherit a lot from my parents (say this if u have lots of property) so staying and working in the US is not a criterion at all. The only thing I lack is this Masters (or whatever degree) which will make me a better software professional.

The Most important Factor

Let me tell you something. The most important factor is "CONFIDENCE". Nothing can depose that. Whatever the answer is, if you are confident and show that you aren't nervous a bit, that will really help you get through. Complete Documents, Convincing Skills, Confidence and Present mindedness is what you have to invest. These are the keys to getting through the interview successfully. Many do get through coz of sheer luck, when some of the casual officers just seem to be in a hurry to get through with the troop of VISA aspirants facing their counter.But then I believe that your parents do all the job of putting together all the financial documents and stuff. The only thing you need to do is to put a confident self of yours over there.
It's not that all the questions I have put here are the only ones; they might come up with any other alien stuff. But then present mindedness and spontaneity is what helps under those situations. You have to be prepared with an answer the moment he shoots a question at you.

Don't make a face as if you just committed a sin. Hand over the documents and look at him. Remember, all your documents are as genuine as your Birth Certificate.

Since every applicant is unique in terms of visa interview, it is suggested that you will prepare your own answer. Keep your mind open to face any question. Don't think that someone got visa by giving a particular answer to a particular question, so you have to answer in the same way. Make your OWN answer to every question. Do NOT copy from others.

Source: Internet

Real Estate / Excursion
« on: February 01, 2012, 12:27:30 AM »

Real Estate / Notice! Notice! Notice!
« on: January 27, 2012, 02:08:13 PM »
Notice!               Notice!              Notice!


A General Meeting will be held on 28th January, arranged by Daffodil International University Real Estate Club. All the students of Real Estate Department are highly requested to attend the meeting. Our Club Convener Dr. Professor M. Mizanur Rahman, Masud Ibn Rahman, Head, Dept. of Real Estate & other two Guest’s will be present there.

Meeting Agenda:

a.   â€œBuilding Construction & Its Management”
b.   â€œProfessional Aminship”

2.   Excursion
@ Cox’s Bazar & St. Martin.

Time: 11.00 am
Date: 28th January, 2012 [Saturday]
Venue: Room No. 703

You need to know / 9 Foods That Help To Relieve Nausea
« on: January 21, 2012, 02:25:15 AM »

9 Foods That Help To Relieve Nausea


A little fiber goes a long way toward clearing nausea-inducing chemicals out of your system — but too much at one time can make you feel even worse. Throughout the day, snack on such fiber-rich foods as a whole apple (Gala apples are a good choice) and crunchy raw vegetables. Try applesauce or apple juice if you're having trouble digesting solid food.


Foods high in starch — such as saltines, bread, and toast — help absorb stomach acids and settle a queasy stomach. Keep a handful of crackers on your nightstand; eating a few before you get out of bed may help ease nausea in the morning.


Capsules of powdered ginger have been found to reduce nausea and vomiting. You could also try a cup of ginger tea, a glass of ginger ale (some people swear it works better if it's flat), a few gingersnap cookies, or a piece of ginger candy. Pickled ginger, the kind that usually comes with sushi, may also help.


Small sips from a plain glass of water will help you stay hydrated — and avoid the headaches that often accompany nausea. Start out by slowly drinking tiny amounts until you feel you can stomach a larger amount.


A lack of protein can make nausea feel even worse, so look to protein-packed foods, such as nuts — even peanut butter (as long as you're not allergic) — that are easy to digest. They'll quickly replenish your depleted energy and help keep your nausea at bay.

Chicken Broth

Chicken soup may make you feel better when you have a cold, but it's too heavy when you're nauseated. Instead try chicken broth to soothe your symptoms — the lower in fat, the better. Broth made from bouillon cubes may be your best bet because it's easy to prepare and less likely to spoil.

Sports Drinks

Most sports drinks contain the electrolytes sodium and potassium, which help restore an athlete's depleted nutrients. While you may not be up for sports, sports drinks can help even non-athletes feel better when they're suffering from nausea.


If your nausea is accompanied by dehydration, or if you have been vomiting, snack on a piece of this peel-and-eat fruit. Bananas can help restore potassium, which is often depleted as a result of diarrhea and vomiting. Doctors also recommend starting on "bland" foods like bananas when you're ready to eat solids again.

Sprig of Mint

The refreshing aroma alone may be enough to make you feel better, but actually chewing on fresh mint or drinking a glass of mint tea is considered an effective remedy for nausea.


Rover Scout Wing / News of DIU Rover Scout @ Daily News Papers
« on: January 17, 2012, 01:09:37 AM »

Rover Scout Wing / March of Rover Movement
« on: January 16, 2012, 01:32:25 AM »
March of Rover Movement at
Daffodil International University

DIU Air Rover Unit with the guests

DIU Air Rover Scout Unit officially launched at Daffodil International University on January 13, 2012 through “Training Camp” and “Oath Taking Ceremony” at the permanent campus of the university at Ashulia. A four day long training camp for the Rover was arranged from January 11-14, 2012. The camp included Training, Oath Taking Ceremony and Grand Camp Fire. This is for the first time in the history of Private universities of Bangladesh to introduce Rover Movement at Daffodil International University.

Rovers with the guests in front of their tent

with Emeritus Professor of Daffodil International University Dr. Aminul Islam, was present on the occasion as the chief guest. Prof. Md. Riazul Islam Basunia, Former Deputy National Commissioner (Training), Bangladesh Scouts and Squadron Leader Hossain Moahmmad  Rajib, Joint Secretary, Bnagladesh Scouts, Air Region were present on the function as the special guests, Presided over by Prof. Dr. M. Lutfar Rahman, Vice Chancellor & Camp Chief, the function was also addressed by Md. Sabur Khan, Chairman, Board of Trustees, Mr. Md. Emran Hossain - Unit Leader, Md. Ziaul Haque Sumon –Group Secretary. Sheikh Arifur Rahman Raju, RSL,Dhaka District Air. The Function was attended

Deputy Registrar & Unit Leader of the DIU Air Rover Mr. Md.
Emran Hossain is conducting "Oath Taking Ceremony"

The training was conducted by the Senior Rover Meet of Tiger Shark Air Rover Unit Shaon, Bappy, Rajon, Rabby and Rover meet Musa, Mamun, Shakhar, Faizul.

Deputy Registrar & Unit Leader of the DIU Air Rover Mr. Md.
Emran Hossain is seen to wear a badge to a Rover

Addressing as the chief guest Emeritus Prof. Dr. Aminul Islan said, Scouting can play a vital role in developing career and building character of a student though which students can practice of becoming a successful leader and contribute a lot to the society.  He also said, Daffodil International University always stresses on Extra Curricular & Co- curricular activities and introducing Rover Movement at the university, Daffodil International University has set an example to be followed by other private universities.   
Earlier Mr. Md. Emran Hossain, Deputy Registrar and Unit leader of DIU Air Rover Unit inaugurated the four day long camp on January 11, 2012.
DIU authority also expects to introduce a girl’s Rover Unit very soon and interested female students are requested to contact with rover mats very soon.

Source: DIU mail from PRO.

Real Estate / Feature about Real Estate Education
« on: December 07, 2011, 09:35:13 PM »
It is a link of a feature about real estate education in Daffodil International University, published in Daily Shamakal.
Please click on this image.

« on: September 21, 2011, 01:04:31 PM »
Real Estate Housing Buyer's in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Are you planning to buy a flat in Dhaka, BD? Purchasing an apartment here in Bangladesh is not an easy task. One wrong step can drag you to lifelong pain. Write it in your checklist, you definitely need legal advice/suggestion to buy apartment in Dhaka, if you are not really good at understanding legal documents either in English or in Bangla. Formalities are safeguard for both sides. At least consult with one associated with housing business. Best will be one works for sale recovery section of a Developer (except the one you intend to buy from). Most of us did not take and are suffering as well. Here we are going to discuss only the legal issues for awareness and for self-help. A group or forum or association of flat/apartment buyers or owner to discuss housing problems would be great. We don't have much online discussion or document. All you'll find are the sites of developers with lucrative offer to hook you up to just signup with booking money. We learned from our real world experience in exchange of payment & pain. With the hope of less difficulty (pay & pain) for you, we are here to indicate the problem areas of real estate & housing sector in Dhaka, Bangladesh from the point of view of buyer.

The bigger (higher profile) the Developer (or real estate project) the more you should be careful as it will be more difficult to enjoy (and even have) your rights. Make sure you are not buying a Property with a Rental Agreement. Be aware of Developers! You've the right to know what you are buying. Don't listen to them that everyone signed so you don't have to be worried, this is just a standard formality. I'm telling you, there is no standard, not in real estate business of Bangladesh, no consumer right protection system. You will see it yourself if you just read the draft agreement from your developer. Your standard is what you sign. Real Estate & Housing Association of Bangladesh is known as REHAB. I don't have any knowledge of any protection by REHAB for buyers.

Deed of Agreement is a complex document; you alone may not be capable of understanding the complete document. Take your time, and this document is the only thing that can help to protect your right & money. I can not assure you, but you'll not regret and at least will not find yourself as an educated fool who can sign only. Developers are much more powerful than any individual like you. Thousands knocked the door of court but failed to help themselves because of signing agreement without knowing what they agreeing. So take your time. Get ready, collect data from different developers (if possible from the selected area) and stock your energy for a lengthy bargain and to increase your capacity. You have to show a lot of patience but you can negotiate. Just remember, "the more you pay, the more you loose control and the more developer gains it". One easy solution is to buy ready flat/apartment (i.e ready to handover) with instant registration and handover. You may feel like you are paying extra but try a calculation and don't miss the weight of giant hassle and waiting..

Thumb Rules:
•Do not sign any document (Deed of Agreement or Application with Terms & Conditions): Not even when you are paying booking money, but don't forget to take your money receipt. You'll thank me for this. Do not sign a blank cheque.
•Do not make any payment (down payment or installment) before signing the Deed of Agreement. Ask for a draft Deed of Agreement with their official offer. Let your sales officer (agent) know that you'll need some time to go through the draft agreement. He'll work best for you if you do not pay the booking money. Remember, "The more you pay, the more you loose control and the more developer gain control". Getting money back is not an easy task.
•Take your time, consult with someone best on it, and make sure you understand each and every line & word of the draft. Especially when the sentences are long (it can be intentional & trap).

Give enough attention to the following key issues:

Legal Description of the property: Make sure it explains the location, size, and the right to the land, common space and infrastructure.

Principle of all agreements: Put something like, "Purchasers are the owner of the property. If any clause or sub-clause conflicts with the principle will be null and void".

Sole Owner: The Developer (seller) herein warrants that it is the sole owner of the said real estate with a full right and authority to sell or dispose or transfer the rights on roads, open space and utility infrastructure in the Building/City including the said apartment to the Purchaser and that no other person or persons or authority whatsoever have any claim, right, title, interest, or lien in, to or on said real estate.

Price: No where in the agreement it is allowed to escalate the price(except if you want) for any future events.

Payment Schedule: Negotiate dates considering your arrangement. Mind the payment delay (default) compensation condition.

Compensation for delay of Handover/delivery: Consider your bank loan and other losses and condition of the compensation for delay payment. e.g: Whatever said in other clauses, y% per month on the total amount paid. Be attentive about the term grace period, do not allow it, or try to keep it as minimum as possible.

Management Agreement: The principal of the agreement must be "The purchasers are the owner of the Building/City" and have full authority to manage it, and all sorts of charges including utility & maintenance are the costs only and the costs are verifiable.

Documents, part of agreement: Include the Layout, plan, specification and land measurement approved by Government authority (e.g: RAJUK) where property for other purchasers including future purchasers are mentioned.

Delivery (Handover) Date: There must be an end, even after a grace period.

Refund: If surrendered by purchaser or canceled by Developer or project is abandoned: To make it balanced for all, all three options may follow the same condition. e.g: x% on the total amount paid.

Compensation clause for delay of refund: Can be same as compensation for delay of handover or delay of payment. e.g: whatever said in other clauses, y% per month on the balance amount.

Be careful about following conditions in any application or agreement or document you sign:

Delay in payment beyond the due dates will entail delay payment at the rate of x% per month on the amount of payment that is delayed.

In case of surrender of allotment by buyer or cancellation of an allotment by the Developer due to default in payment of installments by the buyer/purchaser or any other reason, the amount paid to the Developer shall be refunded after deducting x% of the total price only after resale of the apartment in question.

If the completion period of the project is affected by unavoidable circumstances like natural calamities, political disturbances, non-availability and price hike of materials, non-payment of installment in time by the buyers and any other force majeure circumstances, the buyer will not be entitle to any compensation.

If, for any reason beyond the control of the company, the project is abandoned, the company will refund the paid amount to the allottee. In such eventuality, the allottee will not be entitled to any compensation or damage whatsoever.

The buyer has to take written permission from company before carrying out any modification work.

You've no guarantee of the quality of the materials will be used for your apartment. No practical mechanism exists here in this trade. You may try the developer for this.

Handover of Flat/Apartment:
The handover date may (will) change dozen times and delay of months or couple of years is often unavoidable.
Example: A project worth Taka 10 crore. Delay of 3 months will allow earning by Developer an amount of Taka 24 lacs considering bank interest rate 10% only.
Allow conditional payment of a good percentage of total prices with the handover of the flat/apartment/property.
Consider time before actual handover and bank interest on the money you'll pay before taking over the flat/apartment/property from the developer.

Checklist before you select:

Check as many areas as possible to match your minimum criteria. You'll get an idea about what you will get with your budget.

Select which area of the city you prefer to buy an apartment. You may spend some time in that area and do analysis at home or at least find someone living in that area for a long time.

Collect per squire feet rate of that area. Make sure you are getting value for money. Talk to different developers of the area. Check recent sales in the area. Do not depend on what developers or their agents say.

Location -close to the facilities you require: Public Transport, Shop, Hospital, School-College-University, Park, play ground, Work.

Environment - revisit the area at different time and week days before final selection. In Bangladesh and in Dhaka different areas have specific problem and those are chronic because of plan (or lack of plan) for the area.

     â€¢Noise -noise at day/night because of traffic or industry. Consider how sensitive you are and how it will affect your lifestyle.
     â€¢Air (smoke, dust or smell) -because of industry, lack of air flow and lack of open space.
     â€¢Sun Light: The property or adjacent property. Open space is essential. Are you blocked by other buildings?
     â€¢Utility: gas, electricity, water and drainage system, flood water level of the area.
     â€¢Overcrowd: Too close to Bus Stand, Shopping, Kitchen Market, School, College, University, even Mosque.
     â€¢Security: Street and building of your area.
Service Charge: What are the service or maintenance charges? Should include municipal tax, common electricity charges, elevator charges and charges for hired help, like the garbage cleaner and security.

source: real-estate-housing-buyers-right-guide-tips.php


What Turned Many Apartment Buildings Vulnerable In Bangladesh ?
By:- Prof. Bijon B. Sarma

In view of tremendous increase of population in scarcity of land, multi-level apartment buildings were accepted as a good solution in the busy cities of Bangladesh. Such buildings usually are constructed with reinforced concrete. At this stage, no one gave deep thought about the fact that "Concrete is an experimental material with many limitation". In the present process of construction, there is no scope for the owners of the apartments to look into the quality of works. It is quite doubtful if the people whose responsibility was to ensure it did their duties. The reasons for expressing such doubt are :

(a) In the democratic country of Bangladesh there is no transparent mode of collection of fund for running the activities of the political parties. It is known to all that "law breakers and privilege enjoyers" supply this fund. For this reason the political government at times introduces various administrative regulations and then allows their violation for obvious reasons. The rules and regulations introduced in connection with design and construction of multi-level apartment buildings also suffered from similar fate.

(b) In a situation where the prospective owners of apartments did not have any scope to look into the quality of works, there was scope for the developers to negotiate with the government’s vigilance team, there is wide possibility that some, if not all, of such buildings were constructed with defects and deficiencies.

This paper would endeavor to show some of the common mistakes and deficiencies. At present a considerable section of affluent people live in multi-level apartment buildings either as owner or rent-payer. Also many non-resident wage earners may feel pleasure to think that that they have "accommodated their old parents" in the "safest place of high-rise apartment building". After knowing the situation of vulnerability of such buildings one may however wonder if those "safest places" are safe or mere "death traps".

In the contemporary world there exists significant and wide difference in between the building constructed by the owner and a salable apartment building constructed by a developer. The busy cities of populous countries having inadequate land for habitation seems to have accepted the program of accommodating people in multi-ownership apartment building as common and appropriate solution. While all these may be seen as "right solution to the problem", a deeper thought might reveal that in place of making the lives of the inhabitants safe and sound, this solution would in fact endanger those, specially if the country exists in earthquake prone zone.

When an owner goes for the construction of a building he takes utmost care to ensure the stability and durability of the built-form. On the other hand, the developer designs and constructs such a building solely for the purpose of earning profit. In the crudest word, it matters a straw to the developer if the building collapses immediately after the apartments have been handed over. In the developing country there is no government rule to hold the developer responsible for bad construction. Also the loss in good will can be taken care of by opening a new company with another name.

In the field of habitation the architects work for the human society, where as in the building industry the developers or contractors work for profit. When individual owners approached for designing the building, they asked for one that would fulfill the needs and achieve longer life. Now, when the same architects are approached by the developers, they ask for a building that would look nice with no question on its life or durability. Apart from the design of the architects, the developer is free to use low quality materials and can make more profit.

In Dhaka city multi-level apartment buildings are constantly replacing the low-rise independent owning residences. The concept of design (as followed by the architects and design engineers), construction technology (as followed by the contractors) and materials (as made available by the local and international manufacturers) etc. used in constructing buildings are much better then those used and available in earlier days. In such a reality it is natural for one to think that today’s apartment buildings would be much superior in points of safety, life-span, resistance to hazards etc. The reality, however, is with the change in objective from "owning and using" to "selling and earning money" has, in many cases, if not all, worsened durability and life-span of the "salable commodities".

The two major fields in which the quality of apartment buildings have worsened IN Dhaka City are : (i) Life span and (ii) Safety. The various design and construction processes on which these two qualities depend upon are (a) Architectural Design, (b) Structural Design inclusive of foundation, (c) Materials used and (d) Supervision and construction method utilized.
The endeavors of the owner of a building usually are the following:
Importance on safety and life span : The owner stresses upon the factors like architectural design, structural design, electrical and plumbing design, quality of materials used and supervision because the owner cares for safety, durability and life-span of the building.

Less importance on superficial beauty : In case of financial constraint, the owner goes for inferior quality finish materials and fixtures responsible for superficial beauty. He knows that these can be changed later.

By all means, the aim and objective of a developer in business of "salable apartments" would be different. These may be :

Little or no importance on life-span or safety: The life-span and safety of the building in fact matters nil for the developer in business. The only thing he needs to do is to satisfy the rules and regulations of the urban authorities. To their great fortune, such authorities in Bangladesh do not have consumer-friendly rules and regulations. What is still worse is, many personnel working in these organizations are ‘purchasable by money’. The developer in general believes that there lies profit in each and every violation of RajUK’s regulations.

Extreme importance on factors giving superficial beauty : Since the buyers mostly evaluate the apartment on the basis of its superficial beauty, the developer ensures that through factors like nice-looking finished materials, painting, fixtures etc. The developer in general knows that the better will be the superficial beauty, the more will be the price of the apartment.

The developer also knows that designs by reputed architects, attractive advertisements in the medias etc. can attract the buyers.
The above realities have rendered some, if not all, of the multi-level apartment buildings of Dhaka city quite vulnerable and even ‘death-trap’ during earthquake. The major fields in which these buildings are defective or weak are shown hereunder.

SIZE OF COLUMN : RajUK has prescribed car-parking in the ground floor of the apartment building. This makes the lowest floor a "soft floor" (a floor with less number of walls is known as soft floor), where frequent use of walls in the other floors make those "hard". During earthquake the hard floors en masse act as a rigid body and only the exposed columns are exposed to shivering. In a thumb rule, a reinforced concrete frame-structure building with 6 stories and above needs minimum 20"X20" column in the ‘soft floor" in order to withstand an earth-quake of 3.5 Richter scale, even though a lesser size may be sufficient for bearing the vertical loads. In Dhaka city apartment buildings having columns with less than this size in the "soft floors" are vulnerable to earth quake.

The capacity for bearing vertical load by a column is given by its cross-sectional area. The cross-sectional area of a 20"X20" column is 400 Sq. Inch. Columns with various sizes (like, 10"X40", 15"X27" etc.) may satisfy the condition of bearing vertical load. The designers prefer one side of the column to be 10" since it is advantageous to "flush" the 10" walls with it. Such columns may withstand the earth-quake coming from the direction of its short side. However, apartment buildings having columns with less than 20" on any side in the soft floors are vulnerable to earth-quake coming from the direction of its larger side.

As per structural principle of r.c.c frame-structure buildings, the r.c.c. columns need to be placed in regular (not necessarily equal) grid and order. This helps in achieving stability and group-resistance against lateral loads. From whatever direction the vibration due to earthquake may hit a building, it would start swaying only in the two major directions of the rectangular or square plan of the building. It is not difficult to understand that a building can easily resist the vibration coming from its length-wise direction. Even if the designer knows that earthquake would come to his building from a particular direction, in most cases it is not possible to design the building considering this direction only. In order to function well the building must be oriented so as to fit the entrance from the main road, views from inside and outside, climate etc. As for resistance to vibration, a column is stronger in its longer section. However, since it is not possible to orient the columns with respect to any direction, one good solution is to use cross-sectioned columns, where possible. Apartment buildings having columns (i) in less or inadequate number along any length of beam and (ii) not standing in straight lines are weak and vulnerable in point of earth-quake resistance.

Excepting the cantilever ones, all beams should terminate only in columns. It has been observed that in order to facilitate room-divisions many designers place columns at places other than column junctions. Even though such a system can take care of vertical loads, apartment buildings having columns not at the and away from the junction or meeting place of beams are vulnerable to earth-quake.

In addition to worthwhile structural design, what contributes most to the life and stability of a building is material. The principle ingredients of reinforced concrete are rod, coarse aggregate and cement. When the owner of a house purchases these items, he endeavors the best materials for obvious reason. But what someone with the objective of earning profit from the "deal" of the consumable item (i.e. the apartments) would purchase from the market are the low quality materials. Unfortunately all varieties of these materials are available in Dhaka city. Thus old rods, brick bats (coarse aggregate) from old buildings, poor quality cement etc. are available in the city. The level of honesty of the people of Bangladesh is not that high. In such a reality it is quite probable that many of the apartment buildings constructed and then sold by the developers are vulnerable to earth-quake simply because of having less strength due to inferior materials.

Another important cause of vulnerability of the buildings constructed with best quality materials and sound design has been caused due to inadequate space left around such buildings. In prescribing free/open space in between multi-level buildings what the city authorities (i.e. RajUK) have considered is the space required for running service lines. Naturally multilevel buildings can be constructed by leaving 1 or 2 meter distance in between buildings. In Bangladesh there is good possibility of any building to collapse due to earthquake, structural failure, fire incident etc. and the urban authorities should have prescribed the minimum inter-building open space such that the collapse of one building may not affect the adjacent ones. When buildings are constructed with 1 to 2 meters distance, the sudden collapse of a ill-designed building for whatsoever reason is sure to make the good buildings also to collapse. The case is even worse in case of buildings having flat-plate floor slabs.

Since the earth would not change its habit of contraction, there will be earthquakes. The weaker and old buildings are supposed to collapse due to earth quake. The same may also happen to buildings due to hazards like fire incident or structural fail, specially due to rusting of the reinforcing rods. The city of Dhaka has grown up quickly as per right or wrong decisions of the political government, the various rules and regulations regarding construction of built-form have been prescribed by respective authorities, the developers have constructed the buildings to the best of their honesty and social responsibility. The purchasers of the apartments had little choice, because they did not have any scope to see how the building was constructed and with what type of materials. In such a context we can imagine what may happen in the city in case a severe earthquake hits the city. Thus may be like :
(a) The buildings, specially the high-rise buildings start shivering. In the buildings having all the columns standing on the junctions of regular grid take the jerk equally. In the buildings where some of the columns have been shifted away from the junction points find them helpless, leaving the great task on others. Thus, in a building with say, 5 columns in one a bay, only the few columns standing in one line may contribute to the strength. In case the shiver is sufficient to overpower only this may, there is possibility that the entire building would collapse.

(b) The building having its upper floors furnished with walls in fact act as a solid rectangular mass. When the columns in contact with the ground vibrate, the upper mass tends to remain stationary or move aside due to inertia. In such a situation only the free length (may be 10 feet in case of flat-plate, or 9 feet in case of frame structure) of the columns in the ground floor would try to maintain balance. It is obvious that these would fail unless the sections and reinforcements of the columns are adequate.

(c) During earthquake vibration comes from lateral direction and from below. Buildings with long piles in the ground naturally suffer from more vibrations. In soft clay the piles themselves are subjected to shear failure. Now say, during casting of pile there happened a ‘cave in’ of mud in the reinforcing iron cage. With the passage of time the rods would start rusting. In normal case it may stand in the same position even with rusted rods. But those are supposed to fail due to shivering during earthquake.

(d) Let a 20-storied building fails because of failure in foundation, fracture of the free columns etc. In case it leans to one side, what would happen to the buildings on this side ? Even if it collapses right on its base, should any one expect to see the adjacent building in tact ?

In concluding this article we can mention our finding regarding inappropriateness/ problems of reinforced concrete multi-storied building in Dhaka city under the following subheads :
Concrete is an experimental material and should be used with caution: Concrete is an experimental material that has not still attained a life of 100 years. In buildings is attains the requisite strength because of the use of steel, which is used as bars. Irrespective of its strength Steel has got limited life. Its life considerably depends upon its contact with rust-generating materials. Concrete buildings are constructed as a frame with continuity, such that replacement of any element is not possible. Concrete building may fail due to three major reasons : (i) Decay of the reinforcing bars with due to rusting or end of life, (02) Hazards like earthquake, fire etc. Since there is no scope of changing of components, concrete building usually fails in one piece. For this reason, other concrete buildings need to be constructed at safe distance in order avoid "to failure due to impact". One advantage during failure of concrete building is, when the reinforcing bars rust those chip away the covering plaster as ‘peels’. This indication in floors is easily viewable. But in case of external and exposed columns of closely-spaced buildings, it is extremely difficult to identify such defects because of height and proximity of other structures.

Steel bars used in piles in soft soil needs special care.

Safe distance in between high-rise buildings must be maintained in order to avoid failure due to impact created by a collapsing building.
The trend of constructing high-rise residential building initiated in Bangladesh in the seventies. Some of the factors that created this scope were :
(i) Extremely high land price in the cities,
(ii) Affordability of non-resident wage earners to maintain their families in the city,
(iii) Need of such wage earners to get a house as a ‘purchasable item’.
(iv) Availability of material and technology for construction multi-level buildings.

Even though the purchasers of apartments became the owner, they did not have absolutely any scope to see or know the quality. In such a state, the parties who could guide the quality of such buildings are:

(i) Urban authorities,
(ii) The design architects and engineers and
(iii) The contractors. We have already shown that none of the above parties exert their duties honestly and efficiently.

The evil consequences of this failure will be known in the days ahead. In the second week of February, 2010 we have seen 7 members of a family to have died due to fire incident. We came to know about the deficiency of safety only after their deaths. Probably the other defects associated with such buildings will be known after many deaths. It is probable that the non-resident wage earners working abroad feel pleased to know that they have "accommodated their old parents" in the "safest place of high-rise apartment building". In case such buildings have not been designed with care, those "safest places" might turn to "death traps".

NOTE: Technical (engineering) terms have been avoided in this paper for easy understanding of the readers.


>>>-Thank You-<<<

« on: February 02, 2011, 12:13:48 PM »


This Deed of Agreement is made at Dhaka on the 16th day of November, 2009 (two thousand nine) of the Christian era;


NIBASH NIRMAN LTD, a company incorporated under the Companies Act.1994 having its certificate of Incorporation No. INC N0-C-65139(2631)/06 Dated 16/12/2006. under the signature of the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies of Bangladesh, having its Business Office at House no. 68 Sheihk Russel Square, Panthoplaza (3rd Floor), Panthopath, Lakecircus Kalabagun Dhaka -1205, represented by its Managing Director, Arch. Shaheed Ahmed Sumon hereinafter called the Developer / First party (which expression, unless repugnant to the subject or context, shall include its successors, executors, administrators, legal representatives and assigns) of the Parties of the First Part.


MR. MD. SHAHJAHAN son of Late Abdur Rashid, of permanent address village debipur PO & PS Feni at present residing Ka 46, Shahjadpur Gulshan , by religion Islam, by occupation Banker , by nationality Bangladeshi (hereinafter referred to as the 2nd Party which expression, unless repugnant to the subject or context, shall include his successors, executors, legal representatives and assigns) of the Second Part.



WHEREAS, the party of the First part a registered Real Estate Company reputable in  its own business arena with commendable experience and expertise, was engaged and empowered by the Land-owners of the land measuring more or less 7.32 decimals (Seven  Point Three Two decimals) or thereto situated in the District- Dhaka, Police Station-Badda, Sub Registry  Office- Shabek Gulshan  at present Badda, Under Dhaka Collectorate Touzi, JL. No.CS-291, SA-124, RS-38, DhakaCity Survey -22, Mouza at Badda, Khatian No. CS-383, SA-1208, RS-974, DhakaCity Survey Khatain No.DP-16049, Plot No.CS & SA-1026, RS-2045, DhakaCity Survey Plot No.11356, Mutation Khatian No. 8575, Jote No. 117/29 Plot No. 2045 ( hereinafter referred to as Schedule Land or project land), under written Deed of agreement dated 18th day of December  2008 for the construction of a seven-storied Residential Apartment Condominium Project, on the Schedule Land, consisting of (Twelve) Apartment on 1st to 6th floor and eight Car-ports in the Ground floor together with common facilities of gate way,


electricity, water, sewerage, path way, lift service, boundary wall, sanitation, roof-access, fire- protection, walk-up, stairs and security services, for every  Apartment owner of the Project per Standard Specifications.

AND WHEREAS in accordance with terms conditions of the said agreement, dated 18th day of December 2008, entered between the Landowners and the Developer (herein referred to as First party), the Landowners execute a Registered Irrevocable Power of Attorney bearing no. 13337 on dated  18th December  2008 to the Developer conferring on the latter all necessary powers for the purpose of the construction on the project-land including powers to sell or otherwise dispose of the specified Apartments(i.e. developers portion as per deed of agreement and power of attorney) to different 2nd Parties and receiving all payments from such 2nd Party’s.    


AND WHEREAS the Developer undertook the construction of the said project as an integral whole of all the Apartments, Car-ports and common facilities as per Layout Plan duly approved by the Rajdhani Unnayan Kartripakkha (RAJUK).


 AND WHEREAS, having examined the title deeds of the Land-owners and his Agreement with the Developer and the prospectus, plan, Design and Specifications of the project and begin satisfied thereabout, the 2nd Party has proposed to purchase and formally applied for allotment of a to-be-constructed Apartment of the project to his name along with transfer of proportionate share in the project land and the Developer, accordingly agreed and allotted Apartment No. 1A and 1B of the 1st  Floor measuring 2001.00 Sft  Floor Space and 299.00 Sft Common Space together with 0.78382 ( zero point seven eight three eight two ) Katha or 1.2933 Decimal undivided and un demarcated project Land and one Car-port in the ground Floor to his name subject to terms & conditions hereinafter recounted.

To be continue...

A Good CV/Resume / How to make a Perfect CV
« on: February 01, 2011, 12:49:05 PM »

একটি সুন্দর জীবনবৃত্তান্ত (CV) তৈরীর কৌশল

আপনার জীবনবৃত্তান্ত (CV) হচ্ছে একজন সম্ভাব্য চাকুরীদাতার কাছে একজন চাকুরীপ্রার্থী হিসাবে উপস্থাপন করার প্রাথমিক মাধ্যম ৷ কিন্তু অনেক ক্ষেত্রেই দেখা যায় চাকুরীপ্রার্থীরা তাদের জীবনবৃত্তান্ত সুন্দর এবং সঠিকভাবে তৈরী করার ব্যপারে গুরুত্ব প্রদান করে না ৷ ফলশ্রুতিতে অনেক যোগ্য প্রার্থীই Job Interview তে ডাক পায় না এবং যোগ্যতা প্রমানের সুযোগ থেকে বঞ্চিত হয় ৷

আপনার জীবনবৃত্তান্ত (CV) তৈরীর আগে যে সকল বাস্তবতার দিকে নজর রাখবেন---

§ একজন চাকুরীদাতা গড়ে একটি জীবনবৃত্তান্ত (CV)-এর উপর ৩০ সেকেন্ডের বেশী সময় দেয় না ৷ সুতরাং এটি হতে হবে সংক্ষিপ্ত ৷ তথ্যগুলোর উপস্থাপন হতে হবে সুস্পষ্ট ৷ অপ্রয়োজনীয় বা অপেক্ষাকৃত কম গুরুত্বপূর্ণ তথ্য পরিহার করতে হবে ৷

§ একজন অনভিজ্ঞ/সদ্য পাস করা চাকুরীপ্রার্থীর জীবনবৃত্তান্ত এক থেকে দুই পাতার বেশী হওয়া কোনভাবেই উচিত্ নয় ৷

§ আপনার জীবনবৃত্তান্ত হচ্ছে আপনার নিজেকে বিপণন করার মাধ্যম ৷ সুতরাং এটি হতে হবে আকর্ষণীয় ৷ তবে চটকদার কোন কিছু যেমন রঙিন কাগজ বা রঙিন কালি ব্যবহার করবেন না ৷ কোন কিছু Highlight করতে হলে সেটিকে Bold, italic বা underline করতে পারেন ৷

§ মনে রাখবেন, আপনার জীবনবৃত্তান্তের মধ্যে যদি কোন বানান ভুল বা ভাষাগত/ Grammatical ভুল থাকে তবে সম্ভাব্য চাকুরীদাতার আপনার সম্বন্ধে নেতিবাচক ধারণা হবে ৷ এটি প্রকাশ পাবে যে আপনি কোন কাজই নির্ভুল ভাবে করতে সক্ষম নন ৷ সুতরাং একটি CV তৈরীর পর সেটি নিজে ভাল করে পড়ুন এবং শুদ্ধ ইংরেজী জানেন এমন ব্যক্তিকে দেখিয়ে নিন ৷

§ যখন আপনি কোন নির্দিষ্ট চাকুরী বিজ্ঞপ্তির (job announcement)-এর বিপরীতে আবেদন করার জন্য জীবনবৃত্তান্ত পাঠাবেন, তখন চেষ্টা করুন আপনার CV সেই চাকুরীর চাহিদা অনুযায়ী তৈরী করতে (Customize your CV) ৷ এর জন্য প্রয়োজন চাকুরী বিজ্ঞপ্তি ভাল করে পড়া এবং প্রতিষ্ঠানটি সম্বন্ধে কিছু গবেষণা (Research) করা ৷ উদাহরণ স্বরুপ আপনি যদি জানেন যে নিয়োগকারী প্রতিষ্ঠান বাংলাদেশের যে কোন স্থানে নিয়োগ দিতে পারে, তাহলে আপনি আপনার CV-তে উল্লেখ করতে পারেন আপনি বাংলাদেশের কোন কোন স্থানে পূর্বে অবস্থান করেছেন ৷ অথবা কোন নিয়োগকারী প্রতিষ্ঠান এমন কোন লোক খুঁজছে যার একজন ‘ সংগঠকের (organizer’) ভূমিকা পালন করতে হবে, সেই ক্ষেত্রে আপনি যদি আপনার ছাত্রজীবনের কোন সাংগঠনকারীর ভূমিকা উল্লেখ করেন তবে আপনার CV নিয়োগকারীর কাছে আলাদা মূল্য পাবে ৷

§ এটি খুবই গুরুত্বপূর্ণ যে আপনি আপনার CV তে সঠিক তথ্য দিবেন ৷ এমন কোন তথ্য দিবেন না যা আপনার Job interview-তে ভুল প্রমানিত হতে পারে ৷

জীবনবৃত্তান্তের (CV) বিভিন্ন অংশ

একটি জীবনবৃত্তান্তে (CV) যে তথ্যগুলো আপনি সুবিন্যস্ত ভাবে উপস্থাপন করবেন সেগুলো হচ্ছে--
* শিরোনাম (Title)   
* সার সংক্ষেপ (Career Summary) --> অভিজ্ঞতা সম্পন্নদের জন্য বেশী প্রয়োজন ৷
* ক্যারিয়ার উদ্দেশ্য (Career objective)-->সদ্য পাশ করা চাকুরী প্রার্থীদের জন্য বেশী প্রয়োজন ৷
* চাকুরির অভিজ্ঞতা (Experience)
* শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতা (Education)
* অতিরিক্ত তথ্য (Additional Information)
* ব্যক্তিগত তথ্য (Personal Information)
* রেফারেন্স (Reference)

শিরোনাম: (Title)

জীবনবৃত্তান্তের শুরুতেই থাকবে আপনার পুরো নাম ৷ এটা বোল্ড (bold) হবে এবং একটু বড় ফন্টে লিখতে হবে (ডাক নাম পরিহার করুন) ৷ তার পর থাকবে আপনার ঠিকানা (বর্তমান ঠিকানা যেখানে আপনাকে চিঠি দিলে আপনি পাবেন), ফোন নম্বর ও ই-মেইল এড্রেস ৷ এই অংশটুকু পৃষ্ঠার উপরে মধ্যখানে থাকবে, যাতে তা প্রথমেই চোখে পরে ৷

Career Summary( সার সংক্ষেপ )

যে সকল ব্যক্তিদের ৪-৫ বছরের বেশী চাকরীর অভিজ্ঞতা আছে তাদের জন্য এটি বেশী প্রযোজ্য ৷ এই অংশে আপনি সর্বোচ্চ ৬-৭ লাইনে উল্লেখ করুন আপনার পূর্ব চাকরীর অভিজ্ঞতার কর্মক্ষেত্রগুলো ৷ আপনার পূর্ব অভিজ্ঞতার সাফল্যগুলো (Achievement) সংক্ষেপে তুলে ধরুন (যদি থাকে) ৷

Career Objective

এটি বেশী প্রযোজ্য সদ্য পাশ করা চাকুরী প্রার্থী বা অল্প অভিজ্ঞ (১ / ২ বছর) চাকুরী প্রার্থীদের জন্য ৷ এই অংশে আপনি আপনার চাকুরীক্ষেত্রে বর্তমান লক্ষ্য (Immediate goal) উল্লেখ করুন এবং আপনার যোগ্যতা কিভাবে বিজ্ঞপ্তির (Advertised) চাকুরী বা যে প্রতিষ্ঠানে পাঠাচ্ছেন, তার প্রয়োজন মেটাতে পারে তার প্রেক্ষিতে উপস্থাপন করুন ৷ চাকুরীর জন্য উপযুক্ত ইতিবাচক বৈশিষ্ট্যগুলো সংক্ষিপ্তভাবে উলেখ করুন ৷ চাকুরী বিজ্ঞপ্তি বা কোম্পানির প্রয়োজনের সাথে খাপ খাইয়ে Career Objective লেখা জরুরী ৷ আপনি কোম্পানিকে কি দিতে পারবেন তার ওপর গুরুত্বারোপ করুন, কোম্পানির কাছ থেকে আপনি কি আশা করছেন তার ওপর নয় ৷

Experience: (কর্ম অভিজ্ঞতা)

অভিজ্ঞ পেশাজীবিদের জন্য এই অংশটি শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতার আগেই আসা উচিত ৷ সদ্য পাশ করা বা অল্প অভিজ্ঞতার ক্ষেত্রে আগে শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতা (Education) এবং তার পরে experience আসা উচিত ৷

যে সকল তথ্য আপনার প্রতিটি পূর্ব অভিজ্ঞতার ক্ষেত্রে উল্লেখ করবেন সেগুলো হচ্ছে,

* Organization name (প্রতিষ্ঠানের নাম)
* Designation (পদবী)
* Time period- From & To (সময়কাল)
* Job responsibility (দায়িত্ব)
* Special achievement (উল্লেখযোগ্য সাফল্য)

আপনি যদি একই প্রতিষ্ঠানে বিভিন্ন সময়ে বিভিন্ন পদে কাজ করে থাকেন, তাহলে আলাদা আলাদা ভাবে তা উল্লেখ করুন ৷

সবচেয়ে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ হচ্ছে আপনি প্রথমেই উল্লেখ করবেন আপনার সাম্প্রতিক অভিজ্ঞতা (most recent experience), তার পরে এক এক করে Resume Chronological Order-এ একটির পর একটি অভিজ্ঞতা উল্লেখ করবেন যা শেষ হবে আপনার সর্বপ্রথম অভিজ্ঞতা দিয়ে ৷

আপনার খুব কম গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বা কম সময়ের অভিজ্ঞতা উল্লেখ না করাই ভাল ৷ তবে লক্ষ্য রাখবেন যে আপনার List of experience এর মধ্যে যাতে খুব বেশী Time gap না থাকে ৷

Education & Training (শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতা ও প্রশিক্ষণ)

আগেই বলা হয়েছে যে এই অংশটি সদ্য পাশ করা বা অল্প অভিজ্ঞদের জন্য Experience অংশের আগেই আসা উচিত্ ৷ Education অংশে আপনি আপনার ডিগ্রিগুলোর নাম উল্লেখ করবেন এবং নিম্নেবর্ণিত তথ্য প্রদান করবেন ৷

* ডিগ্রির নাম (যেমন: SSC, HSC, BCom)
* কোর্স সময়কাল (কবে থেকে কবে)
* শিক্ষাপ্রতিষ্ঠান এবং বোর্ডের নাম ৷
* পরীক্ষার বছর এবং প্রয়োজনে ফলাফল প্রকাশের সময় ৷
* ফলাফল/Result এবং যদি উল্লেখযোগ্য সাফল্য (যেমন: মেধাতালিকায় স্থান) থাকে তবে তার উল্লেখ করতে হবে ৷

Experience-এর মতো এক্ষেত্রেও আপনি আপনার সবচেয়ে সাম্প্রতিক ডিগ্রির উল্লেখ আগে করবেন এবং তার পর পর্যায়ক্রমিক ভাবে বাকিগুলো উল্লেখ করবেন ৷

লক্ষ্য রাখবেন আপনার কোন ডিগ্রির চূড়ান্ত ফলাফল এখনও প্রকাশ না হয়ে থাকলে সেই ডিগ্রির উল্লেখ করার সময় ব্র্যাকেটে ‘Appeared’ উল্লেখ করবেন ৷ কোন কোর্সে অধ্যায়নরত থাকলে ‘Ongoing’ উল্লেখ করুন ৷ কোন ডিগ্রির ক্ষেত্রে আপনার Result যদি খুব খারাপ হয়ে থাকে তবে কোন Result-ই উল্লেখ করার দরকার নেই ৷ মনে রাখবেন একটি ডিগ্রির ফলাফল উল্লেখ করা ও অন্যটি উল্লেখ না করা দৃষ্টিকটু ৷

আপনি যদি কোন বিশেষ প্রশিক্ষণে অংশগ্রহণ করে থাকেন এবং যদি তা আপনার কাজের যোগ্যতার সহায়ক বলে মনে করেন তবে তা উল্লেখ করবেন ৷ সেক্ষেত্রেও প্রশিক্ষণকারী প্রতিষ্ঠানের নাম, Topics, প্রতিষ্ঠানের সময় (Duration) তারিখ উল্লেখ করবেন ৷
প্রশিক্ষণের তালিকা আপনি Education অংশের নীচে দিতে পারেন ৷

অতিরিক্ত তথ্য / Additional Information

যে সকল তথ্য উপরে উল্লেখিত অংশগুলোর মধ্যে পড়ে না কিন্তু চাকরির সাথে সম্পর্কিত তা এ বিভাগে বর্ণনা করুন ৷

* পেশাগত অর্জন / Professional Achievement
* পদক/ সম্মাননা/ Award.
* ভাষাগত দক্ষতা / Language Literacy
* কম্পিউটারে দক্ষতা / Computer Skills.
* লাইসেন্স,সরকারি পরিচয়পত্র, প্রকাশিত লেখা ও সত্বাধিকার
* স্বেচ্ছাসেবী কর্মকান্ড ইত্যাদি

ব্যক্তিগত তথ্য / Personal Information

এই অংশে পিতামাতা, বর্তমান/স্থায়ী ঠিকানা, ধর্ম, যে সকল দেশ আপনি ভ্রমণ করেছেন, শখ ইত্যাদি এখানে উল্লেখ করা যেতে পারে ৷

রেফারেন্স (Reference)

খেয়াল রাখবেন Reference অংশে আপনি আপনার নিকট আত্মীয়দের নাম উল্লেখ করবেন না ৷ আপনাকে আপনার ছাত্র জীবনে বা কর্মজীবনে কাছ থেকে দেখেছে এমন ব্যক্তিকেই আপনি Reference হিসাবে উল্লেখ করবেন ৷ অবশ্যই যাদেরকে Reference দিবেন তাদের ফোন নাম্বার, ঠিকানা এবং ই-মেইল (যদি থাকে) উল্লেখ করবেন ৷ সাধারণত Reference হিসাবে সর্বোচ্চ ২-৩ জনের নাম উল্লেখ করাই শ্রেয় ৷ তবে সবচেয়ে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ যে ব্যাপারের দিকে খেয়াল রাখতে হবে তা হচ্ছে আপনি যাদেরকে Reference হিসাবে উল্লেখ করেছেন সে সকল ব্যাক্তিকে আপনার আগে থেকে জানাতে হবে যে আপনি তাদের Reference হিসাবে আপনার জীবনবৃত্তান্ত (CV)- তে উল্লেখ করেছেন


হিজড়া সম্প্রদায় ও তাদের অধিকার
যখন একটা শিশু জন্ম নেয় তখন থেকে পরিবারের সবাই প্রথমে তার লিঙ্গ শনাক্ত করে। অর্থাৎ শিশুটি নারী অথবা পুরুষ এটাই আগে দেখা হয়। সে অনুযায়ী আত্মীয়স্বজন তার জন্য উপহার কিনে নিয়ে শিশুটিকে দেখতে আসে। বিভিন্ন দেশে মেয়েদের জন্য গোলাপী রঙের বা রঙচঙা পোশাক এবং অন্যান্য প্রয়োজনীয় জিনিস ব্যবহার করা হয়ে থাকে এবং ছেলেদের জন্য নীল রঙের বা একরঙা দ্রব্য ব্যবহার করা হয়। ছোটবেলা থেকেই একটা শিশুর বেড়ে ওঠার সঙ্গে সঙ্গে পরিবার থেকেই তার নারী-পুরুষের ভিন্ন দায়িত্ব কর্তব্য চাল-চলন বুঝিয়ে দেয়া হয়। মেয়েদের হাতে খেলনা হিসেবে পুতুল দেয়া হয়, ছেলেদের খেলনা দেয়া হয় গাড়ি, বন্দুক বা ফুটবল। কিছু কিছু শিশু আছে যাদের দুই পায়ের ও দুই কানের মাঝখানে ভিন্নতা দেখা যায়। ওরা নারী বা পুরুষ কারো মতোই নয়। এই ধরনের শিশু লিঙ্গ বৈকল্য, ট্রান্স জেন্ডার বা হিজড়া

হিজড়া কথাটার শাব্দিক অর্থ ওসঢ়ড়:বহপব- অর্থাৎ একজন অক্ষম ক্লীব, নপুংশক বা ধ্বজভঙ্গ। বাংলাদেশ তথা বিভিন্ন দেশের হিজড়াদের মতে তারা জন্মগতভাবেই একাধারে স্ত্রী ও পুংলিঙ্গ সংবলিত (বা উভয় লিঙ্গ) প্রাণী। তবে প্রতিটি লিঙ্গেই অস্পষ্ট ও অনির্দিষ্ট। এদের ভেতর কেউ কেউ অস্ত্রোপচারের মাধ্যমে স্ত্রী অথবা পুরুষ রূপে আত্মপ্রকাশ করে। এভাবে আমাদের দেশের অনেকেই স্ত্রী অথবা পুরুষ লিঙ্গ ধারণ করে বসবাস করছে।

বাংলাদেশের এমনকি পৃথিবীর বেশিরভাগ হিজড়াই তাদের এই অস্বাভাবিকতাকে ঢেকে বা লুকিয়ে রাখে এবং যে চেহারাটা বাইরে থেকে প্রকট দেখা যায় সেই লিঙ্গে আত্মপ্রকাশ করে বলে বাইরের মানুষ জানতে পারে না। এই কারণেই আমাদের দেশে আসলে কতজন হিজড়া আছে সেটার সার্বিক তথ্য বের করা সম্ভব নয়। যে সব ক্ষেত্রে এই বৈকল্য অন্তত প্রকট অর্থাৎ ঢেকে রাখার মতো নয় এবং বাইরে থেকে বোঝা যায়, কেবল সেক্ষেত্রেই মানুষ নিজেকে হিজড়া হিসেবে প্রকাশিত করে এবং পরিবার থেকে বের হয়ে যায়। হিজড়াদের মধ্যে প্রায় সবাই তারা নিজেদের শরীরকে নিজেরাই ঘৃণা করে। অনেকেই নিজেরাই নিজেদের অসহায় এবং ভিকটিম বলে মনে করে। এদের মধ্যে অনেকেই হতাশাগ্রস্ত হয়ে মাদকাসক্ত হয়ে পড়ে এবং অনেকেই নির্যাতনের শিকার হয়। অনেকে আবার আত্মহত্যার চেষ্টা করে। আজকাল বিভিন্ন দেশে শত শত পরিবার তাদের হিজড়া সন্তানদের ভালবাসা দিচ্ছে এবং তাদের দুর্বিষহ বেদনাময় জীবন থেকে বাঁচাতে চেষ্টা করছে। শিশু বেলা থেকেই যখন ওদের মধ্যে পরিবর্তন লক্ষ্য করা যায় তখন থেকেই ওরা কাপড় চোপড় পরে যৌনাঙ্গ ঢেকে রাখার চেষ্টা করে।
বাংলাদেশে বেশিরভাগ হিজড়ারাই সালোয়ার কামিজ বা শাড়ি পরে থাকতে পছন্দ করে এবং গহনাও পরে থাকে। অনেকে পরচুলা ব্যবহার করে এবং আবার পুরুষের পোশাকও পরে ঘুরে বেড়ায়। ওদের বেশিরভাগই মনে করে, হিজড়া হয়ে জন্ম নেয়াই একটা লজ্জার ব্যাপার। লোকে তাদের আড়চোখে দেখে কটাক্ষ করে। সব ক্ষেত্রে তারা সামাজিক ও রাষ্ট্রীয়ভাবে বৈষম্যের শিকার হয়ে থাকে। তারা লেখাপড়া চাকরিসহ সমাজের বিভিন্ন সুযোগ-সুবিধা থেকে বঞ্চিত হয়। অনেক পরিবারে হিজড়া জন্মানোর পর মা-বাবা ও তাদের নিয়ে সমস্যায় পড়েন এবং ঘৃণা ও লজ্জার কারণে নিজের সন্তানকে ছোটবেলা থেকেই হিজড়া সম্প্রদায়ের কাছে থেকেই পাঠিয়ে দেন। হিজড়াদের অনেকের কাছেই প্রশ্ন করে জানা গেছে যে তারা তাদের বাবা-মা সম্পর্কে কিছুই জানে না। বাংলাদেশ তথা পৃথিবীর যে কোন দেশে হিজড়া হয়ে কেউ জন্মগ্রহণ করলেই তাকেই বড় এক ধরনের আর্থসামাজিক চাপ বা ধকলের মধ্যে জীবন-যাপন করত হয়। তাদের সমাজ থেকে বিচ্ছিন্ন করা হয় এবং সাধারণ জনগণ দ্বারাও বৈষম্যের শিকার হয়ে থাকে।

কিরণ (আসল নাম নয়) ছোটবেলায় ছেলে শিশু হয়েই জন্মগ্রহণ করেছিল। সে যখন ক্লাস সেভেনে ওঠে তখন তার শরীরের মধ্যে একটা অন্যরকম পরিবর্তন লক্ষ্য করে। তার বুকটা ধীরে ধীরে বড় হতে থাকলো এবং লিঙ্গের নিচে আরও এটি ছিদ্রের মতো তৈরি হয়ে গেল। ও খুব হতাশায় ভুগছিল পরিবারের কারও সঙ্গেই যে এ বিষয়ে আলোচনা করতে পারছিল না। কিরণ যখন এইটে ওঠে রীতিমতো তার বুক এত বেশি বড় হয়ে গেল যে টাইট কাপড়ে চ্যাপ্টা ব্যান্ড দিয়েও চেপে রাখতে পারছিল না। একদিন তার মা বিষয়টি লক্ষ্য করে হতাশ হলেন। বাবাকে জানানোর পর তাকে নিয়ে সবাই কি করবেন বুঝতে পারছিলেন না। তাকে ডাক্তারের কাছে নিয়ে যাওয়া হলো তবে ততদিনে তার দাড়ি-গোঁফ সব স্পষ্ট হতে শুরু করেছে। ডাক্তার বললেন, তার যৌনাঙ্গ আরও একটু স্পষ্ট হলে তাকে স্ত্রী হিসেবে গড়ে তুলতে অস্ত্রোপচার করতে হবে। তবে তার দাড়ি-গোঁফ কমিয়ে আনতে ডাক্তার হরমোন প্রেসক্রিপসন দিয়েছেন। কিরণের বাবা-মা আর্থিক অবস্খা বেশি ভাল ছিল না বিধায় ছেলের চিকিৎসা করাতে পারেনরি। ওকে নিয়ে সবার কাছে অপ্রস্তুত হতো বিধায় ঘর ছেড়ে হিজড়া সম্প্রদায়ের সঙ্গে বসবাস করতে শুরু করে। কিরণ এখন এয়ারপোর্টের পথে যেতে হাতের বাঁয়ে রাত ৮টার পর রাস্তায় দাঁড়ায় এবং তার খদ্দের এলে তার যৌনতা বিক্রি করে খুশি করে কিছু পয়সা আয় করে জীবন-যাপন করে।

আমেরিকাতে জর্জ নামে একটি ছেলের জন্মের ১৫ মাস পর থেকেই শারীরিক পরিবর্তন লক্ষ্য করা গেল এবং ধীরে ধীরে সে বালক থেকে বালিকা হয়ে গেল। পরিবার থেকে সবাই তাকে বোঝাল যে, তার পুরুষাঙ্গটা সৃষ্টিকর্তার একটা ভুল ছিল তাই সে ভুলটাকে শুদ্ধ করে তাকে পুনরায় নারী বানিয়ে দিয়েছে এতে লজ্জা বা দু:খ পাওয়ার কিছু নেই। জর্জের জন্য চিকিৎসা এমনকি অস্ত্রোপচার করতে হয়েছিল। সে এখন নাম পাল্টেছে, পোশাক পাল্টেছে, এখন পুরোপুরি একজন নারী। আমাদের দেশেও চিকিৎসার সুযোগ পেলে অনেকেই নারী বা পুরুষ হিসেবে জীবন-যাপন করতে পারত।

আমাদের দেশে একটা হিজড়া বলেছিল, ‘আমি শার্টের নিচে ব্রা পরে স্কুলে গিয়েছিলাম বলে স্যার প্রচণ্ড মেরেছিল। তারপর থেকে আর স্কুলেই যাই না।’ হিন্দু ধর্মে হিজড়া সম্প্রদায়কে বিশেষ এক ধরনের কাস্ট হিসেবে ধরা হয়। তামিলনাড়ুতে এপ্রিল-মে মাসের দিকে হিজড়ারা দিনব্যাপী ধর্মীয় উৎসব পালন করে। ভারতে এবং বিভিন্ন দেশে এদের লোভী বয় বলা হয়। কোনকালেই কোন দেশেই হিজড়াদের কোন সম্মান কেউ দেয়নি। বাংলাদেশের সংবিধান রাষ্ট্র পরিচালনার মূলনীতির ১৫(ঘ) অনুচ্ছেদে রাষ্ট্রের অন্যতম মৌলিক দায়িত্ব হিসেবেই স্পষ্ট বলছে¬
‘সামাজিক নিরাপত্তার অধিকার অর্থাৎ বেকারত্ব, ব্যাধি বা পঙ্গুত্বজনিত কিংবা বৈধব্য, মাতাপিতৃহীনতা বা বার্ধক্যজনিত কিংবা অনুরূপ অন্যান্য পরিস্খিতিজনিত আওত্তাতীত কারণে অভাবগ্রস্ততার ক্ষেত্রে সরকারী সাহায্য লাভের অধিকার।’

এছাড়াও মানবাধিকারের সার্বজনীন ঘোষণা হলো : দাসত্ব হতে মুক্তির অধিকার, ভোটের অধিকার, মত প্রকাশের অধিকার, কাজের অধিকার, মানসম্মত জীবন-যাপনের অধিকার, আইনের আশ্রয় ও নির্যাতন থেকে মুক্তির অধিকার এবং বিবাহ ও পরিবার গঠনের অধিকার।

এরপর দাসত্ব ব করতে, বর্ণবৈষম্য রোধ করতে, নির্যাতন রোধ করতে, রাজনৈতিক ও নাগরিক অধিকার অর্জন করতে, নারীর প্রতি বৈষম্য বিলোপ করতে এবং শিশুর অধিকার সুরক্ষায় একগুচ্ছ চুক্তি বা সনদ দরকার হয়েছে।

কয়েক বছর হয় সেলফ হেলপ গ্রুপ হিসেবে কিছু সংগঠনের আত্ম প্রকাশ ঘটেছে যারা হিজড়া সম্প্রদায়ের অধিকার ও তাদের জন্য বিশেষ আইনের কথা বলছে। বাঁধন হিজড়া সংঘ তাদের মধ্যে অন্যতম। বাঁধনের সদস্যরা তাদের অধিকার সম্পর্কে সচেতন রয়েছে। হিজড়াদের যৌনতা গতানুগতিক নয়। এটা একটু ভিন্ন। বলতে গেলে বেশিরভাগ ক্ষেত্রে এরা এদের মতো জীবন-যাপন করে যা ইসলাম প্রধান দেশ হিসেবে জনগণ সহজে মেনে নেয় না। এমন কি ব্রিটিশ শাসন আমলে হিজড়াদের বিতাড়িত করা হয়েছে এবং হিজড়াদের যৌনতার বিরুদ্ধে আইন করা হয়েছে। ব্রিটিশ আইনে হিজড়াদের যৌনতাকে সডোমি হিসেবে চিহ্নিত করে এবং পেনালকোট এ ধারা ৩৭৭ তে বলা হয়েছে যে, এটা শাস্তিযোগ্য অপরাধ। এই যদি আইন হয় তাহলে তারা কোথায় যাবে। ওদের যৌনতার অধিকার এবং মানবাধিকার কে নিশ্চিত করবে যদি রাষ্ট্র না করে। পরিবারে সম্মানের সঙ্গে বসবাসের অধিকার, চাকরির অধিকার, সামাজিক নিরাপত্তার অধিকার এবং তাদের ভালবাসা পাওয়ার অধিকার আছে। তারা কাজের অধিকার থেকে বঞ্চিত হয় বলে অনেকেই

দোকানে দোকানে টাকা চাঁদা নিয়ে জীবন-যাপন করের আবার অনেকেই বাঁচার জন্য যৌন কাজের সঙ্গে লিপ্ত হয়। তবে যদি ওদের কাজের সুযোগ দেয়া হয় তারা তাদের অনেকেই যৌন পেশা থেকে ফেরত আসবে বলেছে। বর্তমানে রমনা পার্কে, কুড়িল বাড্ডা, পুরান ঢাকা, খিলগাঁও মার্কেটের পেছনে ভূঁইয়াপাড়াসহ অনেক এলাকাতেই হিজড়া সম্প্রদায়ের সংঘবদ্ধভাবে বসবাস। এদের অনেকেই মানবেতর জীবন-যাপন করে। বাঁধন হিজড়া সংঘের সদস্যবৃন্দ এইডস প্রতিরোধের কিছু প্রকল্পে কাজ করে তাদের জীবন-জীবিকা চালাচ্ছে। তারা সমকামীদের অধিকার প্রতিষ্ঠার লক্ষ্যে কাজ করে যাচ্ছে।

Real Estate / Real Estate bill 2010
« on: October 19, 2010, 07:54:01 PM »
Real estate bill passed, punishment for breaches

Last 22 September the real estate bill 2010 has been enacted. The parliament passed the bill submitted by Abdul Mannan Khan.  The bill is said to be a milestone for the people who seek home, apartment etc. this bill has been enacted protect the people from the grabs of illegal occupiers.

However, this law will not be applicable for the projects or any business venture taken by the government directly in this field. every developing business owners must obtain proper registration from the perspective authority.  After paying full money of the developer by a purchaser, the development must transfer the possession of the property and get the required documentation and registration.

If a developer develops any building without proper authorization they will be subject to the fine of Taka 20 lac. or a jail not exceeding three years or both.  According to the agreement, if a developer fails to deliver properly they have to return the money along with fine within six months in the form of cheque.  If any developer mortgages the perspective property to any bank or financial institution they will not be able to sell it to the customer.  However, with the permission from the respective customer the developer will be able to sell it.  If any developer operates any developing business without proper registration and authorization they have to face the fine of Taka 10 lac. or Jail not exceeding two years . if any developer of however, breaches the conditions underlying in this law and mortgages any property they will be subject to a fine of Taka five lac. or Jail not exceeding one year. According to the agreement if any developer fails to transfer the ownership of the land they will be subject to a fine of Taka 20 lac. Or Jail not exceeding two years.

Source:24H Dhaka news.

Common Forum / Why Wedding Ring on 4th Finger?
« on: October 19, 2010, 07:10:32 PM »

There is a beautiful and convincing explanation given, though many Legends existed...

* Thumb represents your Parents
* Second (Index) finger represents your Siblings
* Middle finger represents your-Self
* Fourth (Ring) finger represents your Life Partner
* and the Last (Little) finger represents your children

Firstly, open your palms (face to face), bend the middle fingers and hold them together - back to back. Secondly, open and hold the remaining three fingers and the thumb - tip to tip (as shown in the pic above).

Now, try to separate your thumbs (representing the parents)..., they will open, because your parents are not destined to live with you lifelong, and have to leave you sooner or later.

Please join your thumbs as before and separate your Index fingers (representing siblings)... ., they will also open, because your brothers and sisters will have their own families and will have to lead their own separate lives.

Now join the Index fingers and separate your Little fingers (representing your children)... ., they will open too, because the children also will get married and settle down on their own some day.

Finally, join your Little fingers, and try to separate your Ring fingers (representing your spouse). You will be surprised to see that you just CANNOT....., because Husband & Wife have to remain together all their lives - through thick and thin!
Please try this out.............

You need to know / "W A T E R"
« on: October 19, 2010, 12:01:05 AM »
10 Health Benefits of Water:

Water prevents kidney stones. The most common cause of kidney stones is not drinking enough water. Since water dissolves the substances that form stones in the urine, drinking 12 glasses daily helps treat kidney stones.

Water treats urinary tract infection. The more water you drink, the more you will urinate. "Drinking lots of water will help flush out harmful bacteria from your bladder," says Medical City kidney specialist Dr. Roberto Tanchanco.

Water helps patients with diarrhea by preventing dehydration. As a first-aid for diarrhea, you can make your own oral rehydration solution at home. Mix a glass of water with 2 teaspoons sugar and ¼ teaspoon salt, and drink as much as you can tolerate. This is similar to the dextrose solution in the hospital.

Water helps reduce fever. For symptoms of flu, water can help lower your body temperature when you urinate the "heat" out of your body. If you*re sick, drink more water for you to recover faster.

Water helps treat cough and colds, sore throat, and respiratory infections. Water helps loosen sticky phlegm. A respected lung specialist told me that some mucolytics out there are just as beneficial as drinking lots of water.

Water reduces heartburn. Taking 2-3 gulps of water every 20 minutes or so can help flush the stomach acid away. Bananas and water are effective alternatives to taking antacids. Try it.

Water prevents constipation and its complications. Too little water can harden the stools and lead to hemorrhoids and diverticulosis, a disease of the large bowel. Drink water and eat lots of vegetables to soften your stools.

Water keeps you alert and energetic. If you*re dehydrated, your blood is literally thicker. This makes it harder for the blood to circulate. As a result, the brain can become less active and you can feel confused and fatigued. Some studies also show that water may help cure migraine headaches.

Water helps reduce weight. By drinking a glass or two of water before a meal, you will lessen the amount of food you can take in order to feel full. Water has zero calories and will not make you fat.

Water keeps your skin soft and radiant. Just as a dehydrated person will have deep-set eyes and wrinkled skin, so will a fully hydrated person exhibit a normal and beautiful skin tone.

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