Daffodil International University

IT Help Desk => ICT => Topic started by: tamim_saif on November 22, 2012, 12:04:19 PM

Title: No wrist watches in medical entry test
Post by: tamim_saif on November 22, 2012, 12:04:19 PM
Nov 22, 2012 7:29 pm
Examinees will not be able to tie wrist watches during Friday's combined medical and dental admission test, thanks to a recent revelation that watches were used for cheating in several competitive examinations.Medical Education Director of the Directorate General of Health Services Dr Shah Abdul Latif told bdnews24.com that they took the decision, for the first time in Bangladesh, as part of their 'foolproof' plan to conduct the 'highly competitive' entry-test. He said centre chiefs had been instructed to ensure 'adequate number of wall clocks' in every examination room.

Some 58,723 aspirants will vie for 8,493 seats in all public and private medical and dental colleges in this year's entry test that came after street protests and a court order.

The number of seats in the 22 government medical colleges is 2,811 and 4,245 in 53 private medical colleges. The nine public dental colleges and medical colleges' dental units have 567 seats, while 14 private dental institutes have 870 seats.

Usually examinees are barred to carry cell phones with them.

The Director said the recent reports of fraud in examinations using watches 'alerted' them and they took the decision of barring watches at a meeting on Sunday.

Police in October arrested 10 people, most of whom were students, in connection with forgery in the Dhaka University, Jagannath University admission tests and some other recruitment examinations.

The crooks would supply answers to their client-examinees through short messages on wrist watch-like mobiles in those examinations.

The Director said the meeting also formed 'high-powered' teams for every centre to monitor the one-hour 100-mark multiple choice questions (MCQ) examination from 10am to 11am at 23 centres across Bangladesh.

Minister, State Minister, Senior Secretary, additional secretaries, joint secretaries and many other officials under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare will monitor the test in teams.

The Director said they had close contact with law enforcing agencies including Rapid Action Battalion (RAB) to nail down 'even a rumour of question paper leak out'.

The government set Nov 23 for the examination after High Court ordered to take test for enrolling in medical and dental institutions on Sep 10.

Earlier, Health Minister A F M Ruhal Haque on Aug 12 announced that they would enrol students based on their GPAs in the SSC and HSC examinations from this year.

The decision triggered protest and aspirants, mostly second-timers, took to the street and two lawyers filed separate law suits.
Title: অনািমকা (কিবতা)
Post by: Mohammad Nazrul Islam on November 22, 2012, 03:46:37 PM
অনািমকা অামার েসাহাগ লতা
গহন পেথর িদশা,
হৃদয় মােঝ স্বপ্ন েঘরা
অাকুিত ভরা েনশা ।।
অনািমকা অামার বুেকর স্পন্দন
িনঃশ্বােসরই টান,
েদেহর মােঝর িশরা-উপিশরায়
রক্ত বহমান ।।
অনািমকা অামার মেনর অাকােশ
একিট ধুঁব তারা,
সাত-সাগর অার েতর-নদী
অবুঝ পাগল পারা ।।
অনািমকা অামার িচর-েচনা
শঃামল পেথর মায়া,
সৃিষ্ট েসরা কল্পনা েমার
ভালবাসার ছায়া ।।
অনািমকা অামার েচােখর তারা
সুরমা েভজা অািঁখ,
হৃদয় মােঝ সংেগাপেন-
অাড়াল িদেয় রািখ ।।
অনািমকা অামার হৃদয় বধু
সুখ-দুঃেখরই সাথী,
িনিশত কােলা অমাবশঃায়
অাঁধার ঘেরর বািত।।
Title: Model United Nations
Post by: TOFAZZAL on November 23, 2012, 03:29:04 AM
Md.Tofazzal Alam
Blog:tofazzal25.blogspot.com (http://tofazzal25.blogspot.com)

                                MODEL UNITED NATIONS

Model United Nations (also Model UN or MUN) is an academic simulation of the United Nations that aims to educate participants about current events, topics in international relations, diplomacy and the United Nations agenda.
The participants role-play as diplomats representing a nation or NGO in a simulated session of an (committee) of the United Nations, such as the Security Council or the General Assembly. Participants research a country, take on roles as diplomats, investigate international issues, debate, deliberate, consult, and then develop solutions to world problems. More recently, simulation of other deliberative bodies, such as the United Nations Security Council, has been included in Model United Nations, even if they are completely unrelated to the UN or international affairs as a whole. In general, the participants that the executive panel considers to be most contributing are given awards, such as 'Best Delegate award'.


During a conference, participants must employ a variety of communication and critical thinking skills in order to represent the policies of their country. These skills include public speaking, group communication, research, policy analysis, active listening, negotiating, conflict resolution, note taking, and technical writing. However, school delegation formats vary from region to region.
Most Model UNs are simulations of a body in the United Nations system, such as:
   The General Assembly in both plenary form and within its functional committees
   Economic and Social Council and its specialized councils and agencies
   Security Council
   International Court of Justice
   United Nations Children's Fund
   United Nations Environment Programme
   United Nations Development Programme
   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
   Human Rights Council
   International Monetary Fund
   Disarmament Committee
   United Nations High Commission for Refugees
   World Food Program
   World Health Organization
   World Trade Organization
Many conferences simulate other IGOs including:
   European Union
   African Union
   Organization of American States
   The North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO
   Arab League
   Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
   South Asian Association For Regional Co-Operation
   Association of South East Asian Nations
   International Atomic Energy Agency
In addition, solely national organizations such as the United States National Security Council are often role played, with delegates role-playing specific people (e.g. the Secretary of State or the Secretary of Defense) rather than representing countries. This may be taken one step further, having the delegate represent merely the interests of his or her office, or role-play a specific holder of the office (e.g. Hillary Clinton). Such committees are typically "crisis committees;" that is to say, they do not begin with a fixed topic but rather are forced to deal with issues as they come up. A team of conference organizers (known as a crisis staff) develops a simulated event which acts as a catalyst for a crisis. The staff continually inform the committees of changing events on the ground, to which the committee must respond; in addition, individual delegates are typically allowed to take certain actions on their own, without committee approval, subject to the interpretation and agreement of the crisis staff. However, the correspondence between single-country and crisis committees are not perfect; for instance, the UN Security Council and some NATO bodies are typically run as crisis committees, and some national cabinets are fixed-topic committees.
More unusual committees abound at the collegiate level; for instance, a college conference may simulate the Greco-Persian Wars via a committee of the Greek poleis,[1] have a committee simulating the National Football League's annual owners meeting, as held at George Mason University MUN in 2009, or even have a committee simulating President David Palmer's cabinet from the TV show 24, simulated by the University of Pennsylvania Model UN Conference in 2007.[2]
Many conferences also run crisis simulations in which hypothetical real world factors are included in the simulation, including representatives from various groups such as member states that topics for a crisis which can span all the committees of the conference.
Model UNs are often run using basic parliamentary procedure. This allows all delegates to be active participants. Common activities in MUN involve giving speeches to the committee and writing resolutions concerning a given topic. Additionally, at the end of longer conferences, awards are commonly given to either individual delegates, delegations, or both. The judging of this varies. For example, American conferences on the West Coast, such as BMUN, give delegates points for every action they perform, which are added. At the end of the conference, awards are given to the highest point scorer. On the other hand, conferences on the East Coast such as the Harvard National Model United Nations, delegates are judged in a more holistic manner, but perhaps to the detriment of objectivity and transparency. Giving awards is less common at smaller conferences. In addition, many larger conferences do not give awards at all, feeling that competition detracts from the simulation experience. Model U.N Conferences are also held in countries like India where the scope and participation has expanded.
Model United Nations groups are usually organized as either a club, conference, or class. A class can be a full semester class called "Model United Nations" or just one class period devoted to a short simulation; secondary schools may often incorporate the club of Model United Nations with the class of AP Comparative Government and Politics. Meanwhile, a conference is a school-wide, local, regional or international gathering of Model United Nations students who come together over a period between one and five days. There are various formats which are followed in Model United Nations Conferences and the most widely used model was developed by Shivish Soni and has been adopted by various conferences all over the world.
An example of a one-day conference is a “scrimmage,” as created by Brian Ripley, Neal Carter and Andrea Grove. The key benefit of a one-day conference is the savings on lodging expenses “since it allows teams to travel to the host university without the need to pay for a hotel.”[3]
In the early days of Model United Nations, participants were mostly students at select colleges in theUnited States of America. Today, Model United Nations has greatly matured and expanded. It is now practiced all over the world in classes, clubs, and conferences. Model United Nation participants are elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate and doctoral students. Recently even university alumni and professionals have taken part. Participants come from public and private schools and universities, and they live in city, suburban and rural areas.
Over 90,000 students take part in Model United Nations Conferences in the United States.[4] TheUnited Nations Association of the United States of America (UNA-USA) has the most comprehensive calendar of Model United Nations conferences: the 2003-2004 edition lists 400+ conferences in 48 countries.[5]
Some simulations are small, including members of only a single class. For example, 20 students can do a one-hour simulation of the (15-member) United Nations Security Council in their classroom. Other simulations can be very large, involving many committees and taking place over the span of several days. The majority of conferences generally involve anywhere from 50 to several hundred delegates, with most students living around that one region. The largest conferences can have thousands of participants from many different countries. Each simulation and conference varies greatly in number of participants and their involvement.
The concept of Model United Nations has grown substantially all across the world, with various nations joining in. One example of this is Pakistan where a number of universities have a Model UN program.
The Dominican Republic is the only country to have incorporated the concept of Model UN into its official high-school curriculum. This is in large part due to the efforts of the United Nations Association of the Dominican Republic, which has harbored substantial support from the government despite being completely apolitical.

Position papers

A position paper (sometimes known as a Policy Statement) is an essay that is written by participants of some models. It describes the detailed position of a certain country on a topic or issue that the writer will debate in his or her committee. Position papers are not always required, but certain conferences mandate that each delegate send his own before the opening. It is also known as the (Foreign) Policy Statement or (F)PS.


Conferences have different format and styles for position papers. Nevertheless, UNA-USA established a format that has been adopted widely throughout the Model UN community. Most position papers consist of a heading with committee, topic, country and delegate information and body which explains in detail the position of the author's country. The position paper usually includes several pages outlining:
1.   Background of the Topic
2.   UN Involvement
3.   Country's Positions
4.   Possible Solution


The format and style of Model United Nations conferences differs greatly in different countries, however the principles remain the same. The largest differences can be observed between American conferences and English conferences. In America delegates are asked to prepare skeleton resolution and a series of clauses that they would like to introduce to others' skeleton resolutions. Over the course of the conference the approved skeleton resolutions will be built upon by a series of debated amendments until they are complete. At this stage voting procedure for the resolution as a whole will occur. However, in the UK delegates are asked to prepare entire resolutions. During lobbying delegates may wish to merge their resolutions with their fellow delegates in order to attain more signatures. Whilst resolutions are still amended during debating procedure, the process is much less pivotal; thus gaining support for the basic principles of the resolution is much more important. Another more minor difference is that in American MUN debating procedure delegates may interrupt the speaker whilst they are talking with a 'Point of Order', however in England delegates must wait until the delegate has come to his closing remarks before proceeding with their 'Point of Order'.


Position papers should explain an issue from their country's point of view. It is also good practice that they include statistics about the issue that would support the cause they defend. The paper would also try to convince the other countries of the committee to their view of the issue. It would have ways to solve the situation.[7]
Many conferences require delegates to submit a copy of their position paper, as a means to ensure that the delegates research important topics and construct strong and well-informed positions on those subjects, yet presentation is still a valuable component.


Model and civic simulation education are older than the United Nations. Records indicate that as early as the 1920s students in the United States of America were participating in collegiate simulations of the League of Nations, the predecessor to the United Nations. The modern day National Model United Nations in New York City and Harvard Model United Nations (HMUN) both began as simulations of theLeague of Nations in the 1920s. Though Harvard National Model United Nations (HNMUN), having been founded in 1955, often claims to be the world's oldest continuous College Model UN conference, the oldest continuous Collegiate Model UN conference is actually Model United Nations of the Far West, running annually since April 1951.[8] The world's oldest continuous High School Model UN conferences are the Indianapolis Model United Nations[9] and the Berkeley Model United Nations, both founded in 1952. The National Model United Nations is one of the world's largest conferences with over 5,000 participants and is most unique with a part of the conference held at the United Nations in New York City. While National Model UN hosts opening ceremonies at the UN, UNA-USA is the only organization to host actual sessions in UN committee rooms. UNA-USA As the League of Nations was dismantled and the United Nations was born in 1945, simulations of the League of Nations were transformed into Model United Nations. Some conferences still perform historical simulations, however, including League of Nations crisis situations. These simulations now have grown to over 3000 and 2000 annual participants. The largest conference to date is THIMUN, attracting over 4,200 participants each year.


While simulations are conducted in many different languages, there are six official languages of the UN. Generally, a simulation is conducted in the most spoken language or languages of the area in which the conference is being held. Normally only one language is used. Translators are not normally used.
Model UN is supported by many organizations, private groups, non-governmental organizations, inter-governmental organizations, and national governments. United Nations Associations around the world and its international organization, the World Federation of United Nations Associations (WFUNA), have supported MUNs for decades. WFUNA organized the first collegiate MUN in China and works with MUNs all over the world. In the United States, the main support is given by UNA-USA's Global Classrooms program.[10] Global Classrooms offers professional development workshops for educators and four curricula on peacekeeping, human rights, sustainable development, and the economics of globalization. UNA-Dominican Republic introduced MUN to the Dominican Republic and it is now a part of the national education curriculum. In Europe, support comes from THIMUN, which has affiliate conferences throughout Europe and around the world. MUN International has just created a new global membership association to help "expand and increase MUN activities"; the MUN International Network and has aided conferences in Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, and the US. Rotary International chapters around the world support MUNs, (e.g., the first international MUN in Hong Kong was organized and funded by three local Rotary Chapters.)
Many intergovernmental organizations also support MUN activities. The European Union published a policy paper just for Model UN participants. The Organization of American States oversaw the earliest Model OAS conferences. NATO often provides speakers and experts to Model NATO conferences. The United Nations Department of Public Information (UNDPI) supports Model United Nations in three key ways:
   the Model United Nations Discussion Area on the United Nations CyberSchoolBus
   the Public Inquiries Section in New York
   the United Nations of the United Nations conferences to use its rooms for committee space.
The CyberSchoolBus is the on-line education program created by the United Nations. It features a Model United Nations discussion area and a list of Model United Nations experts who answer inquiries as well as providing research tools for country research. UNA-USA offers an online guide to the UN CyberSchoolBus.
The Public Inquiries Section at UNHQ assists by helping Model United Nations groups to find speakers as well as arranging briefings at its New York offices. UNICs in Argentina, Mexico, Panama, and the UK have been extremely involved in Model United Nations activities, helping with research, Model United Nations support, and sometimes facilities. United Nations offices in The Hague,Netherlands; Nairobi, Kenya; Istanbul, Turkey; Vienna, Austria; and Geneva, Switzerland, also support Model United Nations and serve as hosts for at least one conference each year.
The Organization of American States has been involved from the very beginning in the support to international civic simulations. North Atlantic Treaty Organization annually supports the Model NATO conference in Washington, DC with speakers, consultations, and advisers. Other IGOs provide research assistance to simulations, conferences, and students. Additionally, many UN missions and embassies support Model United Nations activities. Many mission and embassy websites have recently added sections created specifically for Model United Nations. Embassies and consulates will often invite groups to discuss country positions or send a speaker out to speak to Model United Nations clubs, classes, or conferences. The overall support of simulation education activities by the international community is increasing yearly.
Additionally, national governments support or sponsor MUN programs. The US Department of State has been working in Washington, DC public schools for over fifteen years as well as providing speakers to MUN conferences around the world. In the Dominican Republic, MUN is part of the national education curriculum. Embassies and UN missions around the world have been providing consultation, speakers, and research documents for over forty years. Many have even reviewed students' MUN resolutions for policy accuracy.

MUN Vocabulary

Abstain. During a vote on a substantive matter, delegates may abstain rather than vote yes or no. This generally signals that a state does not support the resolution being voted on, but does not oppose it enough to vote no. Frequently abstaining is banned in Model UN sessions for minor substantive matters, such as amendments or amendments to the 2nd degree, in order to force progress in a resolution.
Adjourn. All UN or Model UN sessions end with a vote to adjourn... This means that the debate is suspended until the next meeting. This can be a short time (e.g., overnight) or a long time (until next year's conference).
Agenda. The order in which the issues before a committee will be discussed. The first duty of a committee following the roll call is usually to set the agenda.
Amendment. A change to a draft resolution on the floor. Can be of two types: a "friendly amendment" is supported by the original draft resolution's sponsors, and is passed automatically, while an "unfriendly amendment" is not supported by the original sponsors and must be voted on by the committee as a whole.
Amendment to the 2nd Degree. A change to the draft amendment on the floor. Can also be either a "friendly" or an "unfriendly" amendment. In some formats of debate, passing the amendment to the 2nd degree is equivalent to passing the original amendment; in others it merely means debate continues on the now altered amendment. In the Security Council amendments can be permitted to multiple degrees in order to allow an amendment to be designed to be acceptable to all countries.
Background guide. A guide to a topic being discussed in a Model UN committee usually written by conference organizers and distributed to delegates before the conference. The starting point for any research before a Model UN conference.
Binding. Having legal force in UN member states. Security Council resolutions are binding, as are decisions of the International Court of Justice; resolutions of the General Assembly and Economic and Social Council are not.
Bloc. A group of countries in a similar geographical region or with a similar opinion on a particular topic.
Caucus. A break in formal debate in which countries can more easily and informally discuss a topic. There are two types: moderated caucus and unmoderated caucus.
Chair. A member of the dais that moderates debate, keeps time, rules on points and motions, and enforces the rules of procedure. Also known as a Moderator.
Dais. The group of people, usually high school or college students, in charge of a Model UN committee. It generally consists of a Chair, a Director, and a Rapporteur.
Decorum. The order and respect for others that all delegates at a Model UN conference must exhibit. The Chair will call for decorum when he or she feels that the committee is not being respectful of a speaker, of the dais, or of their roles as ambassadors.
Delegate. A student acting as a representative of a member state or observer in a Model UN committee for a weekend.
Delegation. The entire group of people representing a member state or observer in all committees at a particular Model UN conference.
Director. A member of the dais that oversees the creation of working papers and draft resolutions, acts as an expert on the topic, makes sure delegates accurately reflect the policy of their countries, and ensures that decorum is maintained during caucuses.
Division of the question. During voting bloc, delegates may motion to vote on certain clauses of a resolution separately, so that only the clauses that are passed become part of the final resolution. This is known as division of the question.
Draft resolution. A document that seeks to fix the problems addressed by a Model UN committee. If passed by the committee, the draft resolution will become a resolution.
Faculty adviser. The faculty member in charge of a Model UN team, class or club.
Flow of debate. The order in which events proceed during a Model UN conference. See Flow of Debate chart.
Gavel. The tool, shaped like a small wooden hammer, that the Chair uses to keep order within a Model UN committee. Many conferences give the gavel used in a committee to the delegate recognized by the dais as the best in that committee; therefore, the term is frequently used to refer to the award given to the best delegate, even in cases where no actual gavel is given.
Formal debate. The "standard" type of debate at a Model UN conference, in which delegates speak for a certain time in an order based on a speakers' list.
Head delegate/ambassador. The student leader of a Model UN club or team. Responsible for ceremonial actions required of the delegation at a conference or answering specific questioning, such as in the Security Council.
Member state. A country that has ratified the Charter of the United Nations and whose application to join has been accepted by the General Assembly and Security Council. Currently, there are 193 member states. The only internationally recognized state that is not a member state is the Holy See.
Moderated caucus. A type of caucus in which delegates remain seated and the Chair calls on them one at a time to speak for a short period of time, enabling a freer exchange of opinions than would be possible in formal debate.
Moderator. See Chair.
Motion. A request made by a delegate that the committee as a whole do something. Some motions might be to go into a caucus, to adjourn, to introduce a draft resolution, or to move into voting bloc. See our Charts of Rules and Motions.
Observer. A state, national organization, regional organization, or non-governmental organization that is not a member of the UN but participates in its debates. Observers can vote on procedural matters but not substantive matters. An example is the Holy See.
On the floor. At a Model UN conference, when a working paper or draft resolution is first written, it may not be discussed in debate. After it is approved by the Director and introduced by the committee, it is put "on the floor" and may be discussed.
Operative clause. The part of a resolution which describes how the UN will address a problem. It begins with an action verb (decides, establishes, recommends, etc.).
Page. A delegate in a Model UN committee that has volunteered to pass notes from one delegate to another, or from a delegate to the dais, for a short period of time.
Placard. A piece of cardstock with a country's name on it that a delegate raises in the air to signal to the Chair that he or she wishes to speak.
Point. A request raised by a delegate for information or for an action relating to that delegate. Examples include a point of order, a point of inquiry, and a point of personal privilege. See our Charts of Rules and Motions.
Position paper. A summary of a country's position on a topic, written by a delegate before a Model UN conference.
Preambulatory clause. The part of a resolution that describes previous actions taken on the topic and reasons why the resolution is necessary. It begins with a participle or adjective (noting, concerned, regretting, aware of, recalling, etc.).
Procedural. Having to do with the way a committee is run, as opposed to the topic being discussed. All delegates present must vote on procedural matters and may not abstain.
Quorum. The minimum number of delegates needed to be present for a committee to meet. In the General Assembly, a quorum consists of one third of the members to begin debate, and a majority of members to pass a resolution. In the Security Council, no quorum exists for the body to debate, but nine members must be present to pass a resolution.
Rapporteur. A member of the dais whose duties include keeping the speakers' list and taking the roll call.
Resolution. A document that has been passed by an organ of the UN that aims to address a particular problem or issue. The UN equivalent of a law.
Right of reply. A right to speak in reply to a previous speaker's comment, invoked when a delegate feels personally insulted by another delegate's speech. Generally requires a written note to the Chair to be invoked.
Roll call. The first order of business in a Model UN committee, during which the Rapporteur reads aloud the names of each member state in the committee. When a delegate's country's name is called, he or she may respond "present" or "present and voting." A delegate responding "present and voting" may not abstain on a substantive vote.
Rules of procedure. The rules by which a Model UN committee is run. See our Charts of Rules and Motions.
Second. To agree with a motion being proposed. Many motions must be seconded before they can be brought to a vote.
Secretariat. The most senior staff of a Model UN conference.
Secretary-General. The leader of a Model UN conference.
Signatory. A country that wishes a draft resolution to be put on the floor and signs the draft resolution to accomplish this. A signatory need not support a resolution; it only wants it to be discussed. Usually, Model UN conferences require some minimum number of sponsors and signatories for a draft resolution to be approved.
Simple majority. 50% plus one of the number of delegates in a committee. The amount needed to pass most votes.
Speakers' list. A list that determines the order in which delegates will speak. Whenever a new topic is opened for discussion, the Chair will create a speakers' list by asking all delegates wishing to speak to raise their placards and calling on them one at a time. During debate, a delegate may indicate that he or she wishes to be added to the speakers' list by sending a note to the dais.
Sponsor. One of the writers of a draft resolution. A friendly amendment can only be created if all sponsors agree.
Substantive. Having to do with the topic being discussed. A substantive vote is a vote on a draft resolution or amendment already on the floor during voting bloc. Only member states (not observer states or non-governmental organizations) may vote on substantive issues.
Unmoderated caucus. A type of caucus in which delegates leave their seats to mingle and speak freely. Enables the free sharing of ideas to an extent not possible in formal debate or even a moderated caucus. Frequently used to sort countries into blocs and to write working papers and draft resolutions.
Working paper. A document in which the ideas of some delegates on how to resolve an issue are proposed. Frequently the precursor to a draft resolution.
Veto. The ability, held by China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States to prevent any draft resolution in the Security Council from passing by voting no.
Vote. A time at which delegates indicate whether they do or do not support a proposed action for the committee. There are two types: procedural and substantive.
Voting bloc. The period at the end of a committee session during which delegates vote on proposed amendments and draft resolutions. Nobody may enter or leave the room during voting bloc.
Title: Oracle Academy Offers Oracle DBA (10g Administrator)
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Great opportunity...
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Title: Sunnah of Sleeping
Post by: rumman on November 26, 2012, 01:21:13 PM
Sunnah of Sleeping
--------------- -------------
1. Do Miswaaq Before Going Sleep
2. Sleeping With Wudhu Is A Sunnah
3. Shake Your Blanket
4. Recite The Sleeping DUA - Allahumma Bismika Amutu Wa Ahya
5. Don't Sleep On Your Stomach As It Is The Way Of The People Of HELL & Is Not Liked By ALLAH Azwajal
8. Sleep On Your Right Side With Your Right Hand On Your Cheek
9. Recite Surah Al-Fatiha, Ayat-ul-
Kursi, SuratAl-Ikhlas, Surat Al-Falaq, Surat Al-Naas: 3 Times - Blow On Hands And Rub On You Body
10. SubhanAllah 33 Times, Alhamdu lillah 33 Times, Allahu Akbar 34 Times
11. Recite Darood Shareef
12. Try To Wake Up Early For Tahajjud
13. Don't Forget To Set Your Alarm For Fajr Salah
Always Remember - Salah Is Better Than Sleep
Before Sleep Please Dont Forget Recite These Things

Title: Re: Sunnah of Sleeping
Post by: Md. Khairul Bashar on November 26, 2012, 01:33:28 PM
thank you sir for your such great post.
Title: Re: Sunnah of Sleeping
Post by: najim on November 26, 2012, 02:48:17 PM

ঘুমানো ও জাগ্রত হওয়ার আদব

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ঘুম আল্লাহ তাআলার একটি বিশাল নেয়ামত , এর মাধ্যমে তিনি নিজ বান্দাদের উপর বিরাট অনুগ্রহ করেছেন। এবং তাদের জন্য সহজ করে দিয়েছেন। আর নেয়ামতের দাবি হল শুকরিয়া আদায় করা তথা কৃতজ্ঞতা প্রকাশ করা। আল্লাহ তাআলা বলেন :

وَمِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿73﴾ (القصص 73)

তিনিই স্বীয় রহমতে তোমাদের জন্যে রাত ও দিন করেছেন যাতে তোমরা রাত্রে বিশ্রাম গ্রহণ কর ও তার অনুগ্রহ অন্বেষণ কর এবং যাতে তোমরা কৃতজ্ঞতা প্রকাশ কর। [1]

 وقال سبحانه وَجَعَلْنَا نَوْمَكُمْ سُبَاتًا. ﴿النبأ : ৯﴾

আল্লাহ তাআলা আরও বলেন:তোমাদের নিদ্রাকে করেছি ক্লান্তি দূরকারী। [2]

দিনের ক্লান্তিকর চলাফেরার পর রাত্রে শরীরের প্রশান্তি শরীর সুস্থ থাকাকে সাহায্য করে।অনুরূপ ভাবে শরীরের বর্ধন এবং কর্ম চাঞ্চল্যতেও সাহায্য করে। যাতে করে ঐ দায়িত্ব পালন করতে পারে যার জন্য আল্লাহ তাআলা তাকে সৃষ্টি করেছেন।

মানুষের বেঁচে থাকার জন্যে যা কিছু অতি জরুরী ঘুম তার অন্যতম। মুমিন বান্দা যদি ঘুমের মাধ্যমে দেহ ও মনকে আরাম দেওয়ার নিয়ত করে , যাতে করে সে আল্লাহ তাআলার আনুগত্যের বিষয়ে আরো দৃঢ় হতে পারে। অতঃপর ঘুমের সমস্ত সুন্নত ও শরয়ী আদব পরিপূর্ণ রূপে পালন করার চেষ্টা করে , তবে তার ঘুম এবাদত হিসাবে পরিগণিত হবে এবং সে পুণ্য লাভ করবে।

সাহাবী মুআয বিন জাবাল রা. বলতেন :―

أما أنا فأنام وأقوم، فأحتسب نومتي كما أحتسب قومتي.البخاري (৩৯৯৮)

আর আমি (রাতে) ঘুমাই এবং জাগ্রত হয়ে সালাত আদায় করি, জাগ্রত থেকে সালাত আদায়ের মাধ্যমে যে ভাবে ছাওয়াবের আশা করি ঠিক তেমনি করে ঘুমানোর মাধ্যমেও ছাওয়াবের আশা করি।  [3]

ইবনে হাজার র. বলেন এর অর্থ হল:

তিনি আরামের ভিতর পুণ্য আশা করতেন যেমন কষ্টের ভিতর আশা করতেন। কেননা, আরামের উদ্দেশ্য যদি এবাদত করার জন্য সাহায্য সঞ্চয় করা হয়, তবে সে আরামের দ্বারা পুণ্য হবে। এখানে মুয়ায ইবনে জাবাল রা.-এর জাগ্রত হওয়ার দ্বারা উদ্দেশ্য হল রাতের নামায।

ঘুমের কতিপয় আদব এবং বিধান:
(১) অধিক রাত্রি জাগরণ না করে দ্রুত ঘুমিয়ে পড়া মোস্তাহাব ―

রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম এশার নামাযের পূর্বে ঘুমানো এবং নামাযের পর অহেতুক গল্প-গুজব করাকে খুব অপছন্দ করতেন । [4]

কিন্তু ভাল ও নেক কাজের জন্য এশার পরে জাগ্রত থাকাতে কোন ক্ষতি নেই। যেমন মেহমানের সাথে কথা বলা অথবা ইলমী আলোচনা করা অথবা পরিবারকে সময় দেওয়া ইত্যাদি। মোটকথা, যে জাগ্রত থাকা কোন ক্ষতির কারণ হবে না যেমন ফজরের নামায নষ্ট হয়ে যাওয়া, সে জাগ্রত থাকাতে কোন ক্ষতি নেই।

তাড়াতাড়ি ঘুমানোর উপরকারিতা

ক) সুন্নতের অনুসরণ।

খ) শরীরকে আরাম দেওয়া, কেননা দিনের ঘুম রাত্রের ঘুমের ঘাটতি পূরণ করতে পারে না।

গ) ফজরের নামাযের জন্য খুব সহজে এবং পূর্ণ শক্তি ও চাঞ্চল্যতার সাথে জাগ্রত হওয়া যায়।

ঘ) তাহাজ্জুদের নামাযের জন্য শেষ রাতে জাগ্রত হতে ইচ্ছুক ব্যক্তির জন্য এটি বড় সহায়ক ।

কেননা রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বারা ইবনে আযেব রা.-কে বলেছিলেন―

«إذا أخذت مضجعك فتوضأ وضوءك للصلاة». مسلم (৪৮৮৪)

যখন তুমি বিছানায় যাবে তখন নামাযের ওযুর মত ওযু করবে।  [5]

কেননা রাসূল সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন :―

 ثم أضطجع على شقك الأيمن.

অতঃপর ডান কাত হয়ে ঘুমাও।

কেননা রাসূল সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন :―

إنها ضجعة يبغضها الله عز وجل.

এটি এমন শয়ন, যাকে আল্লাহ তাআলা  খুব অপছন্দ করেন।

যিকির তথা আল্লাহর নাম নেয়া ব্যতীত ঘুমানো মাকরূহ।

আবু হুরাইরা রা. থেকে বর্ণিত―

ومن اضطجع مضجعا لم يذكر الله تعالى فيه إلا كان عليه من الله تِرَة يوم القيامة» أبو داود (৪৪০০)

যে ব্যক্তি আল্লাহর যিকির ছাড়া শুয়ে পড়বে কিয়ামতের দিন আল্লাহ তাআলার পক্ষ থেকে আক্ষেপের বিষয় হবে। [6]

হাদীসে বর্ণিত (ঘুমানোর সময়ের) কিছু দোয়া:
ক) আয়াতুল কুরসী পড়া।

عن أبي هريرة  قال: وكّلني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بحفظ زكاة رمضان، فأتاني آت فجعل يحثو من الطعام... وذكر الحديث، وفيه أن هذا الآتي قال له: إذا أويت إلى فراشك فاقرأ آية الكرسي، فإنه لن يزال معك من الله تعالى حافظ، ولا يقربك شيطان حتى تصبح، فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: «صدقك، وهو كذوب، ذاك شيطان».البخاري (৩০৩৩)

অর্থাৎ আবু হুরাইরা রা. বলেন : রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম আমাকে রমযানের ফিতরা সংরক্ষণের দায়িত্ব দিলেন। কোন এক আগন্তুক আমার কাছে আসল, এবং অঞ্জলি ভরে খাবার (চুরি) সংগ্রহ করতে লাগল।... এরপর পূর্ণ হাদীস বর্ণনা করেন। -তাতে আছে- আগন্তুক তাকে বলল : তুমি যখন তোমার বিছানায় যাবে তো আয়াতুল কুরসী পড়বে, কেননা এর মাধ্যমে সর্বক্ষণ তোমার সাথে আল্লাহ তাআলার পক্ষ থেকে একজন হেফাজতকরী থাকবে এবং সকাল পর্যন্ত শয়তান তোমার কাছে ঘেঁসতে পারবে না।

 রাসূল সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বললেন: তোমাকে সত্য বলেছে অথচ সে বড় মিথ্যাবাদী। সে হচ্ছে শয়তান।[7]

খ) সূরা এখলাস, সূরা ফালাক এবং সূরা নাস পড়া।

আয়েশা রা. বর্ণনা করেন:

أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان إذا أوى إلى فراشه- كل ليلة – جمع كفيه ثم نفث فيهما، وقرأ فيهما ]قل هو الله أحد[ و ]قل أعوذ برب الفلق[ و ]قل أعوذ برب الناس[، ثم مسح بهما ما استطاع من جسده، بدأ بهما على رأسه ووجهه وما أقبل من جسده، يفعل ذلك ثلاث مرات. . الترمذي (৩৩২৪)

নবী সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম যখন প্রতি রাত্রিতে নিজ বিছানায় যেতেন দুই হাতের কবজি পর্যন্ত একত্রিত করতেন অতঃপর তারমাঝে ফু দিতেন এবং সূরা এখলাস, সূরা ফালাক ও সূরা নাস পড়তেন । অতঃপর দুই হাত যথা সম্ভব সমস্ত শরীরে মলে দিতেন। মাথা ,চেহারা এবং শরীরের সামনের অংশ থেকে শুরু করতেন। এরূপ পরপর তিনবার করতেন। [8]

গ) اللهم باسمك أموت وأحيا দোআটি পড়া।

অর্থাৎ হে আল্লাহ আপনার নামে মৃত্যবরণ করলাম এবং আপনার নামেই জীবিত হব।

ঘ) নিম্নোক্ত দোআটি পড়া।

«اللهم أسلمت نفسي إليك، وفوّضت أمري إليك، وألجأت ظهري إليك، رغبة ورهبة إليك، لا ملجأ ولا مَنجى منك إلا إليك، آمنت بكتابك الذي أنزلت، ونبيّك الذي أرسلت».البخاري (৫৮৩৬)

―বলা। অর্থাৎ, হে আল্লাহ আমি নিজেকে আপনার কাছে সঁপে দিয়েছি। আমার বিষয় আপনার কাছে সোপর্দ করেছি। আমার পিঠ আপনার সাহায্যে দিয়েছি আপনার প্রতি আশা এবং ভয় নিয়ে, আশ্রয় নেয়ার ও আপনার শাস্তি থেকে বাঁচার মত জায়গা  আপনি ছাড়া আর কেউ নেই।  আমি ঈমান এনেছি আপনার অবতীর্ণ কিতাবের প্রতি এবং আপনার প্রেরিত নবীর প্রতি। [9]

ক) বাম দিকে তিন বার থুতু ফেলবে।

খ) أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم বলে আল্লাহ তাআলার কাছে আশ্রয় চাইবে।

গ) এ স্বপ্নের কথা কাউকে বলবে না।

ঘ) যে কাতে শোয়া ছিল সে কাত থেকে ঘুরে শোবে অর্থাৎ পার্শ্ব পরিবর্তন করে শোবে।

ঙ) নামাজে দাঁড়িয়ে যাবে।

ইমাম ইবনুল কাইয়্যিম র. এ পাঁচটি কাজ উল্লেখ করে বলেন :

যে এই কাজগুলো করবে খারাপ স্বপ্ন তার ক্ষতি করতে পারবে না বরং এ কাজ তার ক্ষতি দূর করে দেবে।

রাসূলুল্লাহ সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম বলেন:

«مروا أولادكم بالصلاة وهم أبناء سبع سنين، واضربوهم عليها وهم أبناء عشر، وفرّقوا بينهم في المضاجع».أبوداود ( ৪১৮)

অর্থাৎ তোমরা তোমাদের সন্তানদেরকে নামাযের আদেশ দাও যখন তাদের বয়স সাত বৎসর হবে এবং এর জন্য তাদেরকে শাস্তি দাও যখন তাদের বয়স দশ বৎসর হবে এবং তাদের বিছানা আলাদা করে দাও।  [10]

এ ব্যাপারে চেষ্টা করা এবং এতে সহায়তাকারী উপকরণাদি গ্রহন করা তার জন্য ওয়াজিব।

سئل النبي  عن رجل نام حتى أصبَح؟ قال: «ذاك رجل بال الشيطان في أذنيه».النسائي (১৫৯০)

এক ব্যক্তি ফজর পর্যন্ত ঘুমিয়ে ছিল তার সম্পর্কে রাসূল সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লামকে প্রশ্ন করা হল। রাসূল বললেন : ঐ ব্যক্তির কর্ণ-দ্বয়ে শয়তান প্রস্রাব করে দিয়েছে। [11]

: «الحمد لله الذي أحيانا بعد ما أماتنا وإليه النشور.

«الحمد لله الذي ردّ علي روحي وعافاني في جسدي، وأذِن لي بذكره»،

সকল প্রশংসা ঐ আল্লাহর জন্য যিনি আমাকে মৃত্যু দেয়ার পর জীবিত করে দিয়েছেন এবং তার কাছেই ফিরে যাব।

সমস্ত প্রশংসা ঐ আল্লা­র জন্য যিনি আমার আত্মাকে আমার নিকট ফিরিয়ে দিয়েছেন , আমার শরীরেকে সুস্থ রেখেছেন এবং আমাকে তার স্মরণের অনুমতি দিয়েছেন।

 অতঃপর রাসূল সাল্লাল্লাহু আলাইহি ওয়াসাল্লাম-এর অনুকরণে মিসওয়াক করবে।

[1] আল কাসাস : ৭৩

[2] আন নাবা  : ৯

[3] বোখারি : ৩৯৯৮

[4] বোখারি : ৫১৪

[5] মুসলিম : ৪৮৮৪

[6] আবু দাউদ : ৪৪০০

[7] বোখারি : ৩০৩৩

[8] তিরমিজি : ৩৩২৪

[9] বোখারি : ৫৮৩৬

[10] আবু দাউদ : ৪১৮

[11] নাসায়ী : ১৫৯০

Title: How teachers cultivate young scientists
Post by: tamim_saif on November 27, 2012, 01:15:27 PM
source: SSP Fellows share tips on how to introduce research into the classroom By Erin Wayman / October 4, 2012
High school biology teacher Randa Flinn sent four students to the Florida state science fair this year, the most representatives of any public school in her district. One of those students, a junior, returned home with a blue ribbon for her investigation of the vulnerability of nematodes to a bacterial parasite. A year earlier, six of Flinn’s students placed at a regional science fair — the first time in more than a quarter century that a student from her school, Northeast High School in Oakland Park, had won any science fair award.

This surge in science-fair success didn’t come out of nowhere. It emerged after Flinn introduced a course on conducting scientific research to Northeast’s curriculum. The class was made possible by an $8,500 grant Flinn received as part of her 2010 fellowship with Society for Science & the Public, or SSP (publisher of Science News for Kids). Two years later, the school and its students are still reaping benefits.

With support from Intel, these fellowships help science teachers foster independent research by under-resourced students. In addition to the grant, SSP Fellows attend a weeklong institute — essentially a summer training session — in Washington, D.C. There they learn how to get their students involved in conducting research.

The 2012 SSP Fellows meet with John Holdren, President Obama’s senior advisor on science and technology. Credit: SSP
The goal of these fellowships is not necessarily to churn out more science fair winners (although that’s a welcome outcome). Rather, the goal is to educate teachers on how to guide students into their own scientific research.

Such investigations help students better understand how science works and get them excited about the subject. At the same time, such inquiries can sharpen a student’s ability to communicate and think critically.

“Are we going to make scientists out of all students? No. But can we make them all better problem-solvers? That’s the goal,” says 2012 SSP Fellow Denise Gordon, a science teacher at the Applied Learning Academy in Forth Worth, Texas.

The SSP Fellowship is one way for teachers to kick-start student research. “It helped me immensely,” says Flinn. But it’s not the only way to get started. Current and past SSP Fellows share advice on how to bring student research into any classroom.

Why student research?

Exploding baking-soda volcanoes. Dissecting frogs. Bending the flow of water from a faucet with a recently used comb. These are the types of activities that probably come to mind when kids — even at the high school level — think of scientific research. Although such experiments are educational and sometimes even investigative, they aren’t research. That’s because they all have predetermined outcomes. Instead, such demonstrations are really meant to help visualize scientific concepts.

However, “That’s not what scientists do. They’re looking for something new,” science teacher Bill Wallace of the Georgetown Day School in Washington, D.C., explained at the 2012 Fellows Institute in August.

Allowing kids to ask questions, study background information on a problem and then test their own predictions reveals the true nature of scientific inquiry. Along the way, tweens and teens will learn that biology, chemistry, physics and earth science are not static bodies of knowledge, but enterprises that churn out new discoveries every day.

Conducting research also helps kids become independent learners, Gordon says. “The hope is [that] they design and generate their own research rather than the teacher telling them what to do. It empowers the students.”

During the research process, students learn how to interpret, explain and share experimental results — skills that prepare them for college. “They need to know how to write, how to read and analyze sources and they need to know how to problem-solve,” says Steven Wilkie, a 2012 SSP Fellow and marine sciences teacher at South Fort Myers High School in Fla. Yet “we don’t teach them that,” he says, because the emphasis is instead on preparing kids to pass state tests.

SSP Fellows Steven Wilkie and Dollie Bergen work on an experiment with pill bugs during the 2012 Fellows Institute. Studying the behavior of pill bugs in a “choice chamber” — two connected petri dishes — familiarizes students with research. Kids predict what the bugs will do when the environment of one chamber is altered, with food or water, for example. Credit: SSP
But state standards don’t have to be a barrier to adding research to science classes; they can be a justification for it.

Because a science project requires skill in math, reading and writing — core subjects on most standardized tests — research can be “a way to take the standards and embed them across the curriculum,” argues Lillie Bryant, a 2012 SSP Fellow and biology teacher at Reed Resource Center School in Shuqualak, Miss. Indeed, Bryant convinced her school superintendent to let her build a student research program by explaining how it could help improve test scores.

Getting started

Not all science teachers have the opportunity to create a class devoted to research methods. Still, there are ways to introduce students to the concepts of research in any conventional science class.

Fellows Lillie Bryant (left) and Denise Gordon (center) discuss the benefits of temperature probes with instructor Karen Pikula at the Fellows Institute. Credit: SSP
Perhaps the simplest way is to have kids read articles about new scientific discoveries in publications like Science News for Kids or Science News, suggested 2012 Fellows Institute instructor Cheryl Lindeman, a biology teacher at Central Virginia Governor’s School for Science and Technology in Lynchburg. Afterward, kids can discuss why a scientist wanted to investigate a particular question and then brainstorm potential follow-up studies — including hypotheses, predictions and methods to test those predictions. Even if the kids never get to do the projects, they’re still learning the steps of research and how to think like a scientist.

Introducing these concepts with a fun demonstration will grab kids’ attention. Retired physical science teacher Martin Shapiro, an instructor at the 2012 Fellows Institute, recommends the electric pickle experiment. He pierces a dill pickle with two metal skewers, then hooks them up to an electrical source. Before kids’ eyes, the pickle begins to glow (or ignite, if you’re not careful!). Prior to the big plug-in, he asks students to predict what will happen. Afterward, the class ruminates about why those predictions were — or were not — met.

Even seemingly more complicated aspects of experimentation, such as data analysis, can be easily included in these first forays into research.

Wallace likes to have his students study pill bugs, those roly-poly wood lice (from the genus Armadillidium). He instructs his students to introduce the bugs to “choice chambers,” essentially two enclosed petri dishes connected by a passageway. Kids are instructed to leave one chamber empty and alter the environment of the other by adding food or water, making it dark — whatever variable they want to test. Before adding bugs to both chambers, the students write a hypothesis explaining how they predict the roly-polys will react to the two environments.

Then, as the bugs move (or don’t) between chambers over the next 5 minutes, the students record at 30-second intervals how many roly-polys are in each petri dish. Afterward, they draw line graphs to illustrate their data. A class discussion on how to interpret what the graphs say about the pill bugs’ behavior demonstrates how scientists use such analyses to determine whether their results support their predictions. Having the students repeat this experiment several times also reinforces the idea that researchers need to replicate their tests to validate their findings.

This pill bug activity is “easy but open-ended and therefore an authentic research experience,” Wallace explains.

Making connections

Introducing research to an existing class is far easier than developing research courses that allow students to design their own science fair projects. Moving to the science-fair mode can also require more resources than many schools can afford. Therefore, teachers have to be on the lookout for additional partners and funding sources.

SSP Fellow Randa Flinn (center) participates in the 2010 Fellows Institute. At this annual intensive training session in Washington, D.C., science teachers from across the country learn how to guide students in their own scientific research. Credit: SSP
The SSP Fellowship is just one option. Many universities and science organizations offer grants for outreach programs aimed at fostering research. Flinn, for example, helped her school win a $9,570 Lemelson-MIT InvenTeams grant that allowed her students to develop a water filtration system. It relied on common, natural materials that could be used as part of some disaster relief program. Once she completed her first grant proposal, Flinn notes that it became much easier to write additional ones.

Sydney Bergman, a 2010 SSP Fellow and biology teacher at School Without Walls in Washington, D.C., says many professional development courses offer perks beyond the training  — such as access to libraries that loan teachers equipment and materials. For instance, the Milwaukee School of Engineering’s Center for BioMolecular Modeling sends teachers physical, three-dimensional models that demonstrate the structure of proteins, DNA and other molecules. The materials are free of charge; teachers just have to pay return shipping costs.

Thinking local is also key, Flinn adds. Ask local businesses, universities and community organizations to make donations to foster student research. “When they see wonderful kids doing wonderful things, they want to be a part of it,” she says. Not only does their support reflect well on community members, but once they take part, recruiting them in the future can be a far easier sell.

And keep in mind that donations don’t have to be monetary. University scientists and industry researchers make good student mentors, especially when it comes to science fair projects. But begin with small favors, Bergman recommends — like inviting them to give career talks or class demonstrations.

Developing a student research program can be overwhelming. That’s why all of the SSP Fellows emphasize the importance of starting small and building slowly. “Be patient,” Bergman says. “Don’t try to do everything at once.”
Title: Molla Nasreddin Hojja (মোল্লা নাসিরুদ্দিন হোজ্জা), a Seljuq satirical Sufi
Post by: Shamim Ansary on November 27, 2012, 09:29:03 PM

Nasreddin (Turkish: Nasreddin Hoca, Ottoman Turkish: نصر الدين خواجه, Persian: خواجه نصرالدین‎, Pashto: ملا نصرالدین‎, Arabic: نصرالدین جحا‎ / ALA-LC: Naṣraddīn Juḥā, Urdu: ملا نصرالدین ‎, Uzbek: Nosiriddin Xo'ja, Nasreddīn Hodja, Bosnian: Nasrudin Hodža) was a Seljuq satirical Sufi, believed to have lived and died during the 13th century in Akshehir, near Konya, a capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, in today's Turkey. He is considered a populist philosopher and wise man, remembered for his funny stories and anecdotes. He appears in thousands of stories, sometimes witty, sometimes wise, but often, too, a fool or the butt of a joke. A Nasreddin story usually has a subtle humour and a pedagogic nature. The International Nasreddin Hodja fest is celebrated between 5–10 July in his hometown every year

কে বেশি পেটুক
নাসিরুদ্দিন হোজ্জার বাড়িতে তাঁর কিছু বন্ধু এসেছেন। অতিথিদের তরমুজ দিয়ে আপ্যায়ন করলেন হোজ্জা। বন্ধুদের সঙ্গে খেতে বসলেন হোজ্জা নিজেও।
হোজ্জার পাশেই বসেছিলেন তাঁর এক দুষ্টু বন্ধু। তরমুজ খেয়ে খেয়ে বন্ধুটি হোজ্জার সামনে তরমুজের খোসা রাখছিলেন। খাওয়া শেষে দেখা গেল, হোজ্জার সামনে তরমুজের খোসার স্তূপ।
দুষ্টু বন্ধুটি অন্যদের বললেন, ‘দেখেছেন কাণ্ড? হোজ্জা কেমন পেটুক? তার সামনে তরমুজের খোসার স্তূপ হয়ে গেছে’!
হোজ্জা হেসে বললেন, ‘আর আমার বন্ধুটির সামনে দেখছি একটা খোসাও নেই! উনি খোসাশুদ্ধ খেয়েছেন! এখন আপনারাই বলুন, কে বেশি পেটুক!’

দেখতে বাধ্য
একদিন বাদশা হোজ্জাকে বললেন, ‘হোজ্জা, কাল থেকে আমি আর আয়নায় নিজের চেহারা দেখব না। আমার চেহারা যে এত বিচ্ছিরি, তা এত দিনে জানলাম।’
জবাবে হোজ্জা বললেন, ‘হুজুর, মাফ করবেন, আয়নায় নিজেকে দেখে বলছেন আপনি দেখতে বিচ্ছিরি। কিন্তু এই এত দিন সবাই আয়না ছাড়াই আপনাকে দেখতে বাধ্য হয়েছে।’
Title: England in India 2012-13 India retain squad for Kolkata Test
Post by: tamim_saif on November 28, 2012, 09:58:19 AM
India have retained 15 players from the squad that lost to England in Mumbai for the third Test at Eden Gardens, beginning in Kolkata on December 5. Fast bowler Umesh Yadav, who did not play the second Test because of a back injury, was not fit and hence left out.
The BCCI had on Monday said the selectors would pick the squad for the two remaining Tests and the two Twenty20 internationals that follow, but today's release said the selection for the fourth Test, in Nagpur, and the Twenty20 games will be made later.

[source: espnnews]
Title: Africa’s Food and Nutrition Security Situation
Post by: tamim_saif on November 28, 2012, 12:32:58 PM
[Todd Benson]

Food and nutrition security remain Africa’s most fundamental challenges for human welfare and for
economic growth. Far too many people on the continent are unable to acquire and effectively utilize at all times the food they need for a healthy life. In many countries, sufficient food to meet the needs of all citizens is not even available at a national level. In one-third of African countries the mean daily calorie availability per capita is below the recommended intake level of 2,100, and in DR Congo, Burundi, Eritrea, and Somalia calorie availability is below the minimum intake level of 1,800 . As a consequence of low food availability and profound poverty, an estimated 200 million people on the continent are undernourished or unable to meet their dietary energy requirements. Their numbers have increased by almost 20 percent since the early 1990s and doubled since the late 1960s.
Title: How strange!!
Post by: nmoon on November 28, 2012, 02:42:42 PM
Some of the Salaf said: How strange is the person who would protect himself from the heat of the summer in this life [but] not protect himself from the heat of the hellfire by staying away from sins? …

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (radiallaahu ‘anhu): The Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

    "In very hot weather, delay the Dhuhr till it becomes (a bit) cooler because the severity of the heat is from the raging of Hell-Fire.The hell-Fire of Hell complained to its Lord saying: O Lord! My parts are eating (destroying) one another. So Allaah allowed it to take two breaths, one in the winter and the other in the summer. The breath in the summer is at the time when you feel the severist heat and the breath in the winter is at the time when you feel the severest cold". [al-Bukharee] …

It is amazing. Then, it is amazing. Then, again, it is amazing that we know about the hellfire, and that we know about the Paradise. But where is the longing for the Paradise, and where is the fear (and desire to stay away) from the Hellfire? We ask Allaah ‘Azza Wa Jall that He awaken our hearts and that He rectify our souls, and that He make us from His slaves who take heed and have insight. And that He give us understanding of His religion and that He give us insight of His legislation. And that He take us by our forelock, and lead us to every good. …
Title: Re: How strange!!
Post by: fernaz on November 28, 2012, 03:49:53 PM
Very True!!!!
Title: Re: How strange!!
Post by: Md. Khairul Bashar on November 28, 2012, 04:15:37 PM
o Allah, please save us from hellfire.......................
Title: Study/Fund Finder links
Post by: TOFAZZAL on November 29, 2012, 02:59:30 AM
In the document I am summarizing some links with detailed information regarding study/course finders and funding opportunities. You will find detail informations in the different country-specific documents. Also, don't forget to check "Recent Vacancies".
Erasmus Mundus: http://on.fb.me/ErasmusMundusSch (http://on.fb.me/ErasmusMundusSch)
Netherlands: http://www.nuffic.nl/international-students/scholarships/grantfinder (http://www.nuffic.nl/international-students/scholarships/grantfinder)
UK: http://www.scholarship-search.org.uk,  http://www.jobs.ac.uk/ (http://www.scholarship-search.org.uk,  http://www.jobs.ac.uk/)
Germany: http://www.daad.de/deutschland/studienangebote/international-programmes/07535.en.html
Australia: http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/Scholarships (http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/Scholarships)
1.   http://www.hotcoursesusa.com/
2.   http://www.uniguru.com/
3.  http://www.univsource.com/ (http://www.univsource.com/)
Some guidelines mostly relevant Computer Science graduates looking for USA possibilties
http://www.cs.sfu.ca/~zha13/personal/grad.html (http://www.cs.sfu.ca/~zha13/personal/grad.html)
International Financial Aid & College Scholarships: http://www.iefa.org/ (http://www.iefa.org/)
Specially for BD students (at the left corner several scholarship links)

http://banglaworld.org/ (http://banglaworld.org/)
EURAXES (European Union's Official Site):You will find lot of PhD vacancies for all the European Unions Project.http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/index.cfm/jobs/index (http://ec.europa.eu/euraxess/index.cfm/jobs/index)
Europe: http://www.promodoc.eu/ (http://www.promodoc.eu/)
Bright recruitment://brightrecruits.com/
Nature Jobs: http://www.nature.com/naturejobs/science/welcome (http://www.nature.com/naturejobs/science/welcome)
Find a PhD: http://www.findaphd.com/
For EuropeAcademic Positions: http://www.academicpositions.eu/ (http://www.academicpositions.eu/)
PhD portal:  http://www.phdportal.eu/ (http://www.phdportal.eu/)
Specially for Netherlands http://www.academictransfer.com/ (http://forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd//www.academictransfer.com/)
Also, check the country specific documents and job sites of different universities.
Training classes/short courses
 http://www.training-classes.com/ (http://www.training-classes.com/)
List of Tuition Free Universities
http://freetuitionuniversities.com/ (http://forum.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd//freetuitionuniversities.com/)
Title: Re: How strange!!
Post by: Shamsuddin on November 29, 2012, 08:40:05 AM
True,Thank you for uploading this kind of massage !
Title: Scientists sniff out the substances behind the aroma in the 'king of fruits'
Post by: tamim_saif on November 29, 2012, 12:04:37 PM
Published: Wednesday, November 28, 2012 - 23:01 in Mathematics & Economics

The latest effort to decipher the unique aroma signature of the durian -- revered as the "king of fruits" in southeast Asia but reviled elsewhere as the world's foulest smelling food -- has uncovered several new substances that contribute to the fragrance. The research appears in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Martin Steinhaus and colleagues explain that durian, available in Asian food shops in the United States and elsewhere, has a creamy yellowish flesh that can be eaten fresh or used in cakes, ice cream and other foods. Some people relish the durian's smell. Others, however, regard it as nauseating, like rotten onions. Past research identified almost 200 volatile substances in durian. Lacking, however, was information on which of those make a contribution to the characteristic durian smell. The authors set out to identify the big chemical players in the durian's odor signature.

In doing so, they pinpointed 41 highly odor-active compounds, 24 of which scientists had not identified in durian before. Among the most prominent were substances associated with fruity, sweet, sulfurous and oniony smells. The oniony smelling odorants belonged to a compound class that had rarely been found in food before. Four of the newly discovered chemical compounds were previously unknown to science.

Source: American Chemical Society
Title: স্কাই স্মার্টপেন
Post by: Md. Khairul Bashar on November 29, 2012, 12:25:46 PM
‘স্কাই স্মার্টপেন’ নামে ক্ষুদ্র কম্পিউটারযুক্ত বিশেষ এক ধরনের কলম তৈরি করেছে যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের ডিজিটাল শিক্ষা উপকরণ নির্মাতা প্রতিষ্ঠান লাইভস্ক্রাইব। এ কলমের সঙ্গে যুক্ত মেমোরি কার্ডে প্রয়োজনীয় নোট সংরক্ষণ করে রাখা সম্ভব।

এক প্রতিবেদনে নিউ ইয়র্ক টাইমস জানিয়েছে, স্কাই স্মার্টপেনের ভেতরে যে ক্ষুদ্র কম্পিউটার যুক্ত রয়েছে তা মাইক্রোডট নামে বিশেষ ধরনের কাগজে লেখার সময় স্বয়ংক্রিয়ভাবে মেমোরি কার্ডে তথ্য সংরক্ষণ করে। স্কাই স্মার্টপেনে নোট লেখার সময় তা ওয়াই-ফাই বা তারবিহীন পদ্ধতিতে ডিজিটাল আর্কাইভ সার্ভিস এভারনোটেও সংরক্ষিত হতে থাকে।
কলমটিতে সর্বোচ্চ ৮ গিগাবাইট পর্যন্ত তথ্য সংরক্ষণ করার সুবিধা রয়েছে। পাশাপাশি এ কলমটি ব্যবহার করে ক্লাউড সেবা এভারনোটে ৫০০ গিগাবাইট তথ্য রাখার সুবিধা পাওয়া যাবে। একবার ক্লাউডে তথ্য সংরক্ষণ করা হলে পরবর্তীতে সেখান থেকে যেকোনো কম্পিউটার, আইওএস নির্ভর পণ্য ও অ্যান্ড্রয়েডনির্ভর স্মার্টফোনে অডিও শোনা বা নোট পড়া যাবে। লেখার পাশাপাশি এ কলমটি ব্যবহার করে অডিও শোনার ব্যবস্থাও রয়েছে। নির্মাতা প্রতিষ্ঠানের দাবি, শ্রেণীকক্ষ বা অনুষ্ঠানে এ কলম কাজে লাগানো যাবে। কলমটির সঙ্গে রয়েছে অতিরিক্ত দুটি কালির কার্টিজ, দুটি ক্যাপ, নোট লেখার জন্য মাইক্রোডট কাগজের নোটবুক ও কলমটি চার্জ দেওয়ার জন্য ইউএসবি কেবল। কলমটি বোতামের পরিবর্তে টাচ প্রযুক্তি নির্ভর।

৪ গিগাবাইট মডেলের স্কাই স্মার্টপেনের দাম ২০০ ডলার। অনলাইনে লাইভস্ক্রাইবের ওয়েবসাইট, আমাজন, বেস্ট বাই থেকে এ কলমটি কেনার সুবিধা রয়েছে।প্রযুক্তি বিশ্লেষকেরা জানিয়েছেন, কলমটির ব্যবহারে ট্যাবলেট ও কাগজের মধ্যকার ব্যবধান দূর হবে। নোটবুকে নোট লিখলে তা সরাসরি ট্যাবলেটে চলে যাবে বলে বাড়তি পরিশ্রম করতে হবে না।

Source: http://www.prothom-alo.com/detail/date/2012-11-21/news/307443

Title: Star Trek Classroom: Next Generation of School Desks
Post by: tamim_saif on November 29, 2012, 12:50:00 PM
This shows the SynergyNet classroom. (Credit: Durham University)

ScienceDaily (Nov. 2012) — Researchers designing and testing the 'classroom of the future' have found that multi-touch, multi-user desks can boost skills in mathematics.

New results from a 3-year project working with over 400 pupils, mostly 8-10 year olds, show that collaborative learning increases both fluency and flexibility in maths. It also shows that using an interactive 'smart' desk can have benefits over doing mathematics on paper.

Using multi-touch desks in the new classroom, the children were able to work together in new ways to solve and answer questions and problems using inventive solutions. Seeing what your friends are doing, and being able to fully participate in group activities, offers new ways of working in class, the researchers say.

The 'Star Trek classroom' could also help learning and teaching in other subjects.

The findings published in the journal Learning and Instruction, show that children who use a collaborative maths activity in the SynergyNet classroom improve in both mathematical flexibility and fluency, while children working on traditional paper-based activities only improve in flexibility.

During the project, the team found that 45% of students who used NumberNet increased in the number of unique mathematical expressions they created after using NumberNet, compared to 16% of students in the traditional paper-based activity.

Lead researcher, Professor Liz Burd, School of Education, said: "Our aim was to encourage far higher levels of active student engagement, where knowledge is obtained by sharing, problem-solving and creating, rather than by passive listening. This classroom enables both active engagement and equal access.

"We found our tables encouraged students to collaborate more effectively. We were delighted to observe groups of students enhancing others' understanding of mathematical concepts. Such collaboration just did not happen when students used paper-based approaches."

The Durham University team designed software and desks that recognize multiple touches on the desktop using vision systems that see infrared light. The project called SynergyNet set out to integrate a fully collaborative system of desks, building it into the fabric and furniture of the classroom. The new desks with a 'multi-touch' surface are the central component, and these are networked and linked to a main smartboard.

In terms of current teaching, the new system means that the 'move-to-use' whiteboard is by-passed and the new desks can be both screen and keyboard. The desks act like multi-touch whiteboards and several students can use any one desk at once.

The technology allows all students to take part as opposed to one individual dominating.

Researcher, Emma Mercier, School of Education, said: "Cooperative learning works very well in the new classroom because the pupils interact and learn in a different way. The children really enjoy doing maths in this way and are always disappointed when you turn the desks off!

"We can achieve fluency in maths through practice, however, boosting a pupil's ability to find a range of solutions to arithmetic questions is harder to teach. This classroom can help teachers to use collaborative learning to improve their pupils' flexibility in maths."

The teacher plays a key role in the classroom and can send tasks to different tables to individuals and groups. The teacher can also send one group's answers on to the next group to work on and add to, or to the board for a class discussion.

A live feed of the desks goes directly to the teacher who can intervene quickly to help an individual while allowing the group work to continue.

Professor Steve Higgins said: "Technology like this has enormous potential for teaching as it can help the teacher to manage and to orchestrate the learning of individuals and groups of learners to ensure they are both challenged and supported so that they can learn effectively."

Such a classroom may be some way off being a regular feature of schools across the world due to the costs in setting it up, and the level of support needed to make it work, however, in just 3 years the project team have noted major improvements in the technology, and a reduction in costs.

The researchers also recognise that task management in the class environment is an issue requiring thought and planning, but the overall potential of the new classroom for improved numeracy, learning, and on-going assessment is very good.

The project has worked with 12 different schools in the North East.

SynergyNet is one of eight technology enhanced learning research projects funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council as part of the £12M Teaching and Learning Research Programme into Technology Enhanced Learning.

The project is an inter-disciplinary collaboration at Durham University between the School of Education, the Department of Psychology and the Department of Computer Science.
Title: We really need a festival
Post by: nmoon on November 29, 2012, 03:16:41 PM
November through February is the winter season in Bangladesh. We like pitha specially in this season.
To see this yammy yammy pitha, i think all of you agree with me to arrange a pitha utshab to celebrate this winter.
Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: Md. Khairul Bashar on November 29, 2012, 03:59:33 PM
cakes looking delicious. i agree........
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Title: ACM ICPC, December in Dhaka
Post by: Mohammed Abu Faysal on December 01, 2012, 10:07:34 AM
ড্যাফোডিল ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ইউনিভার্সিটির স্বাগতিকতায় এশিয়া অঞ্চলের (ঢাকা সাইট) আন্তর্জাতিক মর্যাদাপূর্ণ প্রোগ্রামিং কনটেস্ট এসিএম-আইসিপিসি ২০১২ ঢাকায় র‌্যাডিসন ব্লু ওয়াটার গার্ডেন হোটেলে অনুষ্ঠিত হবে। গত সোমবার প্রেস কাবে আয়োজিত মিট দ্য প্রেসে অ্যাসোসিয়েশন অব কম্পিউটিং মেশিনারিজ-ইন্টারন্যাশনাল কলেজিয়েট প্রোাগ্রামিং কনটেস্ট এর বিস্তারিত তথ্য জানানো হয়েছে। এ প্রতিযোগিতার বিস্তারিত তথ্য তুলে ধরেন প্রোগ্রামিং প্রতিযোগিতার পরিচালক ড্যাফোডিল ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ইউনিভার্সিটির কম্পিউটার সায়েন্স অ্যান্ড ইঞ্জিনিয়ারিং বিভাগের বিভাগীয় প্রধান অধ্যাপক ড. সৈয়দ আকতার হোসেন। এ বছর ড্যাফোডিল ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ইউনিভার্সিটির স্বাগতিকতায় এশিয়া অঞ্চলের (ঢাকা সাইট) আন্তর্জাতিক মর্যাদাপূর্ণ প্রোগ্রামিং কনটেস্ট এসিএম-আইসিপিসি ২০১২ আগামী ৮ ডিসেম্বর শনিবার সকাল ৮টা থেকে রাত ১০টা পর্যন্ত অনুষ্ঠিত হবে। প্রিলিমিনারি রাউন্ড থেকে কোটাভিত্তিক বিবেচনায় এবং অতীতের সাফল্য ও পারফরম্যান্স মূল্যায়নে ৬৪টি সরকারি ও বেসরকারি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় ও ইনস্টিটিউটের সর্বোচ্চ ১৫০টি দল ঢাকা অঞ্চলের  মূলপর্বে অংশগ্রহণ করবে। এ ছাড়া চীন ও ভারত থেকে তিনটি দলও অংশগ্রহণ করবে। প্রতিযোগিতায় বিজয়ীরা পাবে ওয়ার্ল্ড ফাইনালস ২০১৩-এর মূলপর্বে অংশগ্রহণের সুযোগ। ঢাকা রিজিওনাল পর্বের প্রধান বিচারক হিসেবে থাকবেন শাহজালাল বিজ্ঞান ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের অধ্যাপক মোহাম্মদ জাফর ইকবাল, পরিচালকের দায়িত্ব পালন করবেন সাউথইস্ট ইউনিভার্সিটির শাহরিয়ার মনজুর এবং মুক্ত সফটওয়্যার লিমিটেডের মোহাম্মদ মাহমুদুর রহমান সহকারী পরিচালক (বিচারক) হিসেবে দায়িত্ব পালন করবেন। আয়োজক কমিটির কো-চেয়ারের দায়িত্বে রয়েছেন বাংলাদেশ প্রকৌশল বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের (বুয়েট) অধ্যাপক এম কায়কোবাদ এবং এসিএম কাউন্সিল বাংলাদেশের প্রধান সমন্বয়কারী এবং নর্থ সাউথ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ের অধ্যাপক আবুল এল হক। মিট দ্য প্রেসে সাংবাদিকদের বিভিন্ন প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেন ড্যাফোডিল ইন্টারন্যাশনাল ইউনিভার্সিটির বিজ্ঞান তথ্যপ্রযুক্তি অনুষদের ডিন অধ্যাপক এস এম মাহবুবুল হক মজুমদার, ডেপুটি রেজিস্ট্রার মোহাম্মদ ইমরান হোসেন ও ঊর্ধ্বতন সহকারী পরিচালক নাদির বিন আলী, কাউড স্পোকস্ এর পে উপস্থিত ছিলেন এমটিএক্স লিমিটেডের লিড সফটওয়্যার ইঞ্জিনিয়ার শারমিন আকতার ও থেরাপ সার্ভিসেস লিমিটেডের ডিরেক্টর সাজ্জাদ রফিক।

Ref: http://www.dailynayadiganta.com/new/?p=50506
Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: Shamsuddin on December 01, 2012, 09:26:07 PM
I think we should arrange some kind of Pitha utsob!
Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: Shamim Ansary on December 02, 2012, 09:44:50 AM
It is a regular event of the university. The next one will be kicked off soon.
Title: Re: How strange!!
Post by: tamim_saif on December 02, 2012, 11:07:36 AM

we should cry and cry to Almighty Allah for Hedayet which is the key to get najat.

If we want to do good, reject bad then Allah will help us to get Hedayet.

we have very short time and we r moving towards death very quickly.  So we should think what we r doing for our next life.

we come alone and go alone. But our activities will lead to Jannat or Jahannam.

 Let us try to remember that "i will die" 70 times per day.  it will definitely help us to do good for all.

Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: tamim_saif on December 02, 2012, 11:44:42 AM
we should really have this.

I feel really khudarto!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: fernaz on December 03, 2012, 08:59:55 AM
really it'll be great fun!!!!!!!!!!!
Title: Re: অনািমকা (কিবতা)
Post by: saratasneem on January 07, 2013, 11:15:21 AM
The poem reveals the significance of "ANAMICA"(ring finger) .
Title: Re: অনািমকা (কিবতা)
Post by: sethy on January 07, 2013, 02:43:53 PM
Thank You For Your Nice Poem...............
Title: Re: How teachers cultivate young scientists
Post by: nayeemfaruqui on February 20, 2013, 12:12:44 PM
Informative post...
Title: Re: How strange!!
Post by: tany on February 20, 2013, 05:43:44 PM
Very true............
Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: tany on February 20, 2013, 05:46:09 PM
Title: Re: How teachers cultivate young scientists
Post by: arefin on February 22, 2013, 10:33:51 AM
We need it in Bangladesh in an urgent basis. Young generation are more interested to study business rather than science.
Title: Re: How teachers cultivate young scientists
Post by: nmoon on February 22, 2013, 01:42:25 PM
Very good idea. we should implement it.
Title: Re: We really need a festival
Post by: fernaz on February 26, 2013, 12:54:46 PM
The festival has not happened yet....
Title: Re: How strange!!
Post by: Sharmin Jahan on February 27, 2013, 12:01:15 PM
Almighty Allah, please forgive us.
Title: How To Prevent Old Age And Maintain Youthfulness
Post by: sadia_haque on March 07, 2013, 06:17:52 PM
How To Prevent Old Age And Maintain Youthfulness

Problems of Ageing:

Death is certain. But everybody would like to maintain good Health till the last breath. The current of life is discharged from the body from the right arm. The control point of this current is wrist and the elbow. By giving two minutes treatment intermittent pressure on this point, the excess discharge of youthfulness for longer period and delay old age. This treatment is must for all men and women after the age of 40.
It is interested to note that regular treatment on this point even by aged people will greatly benefit them and they will start felling more energetic, younger and less tired.


You have learnt how to prevent old age and remain youthful, it is almost necessary to have proper plans for the retirement. Activities of your choice must be increased; new hobbies common to both or complimentary to each other must be developed. Start taking interest I reading, writing, and fine arts, music, painting, gardening, much more.  Moreover move around a lot and see the world and meet people. You will feel a sense of oneness with them.
The most important is that, up till now, your activities were centered on you; start taking interest in other welfare and find new avenues of great joy. Reduce your expectation and try to fulfill others expectations.


It is observed by the medical world that after the age 60 years, the heart and liver start functioning slower and slower. As such, rest after meals is most necessary. And a change in diet is a must. Try to reduce cooked food as much as possible. Increase the intake of green juices, fruit juices, green salads, fruits and yoghurt, etc. which are easily digestible and which will give you enough energy. Moreover, light exercise, walking/ swimming for 40 minutes are must. Very soon you will be near nature and every morning will bring you new joys and new meaning of life. And you will feel young, sing merrily like a bird and will feel confident, of living for 100 years.

Sadia Haque

Lecturer, Textile Engineering, FSIT,
Title: Re: How To Prevent Old Age And Maintain Youthfulness
Post by: irina on March 13, 2013, 04:49:06 PM
I honestly like the ideas you've suggested.

Thank you.