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Faculty of Humanities and Social Science => English => Topic started by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on July 27, 2011, 03:38:16 PM

Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on July 27, 2011, 03:38:16 PM
Modernism...............................................Postmodernism

analogue.................................................digital
depth.....................................................surface
linear......................................................multi-pathed
centered.................................................dispersed
uniformity................................................diversity
monism...................................................pluralism
cause-effect............................................synchronicity
optimism..................................................cynicism


Md.Nuruzzaman Moral
Lecturer
Dept. of English
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: shipra on July 28, 2011, 01:33:15 PM
Carry on,sir.Fine,want to know more.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on July 28, 2011, 01:38:47 PM
Thank you.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Nahid Kaiser on July 30, 2011, 10:40:59 AM
Good initiative
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on July 31, 2011, 11:49:36 AM
Thank you Madam.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: tajallinur on August 03, 2011, 11:08:18 PM
thank u sir to make the critical words sure to us. :)
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on August 07, 2011, 02:39:42 PM
Taj try to understand the topic through the words.Don't confine yourself only meaning.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: shipra on August 16, 2011, 02:16:10 PM
I want to know something more about this interesting literary area.Please, can you continue this.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on August 16, 2011, 02:34:41 PM
Thank you Shipra.I will post the tendency of cultural in Modernism and Postmodernism.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: shipra on August 17, 2011, 04:58:43 PM
Thank you.
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Nahid Kaiser on August 21, 2011, 11:19:15 AM
we can add play, rhizome etc
Title: Re: Keywords to understand Modernism and Postmodernism
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on August 25, 2011, 01:25:59 PM
Thank you Madam for sharing your idea.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:36:13 PM
                                             Characteristics of Modernism

Formal characteristics

•   Open Form
•   Free verse
•   Discontinuous narrative
•   Juxtaposition
•   Intertextuality
•   Classical allusions
•   Borrowings from other cultures and languages
•   Unconventional use of metaphor
•   Metanarrative
•   Fragmentation
•   Multiple narrative points of view (parallax)
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:36:49 PM
                                   Thematic characteristics

•   Breakdown of social norms and cultural sureties
•   Dislocation of meaning and sense from its normal context
•   Valorization of the despairing individual in the face of an unmanageable future
•   Disillusionment
•   Rejection of history and the substitution of a mythical past, borrowed without chronology
•   Product of the metropolis, of cities and urbanscapes
•   Stream of consciousness
•   Free indirect discourse
•   Overwhelming technological changes of the 20th Century
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:39:29 PM
                                                              Modernism
Modernism describes an array of cultural movements rooted in the changes in Western society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The term covers a series of reforming movements in art, architecture, music, literature and the applied arts which emerged during this period.
It is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology or practical experimentation.[1] Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new, progressive and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end.
Embracing change and the present, modernism encompasses the works of thinkers who rebelled against nineteenth century academic and historicist traditions, believing the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated; they directly confronted the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. Some divide the 20th Century into movements designated Modernism and Postmodernism, whereas others see them as two aspects of the same movement.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:40:16 PM
                                                        Postmodernism
Postmodernism literally means 'after the modern'. It is used in critical theory to refer to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, and design, as well as in marketing and business and the interpretation of history, law and culture in the late 20th century.
Postmodernism was originally a reaction to modernism. Largely influenced by the Western European disillusionment induced by World War II, postmodernism tends to refer to a cultural, intellectual, or artistic state lacking a clear central hierarchy or organizing principle and embodying extreme complexity, contradiction, ambiguity, diversity, interconnectedness or interreferentiality,[1] in a way that is often indistinguishable from a parody of itself. It has given rise to charges of fraudulence.[2]
Postmodernity is a derivative referring to non-art aspects of history that were influenced by the new movement, namely developments in society, economy and culture since the 1960s.[3] When the idea of a reaction or rejection of modernism was borrowed by other fields, it became synonymous in some contexts with postmodernity. The term is closely linked with poststructuralism (cf. Jacques Derrida) and with modernism, in terms of a rejection of its bourgeois, elitist culture.[4]
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:45:26 PM
                                Philosophical Movements and contributors
Influencer    Year   Influence
                                Karl Barth
1925            fideist approach to theology brought a rise in subjectivity
 
                                 Martin Heidegger
1927           rejected the philosophical grounding of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity"   
                                 W.V.O. Quine
1951           developed the theses of indeterminacy of translation and ontological relativity, and argued    against the possibility of a priori knowledge. Argued that we can never satisfactorily know what a word "means."   
                                 Ludwig Wittgenstein
1953            anti-foundationalism, on certainty, a philosophy of language
 
                                 Thomas Samuel Kuhn
1962            posited the rapid change of the basis of scientific knowledge to a provisional consensus of scientists, popularized the term "paradigm shift"
 
                                  Jacques Derrida
1967      re-examined the fundamentals of writing and its consequences on philosophy in general; sought to undermine the language of western metaphysics (deconstruction)
 
                                  Michel Foucault
1975     examined discursive power in Discipline and Punish, with Bentham's panopticon as his model, and also known for saying "language is oppression" (Meaning that language was developed to allow only those who spoke the language not to be oppressed. All other people that don't speak the language would then be oppressed.)   
                                   Jean-François Lyotard
1979           opposed universality, meta-narratives, and generality
 
                                    Richard Rorty
1979           argues philosophy mistakenly imitates scientific methods; advocates dissolving traditional philosophical problems; anti-foundationalism and anti-essentialism
 
                                   Jean Baudrillard
1981      Simulacra and Simulation - reality disappears underneath the interchangeability of signs   
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:49:34 PM
                                                     Deconstruct

Deconstruction is a term which is used to denote the application of postmodern ideas of criticism, or theory, to a "text" or "artifact", based on architectural deconstructivism. A deconstruction is meant to undermine the frame of reference and assumptions that underpin the text or the artifact.
The term "deconstruction" comes from Martin Heidegger, who calls for the destruction or deconstruction (the German "Destruktion" connotates both English words) of the history of ontology. The point, for Heidegger, was to describe Being prior to its being covered over by Plato and subsequent philosophy. Thus, Heidegger himself engaged in "deconstruction" through a critique of post-Socratic thought (which had forgotten the question of Being) and the study of the pre-Socratics (where Being was still an open question).
In later usage, a "deconstruction" is an important textual "occurrence" described and analyzed by many postmodern authors and philosophers. They argue that aspects in the text itself would undermine its own authority or assumptions and that internal contradictions would erase boundaries or categories which the work relied on or asserted. Poststructuralists beginning with Jacques Derrida, who coined the term, argued that the existence of deconstructions implied that there was no intrinsic essence to a text, merely the contrast of difference. This is analogous to the idea that the difference in perception between black and white is the context. A deconstruction is created when the "deeper" substance of text opposes the text's more "superficial" form. This idea is not isolated to poststructuralists but is related to the idea of hermeneutics in literature; intellectuals as early as Plato asserted it and so did modern thinkers such as Leo Strauss. Derrida's argument is that deconstruction proves that texts have multiple meanings and the "violence" between the different meanings of text may be elucidated by close textual analysis.
Popularly, close textual analyses describing deconstruction within a text are often themselves called deconstructions. Derrida argued, however, that deconstruction is not a method or a tool but an occurrence within the text itself. Writings about deconstruction are therefore referred to in academic circles as deconstructive readings.
Deconstruction is far more important to postmodernism than its seemingly narrow focus on text might imply. According to Derrida, one consequence of deconstruction is that the text may be defined so broadly as to encompass not just written words but the entire spectrum of symbols and phenomena within Western thought. To Derrida, a result of deconstruction is that no Western philosopher has been able to escape successfully from this large web of text and reach that which is "signified", which they imagined to exist "just beyond" the text.
The more common use of the term is the more general process of pointing to contradictions between the intent and surface of a work and the assumptions about it. A work then "deconstructs" assumptions when it places them in context. For example, someone who can pass as the opposite sex may be said to "deconstruct" gender identity, because there is a conflict between the superficial appearance and the reality of the person's gender.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:51:17 PM
                                                        Realism
Realism, Realist or Realistic may refer to:
The arts

•   Realism (arts), the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life
•   Realism (dramatic arts), a movement towards greater fidelity to real life
•   Realism (visual arts), a style of painting that depicts what the eye can see
•   Classical Realism, an artistic movement in late 20th Century that valued beauty and artistic skill
•   Hyperrealism (painting), a genre of painting that resembles high resolution photography
•   Kitchen sink realism, an English cultural movement in the 1950s and 1960s that concentrated on    contemporary social realism
•   Literary realism, a 19th century literary movement
•   Magic realism, an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting
•   Nazi heroic realism or the art of the third Reich, a style of propaganda art associated with Nazi Germany
•   New Realism, an artistic movement founded in 1960 by Pierre Restany and Yves Klein
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:52:25 PM
                                                       Impressionism

Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in Le Charivari.
Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
The emergence of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous movements in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist literature.
Impressionism also describes art created in this style, but outside of the late 19th century time period.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:53:53 PM
                                                         Expressionism

Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect; it is a subjective art form. Expressionism is exhibited in many art forms, including painting, literature, theatre, film, architecture and music. The term often implies emotional angst. In a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco can be called expressionist, though in practice, the term is applied mainly to 20th century works.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:54:54 PM
                                                        Cubism

Cubism was a 20th century avant-garde art movement, pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and literature. The first branch of cubism, known as Analytic Cubism, was both radical and influential as a short but highly significant art movement between 1908 and 1911 in France. In its second phase, Synthetic Cubism, the movement spread and remained vital until around 1919, when the Surrealist movement gained popularity.
English art historian Douglas Cooper describes three phases of Cubism in his seminal book The Cubist Epoch. According to Cooper there was Early Cubism, (from 1906-1908) during which time the movement was initially developed in the studios of Picasso and Braque; the second phase being called High Cubism, (from 1909 to 1914) during which time Juan Gris emerged as an important exponent; and finally Cooper referred to Late Cubism (from 1914 to 1921) as the last phase of Cubism as a radical avant-garde movement.[1]
In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Often the surfaces intersect at seemingly random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:55:57 PM
                                                        Dada or Dadaism

Dada or Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in neutral Zürich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1920. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature (poetry, art manifestoes, art theory), theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti war politic through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals. Passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture filled their publications. The movement influenced later styles, Avant-garde and Downtown music movements, and groups including Surrealism, Nouveau Réalisme, Pop Art and Fluxus.
“   Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-political uses in the 1960s and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism. Marc Lowenthal, Translator's introduction to Francis Picabia's I Am a Beautiful Monster: Poetry, Prose, And Provocation (MIT Press 2007)   â€
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:56:56 PM
                                                            Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members.
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s on, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music, of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, and philosophy and social theory.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 03:57:42 PM
                                                            Imagism

Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery, and clear, sharp language. The Imagists rejected the sentiment and discursiveness typical of much Romantic and Victorian poetry. This was in contrast to their contemporaries, the Georgian poets, who were by and large content to work within that tradition. Group publication of work under the Imagist name appearing between 1914 and 1917 featured writing by many of the most significant figures in modernist poetry in English, as well as a number of other Modernist figures prominent in fields other than poetry.
Based in London, the Imagists were drawn from Great Britain, Ireland and the United States. Somewhat unusually for the time, the Imagists featured a number of women writers among their major figures. Imagism is also significant historically as the first organised Modernist English language literary movement or group. In the words of T. S. Eliot: "The point de repère usually and conveniently taken as the starting-point of modern poetry is the group denominated 'imagists' in London about 1910."[1] At the time Imagism emerged, Longfellow and Tennyson were considered the paragons of poetry, and the public valued the sometimes moralising tone of their writings. In contrast, Imagism called for a return to what were seen as more Classical values, such as directness of presentation and economy of language, as well as a willingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms. The focus on the "thing" as "thing" (an attempt at isolating a single image to reveal its essence) also mirrors contemporary developments in avant-garde art, especially Cubism. Although Imagism isolates objects through the use of what Ezra Pound called "luminous details", Pound's Ideogrammic Method of juxtaposing concrete instances to express an abstraction is similar to Cubism's manner of synthesizing multiple perspectives into a single image.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:00:48 PM
                                               The Symbolist Manifesto

Symbolists believed that art should aim to capture more absolute truths which could only be accessed by indirect methods. Thus, they wrote in a highly metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. The Symbolist manifesto ("Le Symbolisme", Le Figaro, 18 Sept 1886) was published in 1886 by Jean Moréas. Moréas announced that Symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description," and that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal":
Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes ; ce sont là des apparences sensibles destinées à représenter leurs affinités ésotériques avec des Idées primordiales.
(In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideals.)
Symbolism in literature is distinct from Symbolism in art although the two overlapped on a number of points. In painting, Symbolism was a continuation of some mystical tendencies in the Romantic tradition, which included such artists as Caspar David Friedrich, Fernand Khnopff and John Henry Fuseli and it was even more closely aligned with the self-consciously dark and private Decadent Movement.
There were several, rather dissimilar, groups of Symbolist painters and visual artists, among whom Gustave Moreau, Gustav Klimt, Odilon Redon, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Fantin-Latour, Edvard Munch, Félicien Rops, and Jan Toorop were numbered. Symbolism in painting had an even larger geographical reach than Symbolism in poetry, reaching Mikhail Vrubel, Nicholas Roerich, Victor Borisov-Musatov, Martiros Saryan, Mikhail Nesterov, Leon Bakst in Russia, as well as Frida Kahlo in Mexico, Elihu Vedder, Remedios Varo, Morris Graves, David Chetlahe Paladin, and Elle Nicolai in the United States. Auguste Rodin is sometimes considered a Symbolist in sculpture.
The Symbolist painters mined mythology and dream imagery for a visual language of the soul, seeking evocative paintings that brought to mind a static world of silence. The symbols used in Symbolism are not the familiar emblems of mainstream iconography but intensely personal, private, obscure and ambiguous references. More a philosophy than an actual style of art, the Symbolist painters influenced the contemporary Art Nouveau movement and Les Nabis. In their exploration of dreamlike subjects, symbolist painters are found across centuries and cultures, as they are still today; Bernard Delvaille has described René Magritte's surrealism as "Symbolism plus Freud".

Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:03:14 PM
                                                    Symbolists

Precursors

•   William Blake (1757-1827)
•   Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
•   Gérard de Nerval (1808-55)
•   Edgar Allan Poe (1809-49)
•   Christina Rossetti (1830-1894)
•   Charles Baudelaire (1821-67)
•   Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-82)
•   Isidore Ducasse, comte de Lautréamont (1846-70)
•   Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880)

Authors

•   Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam (1838-89)
•   Stéphane Mallarmé (1842-98)
•   Paul Verlaine (1844-96)
•   Arthur Rimbaud (1854-91)
•   Georges Rodenbach (1855-98)
•   Innokenty Annensky (1855-1909)
•   Emile Verhaeren (1855-1916)
•   Jean Moréas (1856-1910)
•   Albert Samain (1858-1900)
•   Rémy de Gourmont (1858-1915)
•   Gustave Kahn (1859-1936)
•   Albert Giraud (1860-1929)
•   Jules Laforgue (1860-87)
•   Antoni Lange (1861-1929)    
•   Paul Adam (1862-1920)
•   Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949)
•   Stuart Merrill (1863-1915)
•   Fyodor Sologub (1863-1927)
•   Adolphe Retté (1863-1930)
•   Francis Viélé-Griffin (1863-1937)
•   Henri de Régnier (1864-1936)
•   Albert Aurier (1865-1892)
•   Dmitry Merezhkovsky (1865-1941)
•   Albert Mockel (1866-1945)
•   Vyacheslav Ivanov (1866-1949)
•   Konstantin Bal'mont (1867—1942)
•   Zinaida Gippius (1869-1945)
•   Paul Valéry (1871-1945)    
•   Paul Fort (1872-1960)
•   Alfred Jarry (1873-1907)
•   Tadeusz Miciński (1873-1918)
•   Valery Bryusov (1873–1924)
•   Jurgis BaltruÅ¡aitis (1873-1944)
•   Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911)
•   Stanisław Korab-Brzozowski (1876-1901)
•   Maximilian Voloshin (1877-1932)
•   Renée Vivien (1877-1909)
•   Josip Murn Aleksandrov (1879-1901)
•   Ã‰mile Nelligan (1879-1941)
•   Alexander Blok (1880–1921)
•   Andrei Bely (1880-1934)
•   George Bacovia (1881-1957)
•   Dimcho Debelyanov (1887-1916)

Influence in English literature

English language authors that influenced, or were influenced by Symbolism include:
•   George MacDonald (1824-1905)
•   Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909)
•   Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
•   Eric Stenbock (1860-95)
•   William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)
•   Arthur Symons (1865-1945)
•   John Gray (1866-1934)
•   Ernest Dowson (1867-1900)
•   Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)
•   Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
•   Edith Sitwell (1887-1964)
•   T. S. Eliot (1888-1965)
•   Conrad Aiken (1889-1973)
•   Clark Ashton Smith (1893-1961)
•   Hart Crane (1899-1932)
•   Geoffrey Hill (1932-)

Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:04:16 PM
                                                                  Structuralism

Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze a specific field (for instance, mythology) as a complex system of interrelated parts. It began in linguistics with the work of Ferdinand de Saussure. But many French intellectuals perceived it to have a wider application, and the model was soon modified and applied to other fields, such as anthropology, psychoanalysis, literary theory and structuralism (architecture). This ushered in the dawn of structuralism as not just a method, but also an intellectual movement that came to take existentialism’s pedestal in 1960s France.
Structuralism enjoyed much popularity, and its general stance of antihumanism was in sheer opposition to the Sartrean existentialism that preceded it. But in the 1970s, it came under internal fire from critics who accused it of being too rigid and ahistorical. However, many of structuralism’s theorists, from Michel Foucault to Jacques Lacan, continue to assert an influence on continental philosophy, and many of the fundamental assumptions of its critics, that is, of adherents of poststructuralism, are but a continuation of structuralism.
Structuralism isn’t only applied within literary theory. There are also structuralist theories that exist within mathematics, philosophy of science, anthropology and in sociology. According to Alison Assiter, there are four common ideas regarding structuralism that form an ‘intellectual trend’. Firstly, the structure is what determines the position of each element of a whole. Secondly, structuralists believe that every system has a structure. Thirdly, structuralists are interested in ‘structural’ laws that deal with coexistence rather than changes. And finally structures are the ‘real things’ that lie beneath the surface or the appearance of meaning.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:05:17 PM
                                                 Structuralism in linguistics

Ferdinand de Saussure was the originator of the 20th century structuralism, and evidence of this can be found in Course in General Linguistics, written by Saussure's colleagues after his death and based on student notes, where he focused not on the use of language (parole, or speech), but rather on the underlying system of language (langue) and called his theory semiology. However, the discovery of the underlying system had to be done via examination of the parole (speech). As such, Structural Linguistics are actually an early form of corpus linguistics (quantification). This approach focused on examining how the elements of language related to each other in the present, that is, 'synchronically' rather than 'diachronically'. Finally, he argued that linguistic signs were composed of two parts, a signifier (the sound pattern of a word, either in mental projection - as when we silently recite lines from a poem to ourselves - or in actual, physical realization as part of a speech act) and a signified (the concept or meaning of the word). This was quite different from previous approaches which focused on the relationship between words and things in the world that they designate.
Key notions in Structural Linguistics are the notions of paradigm, syntagm and value, though these notions were not yet fully developed in De Saussure's thought. A structural paradigm is actually a class of linguistic units (lexemes, morphemes or even constructions) which are possible in a certain position in a given linguistic environment (like a given sentence), which is the syntagm. The different functional role of each of these members of the paradigm is called value (valeur in French). Structuralist criticism relates the literary text to a larger overarching structure which may be a particular genre, a range of intertextual connections, a model of a universal narrative structure or a notion of the narrative being a system of recurrent patterns or motifs.
Saussure's Course influenced many linguists between World War I and WWII. In America, for instance, Leonard Bloomfield developed his own version of structural linguistics, as did Louis Hjelmslev in Denmark and Alf Sommerfelt in Norway. In France Antoine Meillet and Émile Benveniste would continue Saussure's program. Most importantly, however, members of the Prague School of linguistics such as Roman Jakobson and Nikolai Trubetzkoy conducted research that would be greatly influential.
The clearest and most important example of Prague School structuralism lies in phonemics. Rather than simply compile a list of which sounds occur in a language, the Prague School sought to examine how they were related. They determined that the inventory of sounds in a language could be analyzed in terms of a series of contrasts. Thus in English the sounds /p/ and /b/ represent distinct phonemes because there are cases (minimal pairs) where the contrast between the two is the only difference between two distinct words (e.g. 'pat' and 'bat'). Analyzing sounds in terms of contrastive features also opens up comparative scope - it makes clear, for instance, that the difficulty Japanese speakers have differentiating /r/ and /l/ in English is because these sounds are not contrastive in Japanese. While this approach is now standard in linguistics, it was revolutionary at the time. Phonology would become the paradigmatic basis for structuralism in a number of different forms.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:06:27 PM
                                    Structuralism in literary theory and literary critics
 
In literary theory, structuralism is an approach to analyzing the narrative material by examining the underlying invariant structure. For example, a literary critic applying a structuralist literary theory might say that the authors of West Side Story did not write anything "really" new, because their work has the same structure as Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. In both texts a girl and a boy fall in love (a "formula" with a symbolic operator between them would be "Boy + Girl") despite the fact that they belong to two groups that hate each other ("Boy's Group - Girl's Group" or "Opposing forces") and conflict is resolved by their death.
The versatility of structuralism is such that a literary critic could make the same claim about a story of two friendly families ("Boy's Family + Girl's Family") that arrange a marriage between their children despite the fact that the children hate each other ("Boy - Girl") and then the children commit suicide to escape the arranged marriage; the justification is that the second story's structure is an 'inversion' of the first story's structure: the relationship between the values of love and the two pairs of parties involved have been reversed.
Structuralistic literary criticism argues that the "novelty value of a literary text" can lie only in new structure, rather than in the specifics of character development and voice in which that structure is expressed. One branch of literary structuralism, like Freudianism, Marxism, and transformational grammar, posits both a deep and a surface structure. In Freudianism and Marxism the deep structure is a story, in Freud's case the battle, ultimately, between the life and death instincts, and in Marx, the conflicts between classes that are rooted in the economic "base."
Literary structuralism often follows the lead of Vladimir Propp and Claude Levi-Strauss in seeking out basic deep elements in stories and myths, which are combined in various ways to produce the many versions of the ur-story or ur-myth. As in Freud and Marx, but in contrast to transformational grammar, these basic elements are meaning-bearing.
There is considerable similarity between structural literary theory and Northrop Frye's archetypal criticism, which is also indebted to the anthropological study of myths. Some critics have also tried to apply the theory to individual works, but the effort to find unique structures in individual literary works runs counter to the structuralist program and has an affinity with New Criticism.
The other branch of literary structuralism is semiotics, and it is based on the work of Ferdinand de Saussure.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:07:30 PM
                                           Prominent Structuralists

•   Ferdinand de Saussure
•   Roman Jakobson
•   Claude Lévi-Strauss
•   Louis Althusser
•   Roland Barthes
•   Michel Foucault
•   Jacques Lacan
•   Julia Kristeva
•   Hayden White
•   Jacques Derrida
•   T.S. Kuhn

Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:08:14 PM
                                                        Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists who wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century French philosophy. The prefix "post" refers to the fact that many contributors, such as Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, and Julia Kristeva, rejected structuralism and became quite critical of it. In direct contrast to structuralism's claims of an independent signifier, superior to the signified, post-structuralism views the signifier and signified as inseparable but not united. The Post-structuralist movement is closely related to postmodernism--but the two concepts are not synonymous.
While post-structuralism is difficult to define or summarize, it can be broadly understood as a body of distinct reactions to structuralism. There are two main reasons for this difficulty. First, it rejects definitions that claim to have discovered absolute "truths" or facts about the world.[1] Second, very few thinkers have willingly accepted the label 'post-structuralist'; rather, they have been labeled as such by others. Consequently, no one has felt compelled to construct a "manifesto" of post-structuralism. Indeed, it would be inconsistent with post-structuralist concepts to codify itself in such a way.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:10:02 PM
                             Structuralism vs. Post-structuralism

Structuralism was a fashionable movement in France in the 1950s and 1960s, that studied the underlying structures inherent in cultural products (such as texts), and utilizes analytical concepts from linguistics, psychology, anthropology and other fields to understand and interpret those structures. Although the structuralist movement fostered critical inquiry into these structures, it emphasized logical and scientific results. Many structuralists sought to integrate their work into pre-existing bodies of knowledge. This was observed in the work of Ferdinand de Saussure in linguistics, Claude Lévi-Strauss in anthropology, and many early 20th-century psychologists.
The general assumptions of post-structuralism derive from critique of structuralist premises. Specifically, post-structuralism holds that the study of underlying structures is itself culturally conditioned and therefore subject to myriad biases and misinterpretations. To understand an object (e.g. one of the many meanings of a text), it is necessary to study both the object itself, and the systems of knowledge which were coordinated to produce the object. In this way, post-structuralism positions itself as a study of how knowledge is produced.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:10:39 PM
                                                            Deconstruction

A major theory associated with Structuralism was binary opposition. This theory proposed that there are certain theoretical and conceptual opposites, often arranged in a hierarchy, which human logic has given to text. Such binary pairs could include Enlightenment/Romantic, male/female, speech/writing, rational/emotional, signifier/signified, symbolic/imaginary.
Post-structuralism rejects the notion of the essential quality of the dominant relation in the hierarchy, choosing rather to expose these relations and the dependency of the dominant term on its apparently subservient counterpart. The only way to properly understand these meanings is to deconstruct the assumptions and knowledge systems which produce the illusion of singular meaning. This act of deconstruction illuminates how male can become female, how speech can become writing, and how rational can become emotional.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:12:45 PM
                                                       Existentialism

The philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche are considered fundamental to the existentialist movement, though neither used the term "existentialism". They predated existentialism by a century.
Existentialism is a philosophical movement which posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to it being created for them by deities or authorities or defined for them by philosophical or theological doctrines.
It emerged as a movement in twentieth-century literature and philosophy, most notably Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, though it had forerunners in earlier centuries. Fyodor Dostoevsky and Franz Kafka also described existential themes in their literary works. It took explicit form as a philosophical current in Continental philosophy, first in the work of Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers in the 1930s in Germany, and then in the work of Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, and Simone de Beauvoir in the 1940s and 1950s in France. Their work focused on such themes as "dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment, and nothingness" as fundamental to human existence. Walter Kaufmann described existentialism as "The refusal to belong to any school of thought, the repudiation of the adequacy of any body of beliefs whatever, and especially of systems, and a marked dissatisfaction with traditional philosophy as superficial, academic, and remote from life".
Although there are some common tendencies amongst "existentialist" thinkers, there are major differences and disagreements among them (most notably the divide between atheistic existentialists like Sartre and theistic existentialists like Tillich); not all of them accept the validity of the term.
  
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:13:56 PM
                                    Existence Precedes Essence
 
A central proposition of existentialism is that existence precedes essence. This amounts to the assertion that the outer manifestation (existence) of an entity is more determinative than its inner being (essence). Asserting that "existence precedes essence" is a rebellion against the Platonic Ideas, the Forms, which in Plato's philosophy are the true reality behind appearances of things in the world.
When it is said that man defines himself, it is often perceived as stating that man can "wish" to be something - anything, a bird, for instance - and then be it. According to Sartre's own account, however, this would rather be a kind of bad faith. What is meant by the statement is that man is  defined only insofar as he acts and that he is responsible for his actions. To clarify, it can be said that a man who acts cruelly towards other people is, by that act, defined as a cruel man and in that same instance, he (as opposed to his genes, for instance) is defined as being responsible for being this cruel man. Of course, the more positive therapeutic aspect of this is also implied: You can choose to act in a different way, and to be a good person instead of a cruel person. Here it is also clear that since man can choose to be either cruel or good, he is, in fact, neither of these things essentially.
To claim, then, that existence precedes essence is to assert that there is no such predetermined essence to be found in man. Instead, what one finds if one searches, is the concrete lived life of each individual. As Sartre puts it in his Existentialism is a Humanism: "man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world – and defines himself afterwards."
Existentialism tends to focus on the question of human existence and the conditions of this existence. What is meant by existence is the concrete life of each individual, and his concrete ways of being in the world. Even though this concrete individual existence must be the primary source of information in the study of man, certain conditions are commonly held to be "endemic" to human existence. These conditions are usually in some way related to the inherent meaninglessness or absurdity of the earth and its apparent contrast with our pre-reflexive lived lives which normally present themselves to us as meaningful. A central theme is that since the world "in-itself" is absurd, that is, "not fair," then a meaningful life can at any point suddenly lose all its meaning. The reasons why this happens are many, ranging from a tragedy that "tears a person's world apart," to the results of an honest inquiry into one's own existence. Such an encounter can make a person mentally unstable, and avoiding such instability by making people aware of their condition and ready to handle it is one of the central themes of existentialism. Albert Camus, for instance, famously claimed that "there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide."
Aside from these "psychological" issues, it is also claimed that these encounters with the absurd are where we are most in touch with our condition as humans. Such an encounter cannot be without philosophical significance, and existentialist philosophers derive many metaphysical theories from these encounters. These are often related to the self, consciousness and freedom as well as the nature of meaning.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:14:40 PM
                                               Atheistic Existentialism

Atheistic Existentialism is the form of existentialism most commonly encountered in today's society. What sets it apart from theistic existentialism is that it rejects the notion of a god and his transcendent will that should in some way dictate how we should live. It rejects the notion that there is any "created" meaning to life and the world, and that a leap of faith is required of man in order for him to live an authentic life.
In this kind of existentialism, belief in god is often considered a form of Bad Faith.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:15:24 PM
                                                         Theistic Existentialism
 
Theistic existentialism is, for the most part, Christian in its outlook, but there have been existentialists of other theological persuasions (like Judaism). The main thing that sets them apart from atheistic existentialists is that they posit the existence of God, and that He is the source of our being. It is generally held that God has designed the world in such a way that we must define our own lives, and each individual is held accountable for his or her own self-definition.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:16:39 PM
                                                                nihilism

Though nihilism isn't existentialism, and existentialism isn't nihilism, these two philosophies are often confused. While a sort of nihilistic existentialism does indeed exist, it isn't as radical as pure nihilism. Another reason why these philosophies are often confused is that Friedrich Nietzsche is a central philosopher in both.
What sets existential nihilists apart from pure nihilists is the fact that, while nihilists don't believe in any meaning at all, existential nihilists only believe this in relation to any sort of meaning to life (though this position is implied in "regular" nihilism, and existential nihilists may also subscribe to the full nihilistic view, existential nihilism is a separate view). While other existentialists will allow for meaning in people's lives (that meaning they themselves inject into it), existential nihilists will deny that this meaning is anything but self-deception. Existential nihilists could thus seem to be more pessimistic than the other existentialists, but even here, conclusions vary. Some will claim that the best thing to do is to commit suicide while others will claim that the lack of objective meaning to life means you should just do as you wish - a hedonism of sorts. There also are those who hold that nihilism is both a necessary burden of the authentic thinker and a source of dread, pushing them to hold in suspension his or her tendency to accept the reality of values while maintaining the unfulfilled desire for their discovery.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:18:01 PM
                                                  Kierkegaard and Nietzsche
 
The first philosophers considered fundamental to the existentialist movement were Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, though neither used the term "existentialism" and it is unclear whether they would have supported the existentialism of the 20th century. Their focus was on human experience, rather than the objective truths of math and science that are too detached or observational to truly get at human experience. Like Pascal, they were interested in people's concealment of the meaninglessness of life and the use of diversion to escape from boredom. But Pascal did not consider the role of making free choices, particularly regarding fundamental values and beliefs: such choices change the nature and identity of the chooser, in the view of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche.Kierkegaard's knight of faith and Nietzsche's Übermensch are examples of those who define the nature of their own existence. Great individuals invent their own values and create the very terms under which they excel.
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were also precursors to other intellectual movements, including postmodernism, nihilism, and various strands of psychology.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:19:10 PM
                                          Heidegger and the German existentialists
 
One of the first German existentialists was Karl Jaspers, who recognized the importance of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and attempted to build an "Existenz" philosophy around the two. Heidegger, who was influenced by Jaspers and the phenomenologist Edmund Husserl, wrote his most influential work Being and Time which postulates Dasein (dah-zine), translated as, all at once, "being here", "being there", and "being-in-the-world"—a being that is constituted by its temporality, illuminates and interprets the meaning of being in time. Dasein is sometimes considered the human subject, but Heidegger denied the Cartesian dualism of subject-object/mind-body.Although existentialists view Heidegger to be an important philosopher in the movement, he vehemently denied being an existentialist in the Sartrean sense, in his "Letter on Humanism".
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:19:58 PM
                                    Sartre, Camus, and the French existentialists
 
Jean-Paul Sartre is perhaps the most well-known existentialist and is one of the few to have accepted being called an "existentialist". Sartre developed his version of existentialist philosophy under the influence of Husserl and German philosopher Martin Heidegger. Being and Nothingness is perhaps his most important work about existentialism. Sartre was also talented in his ability to espouse his ideas in different media, including philosophical essays, lectures, novels, plays, and the theater. No Exit and Nausea are two of his celebrated works. In the 1960s, he attempted to reconcile existentialism and Marxism in his work Critique of Dialectical Reason. A major theme throughout his writings was freedom and responsibility.
Albert Camus was a friend of Sartre, until their falling-out, and wrote several works with existential themes including The Rebel, The Stranger, The Myth of Sisyphus, and Summer in Algiers. Camus, like many others, rejected the existentialist label, and considered his works to be concerned with people facing the absurd. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus uses the analogy of the Greek myth to demonstrate the futility of existence. In the myth, Sisyphus is condemned for eternity to roll a rock up a hill, but when he reaches the summit, the rock will roll to the bottom again. Camus believes that this existence is pointless but that Sisyphus ultimately finds meaning and purpose in his task, simply by continually applying himself to it.
Critic Martin Esslin in his book Theatre of the Absurd pointed out how many contemporary playwrights such as Samuel Beckett, Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genet, and Arthur Adamov wove into their plays the existential belief that we are absurd beings loose in a universe empty of real meaning. Esslin noted that many of these playwrights demonstrated the philosophy better than did the plays by Sartre and Camus. Though most of such playwrights, subsequently labeled "Absurdist" (based on Esslin's book), denied affiliations with existentialism and were often staunchly anti-philosophical (for example Ionesco often claimed he identified more with 'Pataphysics or with Surrealism than with existentialism), the playwrights are often linked to existentialism based on Esslin's observation.[8]
Simone de Beauvoir, an important existentialist who spent much of her life alongside Sartre, wrote about feminist and existential ethics in her works, including The Second Sex and The Ethics of Ambiguity. Although often overlooked due to her relationship with Sartre, de Beauvoir integrated existentialism with other forms of thinking such as feminism, unheard of at the time, resulting in alienation from fellow writers such as Camus.
Frantz Fanon, a Martiniquan-born critic of colonialism, has been considered an important existentialist.[9]
Maurice Merleau-Ponty, an often overlooked existentialist, was for a time a companion of Sartre. His understanding of Husserl's phenomenology was far greater than that of Merleau-Ponty's fellow existentialists. It has been said that his work, Humanism and Terror, greatly influenced Sartre. However, in later years they were to disagree irreparably, dividing many existentialists such as de Beauvoir, who sided with Sartre. Michel Foucault would also be considered an existentialist through his use of history to reveal the constant alterations of created meaning, thus proving history's failure to produce a cohesive version of reality.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:21:14 PM
                                Dostoevsky, Kafka, and the literary existentialists

Many writers who are not usually considered philosophers have also had a major influence on existentialism. Among them, Czech author Franz Kafka and Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky are most prominent. Kafka created often surreal and alienated characters who struggle with hopelessness and absurdity, notably in his most famous novella, The Metamorphosis, or in his master novel, The Trial. Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground details the story of a man who is unable to fit into society and unhappy with the identities he creates for himself. [paragraph needs citations and clarification.]
Many of Dostoevsky's novels, such as Crime and Punishment, covered issues pertinent to existential philosophy while offering story lines divergent from secular existentialism: for example in Crime and Punishment one sees the protagonist, Raskolnikov, experience existential crises and move toward a worldview similar to Christian Existentialism, which Dostoevsky had come to advocate.
In the 20th century, existentialism experienced a resurgence in popular art forms. In fiction, Hermann Hesse's 1928 novel Steppenwolf, based on an idea in Kierkegaard's Either/Or (1843),[specify] sold well in the West. Jack Kerouac and the Beat poets adopted existentialist themes. "Arthouse" films began quoting and alluding to existentialist thought and thinkers.
Existentialist novelists were generally seen as a mid-1950s phenomenon that continued until the mid- to late 1970s. Most of the major writers were either French or from French African colonies. Small circles of other Europeans were seen as literary precursors by the existentialists, but literary history increasingly has questioned the accuracy of this perception.
Title: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on December 24, 2011, 04:22:34 PM
                                 Existential psychoanalysis and psychotherapy
 
One of the major offshoots of existentialism as a philosophy is existential psychology and psychoanalysis, which first crystallized in the work of Ludwig Binswanger, a clinician who was influenced by both Freud and Heidegger, and Sartre, who was not a clinician but wrote theoretical material about existential psychoanalysis. A later figure was Viktor Frankl, who had studied with Freud and Jung as a young man[citation needed]. His logotherapy can be regarded as a form of existential therapy. An early contributor to existential psychology in the United States was Rollo May, who was influenced by Kierkegaard. One of the most prolific writers on techniques and theory of existential psychology in the USA is Irvin D. Yalom. The person who has contributed most to the development of a European version of existential psychotherapy is the British-based Emmy van Deurzen.
With complete freedom to decide, and complete responsibility for the outcome of decisions, comes anxiety (angst). Anxiety's importance in existentialism makes it a popular topic in psychotherapy. Therapists often use existential philosophy to explain the patient's anxiety. Psychotherapists using an existential approach believe that a patient can harness his anxiety and use it constructively. Instead of suppressing anxiety, patients are advised to use it as grounds for change. By embracing anxiety as inevitable, a person can use it to achieve his or her full potential in life. Humanistic psychology also had major impetus from existential psychology and shares many of the fundamental tenets.
Terror management theory is a developing area of study within the academic study of psychology. It looks at what researchers claim to be the implicit emotional reactions of people that occur when they are confronted with the knowledge they will eventually die.
 
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: safiqul on December 29, 2011, 06:09:07 PM
Nice post.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on January 07, 2012, 04:09:29 PM
Thank you.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: ns.tonmoy on January 15, 2012, 03:15:10 AM
thanks a lot sir this post :) :) :)
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on January 17, 2012, 03:24:03 PM
I am happy to see you here.Read the posted literary theories attentively.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Binoy on January 18, 2012, 03:59:32 PM
I think you would like the following excerpt which analyzes the relationship between modernism and poetry.

Modernism vis-à-vis Poetry
 
Modernism is where we are now, broadly speaking, if we include Postmodernism and experimental poetry. Modernist poetry is the poetry written in schools and poetry workshops, published by thousands of small presses, and reviewed by serious newspapers and literary journals — a highbrow, coterie poetry that isn't popular and doesn't profess to be. To its devotees, Modernist styles are the only way of dealing with contemporary matters, and they do not see them as a specialized development of traditional poetry, small elements being pushed in unusual directions, and sometimes extended beyond the limits of ready comprehension.

The key elements of Modernist poems are experimentation, anti-realism, individualism and a stress on the cerebral rather than emotive aspects. Previous writing was thought to be stereotyped, requiring ceaseless experimentation and rejection of old forms. Poetry should represent itself, or the writer's inner nature, rather than hold up a mirror to nature. Indeed the poet's vision was all-important, however much it cut him off from society or the scientific concerns of the day. Poets belonged to an aristocracy of the avant garde, and cool observation, detachment and avoidance of simple formulations were essential.

Poststructuralist theories come in many embodiments, but shared a preoccupation with language. Reality is not mediated by what we read or write, but is entirely constituted by those actions. We don't therefore look at the world through a poem, and ask how whether the representation is true or adequate or appropriate, but focus on the devices and strategies within the text itself. Modernist theory urged us to overlook the irrelevancies of author's intention, historical conventions and social context to assess the aesthetic unity of the poem. Poststructuralist criticism discounts any such unity, and urges us to accept a looser view of art, one that accords more with everyday realities and shows how language suppresses alternative views, particularly those of the socially or politically disadvantaged.

Experimental poetry takes the process further, taking its inspiration from advertising, and deploying words as graphic elements.

Modernism has no precise boundaries. At its strictest, in Anglo-American literature, the period runs from 1890 to 1920 and includes Joyce, Pound, Eliot and Wyndham Lewis among many others. But few of its writers shared common aims, and the term was applied retrospectively. Very largely, the themes of Modernism begin well back in the nineteenth century, and many do not reach full expression until the latter half of the twentieth century, so that Modernism is perhaps better regarded as part of a broad plexus of concerns which are variably represented in a hundred and twenty years of European writing.

Modernism is a useful term because writing in the period, especially that venerated by academia and by literary critics, is intellectually challenging, which makes it suitable for undergraduate study. Many serious writers come from university, moreover, and set sail by Modernism's charts, so that the assumptions need to be understood to appreciate contemporary work of any type. And quite different from these is the growing suspicion that contemporary writing has lost its way, which suggests that we may see where alternatives lie if we understand Modernism better.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: nafrin on January 29, 2012, 01:18:16 PM
notes for all thx
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Antara11 on January 31, 2012, 12:01:20 PM
Interesting and helpful job. Carry on sir!

Antara Basak
Lecturer
Dept. of English
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on February 23, 2012, 11:51:01 AM
Thank you.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Bhowmik on February 25, 2012, 06:22:12 PM
effective post.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on March 04, 2012, 03:37:16 PM
Thank You.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Binoy on June 21, 2015, 04:32:05 PM
A good comparison between Modernism and Postmodernism has been presented. I find another crucial different between the two. While modernism stands for order, postmodernism stands for disorder.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Shahriar Mohammad Kamal on June 22, 2015, 09:21:24 AM
Good initiative.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Afroza Akhter Tina on June 23, 2015, 11:53:58 AM
I love to read 'Psychoanalytic' theory in connection with 'stream of consciousnesses' technique.Wish to share more in future.Thank you NM sir for sharing the ideas  :)




Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Shampa Iftakhar on June 23, 2015, 01:28:56 PM
Thanks for sharing. :)
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Afroza Akhter Tina on June 25, 2015, 10:35:14 AM
I like the 'psychoanalytic' theory in connection to 'stream of consciousness' technique while reading 'post post colonial' texts...





Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Subrata.eng on June 26, 2015, 10:13:21 PM
Wonderful, wonderful indeed.

We expect such post more & more.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Afroza Akhter Tina on June 27, 2015, 03:10:31 PM
I love to read the Psychoanalytic theory in relation to the 'stream of consciousness' technique in post post colonial texts... :)





Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on June 29, 2015, 01:20:43 PM
Thank you.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on June 29, 2015, 01:50:46 PM
I will try.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Shahriar Mohammad Kamal on June 29, 2015, 02:51:08 PM
Good description.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Md. Nuruzzaman Moral on June 29, 2015, 02:54:43 PM
Thank you.
Title: Re: Important Literary Theories
Post by: Afroza Akhter Tina on June 30, 2015, 11:47:51 AM
'The Bluest Eye' can be a very good reading in this regard  :)




Afroza Akhter Tina
Senior Lecturer
Department of English, DIU