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Jamdani, one of the finest Muslin textiles with its roots in Dhaka District, Bangladesh for centuries, but not yet legally registered. It is a hand woven, fine cotton fabric deftly embellished with intricate motifs that are expertly woven into the fabric. The historic production of jamdani was patronized by imperial warrants of the Mughal emperors. Under British colonialism, the Bengali jamdani and muslin industries rapidly declined due to colonial import policies favoring industrially manufactured textiles.
In more recent years, the production of jamdani has witnessed a revival in Bangladesh. According to Bangladesh Handloom Board, the number of Jamdani weaving units in the country is 12,383. Bangladesh's export of Jamdani was worth US$ 6.12 million in fiscal 2013-14 as against US$ 1.49 million in the fiscal 2008-09.
A year after Bangladesh enacted a law to provide geographical identity to it historical products Jamdani has yet to be registered as a geographical indicative product (GI) for lack of rules to consolidate the legal.
The law, Geographical Indicative Products (Registration and Protection) Act 2013, has not been followed by framing of rules. There are no rules yet. So, they could not register Jamdani as GI product under the act, researcher Dr Iftekhar Iqbal said.
The government has to create a legal base by formulating the rules to register the GI products, including Jamdani sarees, under the act.
Iftekhar Iqbal, a teacher of history at the Dhaka University, conducted the study, titled 'Protection of Jamdani as a Geographical Indication in Bangladesh' from September to December in 2013.
The study has found that Jamdani originated in Dhaka while the ecological context of production of cotton and finished Jamadni products are unique in the Dhaka region.
Considering all the historical, geographical, commercial and cultural contexts of Jamdani, the study suggests that Dhaka was and still is its only true centre of production. Through studies it has been established that Jamdani is Dhaka product. So, steps should be taken to register it as a GI product.
India registered Jamdani as Uppada Jamdani Sarees from Andhra Pradesh in 2009. But, UNESCO has recently recognised Jamdani as a Bangladeshi 'intangible cultural heritage of humanity'.
However, the study has shown that there is no combination of geographical, ecological, historical or commercial conditions elsewhere in the world except Dhaka where Jamdani can be produced and traded on a vast scale, both nationally and internationally. The brand name of Jamdani was first applied around mid-16th century or perhaps earlier.
Presenting historical and cultural evidences, the study claims that Jamdani has become a part of national culture and heritage of Bangladesh and such long-term cultural and historical continuity of Jamdani is not matched anywhere else in the world.
Jamdani's irrefutable connection with Dhaka is also clearly reflected in many global trade and exhibitions in both historical and contemporary times.
Iftekhar Iqbal said that Jamdani has to be a unique name, whose geographical location indicator must be Dhaka, not Dhakai Jamdani.
In other words, Dhaka and Jamdani are synonymous. Hence India's registration of Uppada Jamdani under its geographical indication law is illegal and a violation of existing Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) regulation.
He urged the government and international trade organisations to take effective measures to restore Jamdani as Dhaka's own product and heritage.

Textile Engineering / Advance Textile Fibre: PLA ( Corn) Fibre
« on: November 19, 2013, 12:07:15 PM »

PLA is composed of lactic acid, which is produced by converting corn starch into sugar & then fermenting it to get lactic acid.
Lactic acid can be considered a commodity chemical sleeping giant, with advantages including

a) It can be made from biomass
b) It has both an hydroxyl group and a carboxylic acid group
c) It is optically active

Manufacturing Process:

The lactic acid exists in two optical isomers L-isomer & D-L isomer. The polymer produced from D-L isomer by using direct condensation requires solvent under high pressure & high vacuum. Hence L isomer is used. Lactic acid firstly condensed to transform it into short chain PLA. It is then converted into lactic acid by using vacuum distillation. No solvent is required during distillation. The final stage is ring-opening polymerization.

Flow of Manufacturing:

►Corn → Starch → Undefined Dextrose → Fermentation → Lactic acid → Direct polymerization → PLA → Melt spinning → PLA fibre.
►Corn → Starch → Undefined Dextrose → Fermentation → Lactic acid → Vacuum distillation → Condensation → PLA → Melt spinning → PLA fibre.

Lactron (Corn) circulation system in nature:

Microbiological breakdown shows that these products, after their use, can be used as soil conditioner, composted material etc. & the yielded material such as co2 & water again utilized by corn plant for its growth. Hence the fibre is totally eco friendly.

Textile Engineering / Disverse future for Bangladesh Textiles
« on: November 17, 2013, 05:22:04 PM »
 It’s the rapid growth of technical textiles, which now provide essential components in a whole range of applications.  Medical transplants, for instance, used to involve only human or animal parts – now it’s the most refined use of textiles that is also being used.

     The same components  that once went into making your jacket are now helping to provide arteries and aortic heart valves.  Carbon fibre and Polyester, braided together, are providing the same properties as human ligament.

     Other sectors that are drastically reshaping the industry are geotextiles, involved in engineering projects like reinforcing embankments, and protective clothing, providing suits that block heat and radiation, give stab protection and make bulletproof vests.

      According to global manufacturing statistics, production of technical textiles is now growing at four percent a year, while home and clothing textiles is growing at one percent.

      It’s a trend that’s well noted by the National Institute of Textile Training Research and Design, known as NITTRAD, in Bangladesh.  It now includes the teaching of technical textiles as part of its BSc course in textile engineering, at its campus in Savar, near Dhaka.

     The institute has been undergoing a transformation of its own since the operation was handed over by the government to the Bangladesh Textile Mills Association in 2009 as a public-private partnership.  The reborn institute, now privately managed, is much better equipped, with the latest high-tech training installations.

     Help has come from the Better Work and Standards programme of the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, BEST, funded by the European Union and the Norwegian development agency, Norad.  As well as providing equipment for the campus, the programme has been particularly useful in providing international expertise, in the form of tutors and other professionals, and arranging foreign visits for staff.

      The principal of NITTRAD, Dr Ayub Nabi Khan, has high ambitions for his new dynamic institute, but faces a daunting task in supplying a market so hungry for textile talent.

     “The government has given priority to private enterprise, and this place has become a role model for education, research and training in the textile industry. The problem is we have a huge manpower shortage,“ said Dr Khan.

      There are currently 15 universities in Bangladesh with textile departments, and they will double the number of graduates to 6,000 a year within the next three years.  Over the same period, the projected need for graduates will reach 65,000.  The gap will have to be filled with expensive foreign engineers, so anybody leaving NITTRAD or any of the other training institutions is guaranteed a good job.

      Dr Khan is well aware of this challenge facing the country’s textile industry but can see great progress being shown by NITTRAD and is excited by the enormous potential.  “We hope to become the biggest exporter of garments in the world,” he said.

      For the country to get the most from its overall textile potential it will need to keep up with modern trends such as technical textiles.  For this it has the help of one of the leading scientists in the field, Professor Subhash Anand from the University of Bolton in the UK, who lectures at NITTRAD as part of the UNIDO support programme.
      “Although at the moment Bangladesh is producing basic textiles, I think in time as education and awareness increases they will be able to produce these kind of products which are now being made in Europe,” he said.
      The Bangladeshi textile industry has long had to work to the patterns sent to it from abroad but now it is designing an ambitious one of its own, all about its own future.

The textile industry provide the single source of economic growth in Bangladesh’s rapidly developing economy. Exports of textiles and garments are the principal source of foreign exchange earnings. The tremendous success of ready made garment exports from Bangladesh over the last two decades has surpassed the most optimistic expectations.  Today the apparel export sector is a mufti-billion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in the country. The overall impact of the ready made garment exports is certainly one of the most significant social and economic developments in contemporary Bangladesh.  With over one and a half million women workers employed in semi-skilled and skilled jobs producing clothing for exports, the development of the apparel export industry has had far-reaching implications for the society and economy of Bangladesh.
Scope of the Study

This study has focused upon the various problems regarding with the garments company and the prospect of these industries. We have taken 5 garments company to gather data on the present situation of the garments industries as well as problem regarding and the future of the industries.

Limitations of the Report
Since our study is based on both primary and secondary data, there is a possibility of getting fake information. If the surveyed personnel provide us with any fabricated information about their opinion of their organization, then the report findings may be erroneous. Above all, this study is weak in some points. The notable ones are as under:
The survey was conducted in a very short time so we were not able to collect more information.
This survey made on crisis situation of Bangladesh, so it was difficult to collect more samples.
Only the big and the reputed Garments Company consider here as sample.
The questionnaire contains some questions that, if answered properly, might damage the company’s image. In this type of questions, the respondents might provide socially acceptable answers. This risk was unavoidable.
Another limitation of this study is the person’s private information were not disclosing some, data and information for obvious reasons, which could be very much useful.
Lack of experience in this field.
Lack of proper authority to conduct the interview program.

Install Meters to Benchmark Use and Measure Savings:

Installing and operating accurate meters and measuring software are fundamental steps in benchmarking performance and initiating efficiency improvements. Metering is the management tool that underpins all the other practices. It allows plants to evaluate the water and energy efficiency of current practices, identify and respond to leaks or unusual spikes in resource use, and evaluate the effectiveness of any process-improvement measures they take.

RSI assessments revealed that many textile mills in Bangladesh estimate total water, energy, and chemical consumption based on capacity of pumps and machines; they do not know actual total resource use in practice, or the specific resource consumption of different areas in the factory or of major pieces of equipment.
At a minimum, factories need to meter resource use at the main point of supply. Next, they should prioritize workshop-level metering, and then metering at particular machines that consume the most water or energy in the factory.

Meters and measurement software are relatively inexpensive. For more about metering and costs, please see the full report available at
The Best Practices for Saving Water, Energy, Chemicals, and Money RSI focuses on factory infrastructure improvements that would improve the steam production and water heating processes, recycle process water, and recover heat. For each opportunity identified, RSI evaluated the following:

 Costs: both upfront investment and ongoing operational
 Payback period: the time required to recoup upfront investment through savings in water, materials, and energy costs
Resource savings: water, energy, and chemicals
All cost, return, and impact estimations and calculations are based on the four factories audited in Bangladesh, supplemented with previous RSI work in China. The RSI team selected practices based on greatest impact, lowest cost, and quickest return.  These criteria vary somewhat from those used in China because of the differences in circumstances in Bangladesh, such as factories’ pumping groundwater at the site rather than purchasing water from utilities and the use of
natural gas for fuel rather than coal.

Overall, three out of the seven best practices cost less than Tk 410,400 (US $5,000) each, and two cost almost nothing  Costs for two other practices can be lower than Tk 410,400 (US $5,000), depending on the factory. None requires more than 15 months to recoup costs. Each practice delivers savings of:

 One ton or more of water per ton fabric; or
 One percent or more of the factories’ total use of steam, gas, or electricity; or
 Ten percent or more of materials or costs for the targeted activity.

The implications of additive layer manufacturing, or 3D printing, are only just being understood. It will change the way we make things — and change the things we make. Stuart Nathan reports

As the technologies behind additive layer manufacturing, now becoming better known as 3D printing, develop, so too does the hype behind the process. While its potential to change manufacturing is undoubted, the implications of this are not well understood; and while engineers around the world are excited by the process, they are also finding that it its as likely to change what is made as it is to change the way we make things.

The technique’s ability to use different materials from conventional manufacturing processes, and assemble them layer by layer into an intricate design derived digitally is driving it towards niche products which haven’t existed before — and that, it seems, might be the true strength of the technique.

 Cleaner Production is must for Bangladesh for a sustainable future:

Later on Viellatex presented their initiatives for sustainability which was followed by two parallel sessions. At the sustainable raw materials section environmentally preferred fibers were introduced by Mr. Charline of TE. By the time another session for sustainable processing show cased the ways of production optimization. The house discussed on the outcome of IFC-SEDF-Solidaridad Cleaner Production (CP) project. Keynote was given by Tufail Ali Zubdi of NEC Consultants while Md. Zahidullah of DBL group shared the benefits achieved by his company after conducting Cleaner Production program. Session moderator Marieke illustrated that 1700 Washing Dyeing and Finishing (WDF) units of Bangladesh is consuming 56 million tons of waste water and producing 0.5 million tons of sludge discharged annually. She put forward Cleaner Production as campaign of reducing use of resources at source by which load on end of the pipe treatment can be reduced. She informed that so far in CP projects companies have invested USD 480000 while estimated cost savings achieved was USD 1.0 million. As per as DBL presentation the company saved around 3.5 million USD in one year by the CP project.

Among others presentations Ms. Gulshan Ara Munni, Quality Assurance Manager of H&M presented H&M’s model of managing restricted substances while she promised and showed the way they are going to ensure Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals (ZDHC) by 2020. She informed that H&M, Adidas Group, C&A, Li Ning, Nike Inc,Puma, G-Star etc. are with the ZDHC campaign and more brands are joining.  At the responsible chemical sourcing session Huntsman & Novozymes presented their products that can reduce environmental footprints and can contribute for sustainability. Before moving to open discussion session Control Union Country Manager Mr. Mark Prose explained his companies services that can help other companies in supply chain to claim returns for their sustainable practices.

In future is it possible to produce natural fibres having characteristics of synthetic fibres without planting and harvesting? Or production of naturally dyed fibres which eliminate totally dyeing procedure? Can silk fibres be produced from the source other than silk worm and dyed it in dyebath prepared from textile dye effluents?

Yes! All aforesaid possibilities can be addressed through a powerful biological tool known as "Biotechnology". With the advent of genetic engineering, technology has reached a stage where synthetic polymers, ie, polyester fibres can be etched with the help of enzymes. We even have exciting discoveries wherein synthetic analogous of functional groups in enzymes are prepared to act in a similar manner as natural enzymes, a technology appropriately termed as "bio-mimicking" (13).

Biotechnology is an abbreviation of "biological technology" and has been defined as "the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services." Biotechnology is not a single technology, it can be considered as a group of inter-related technologies that are applicable to a broad range of manufacturing industries as well as agriculture. It is said to be the harbinger of third industrial revolution (first two being steam power and microprocessor) (14).

The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms for transferring genetic material (genes) from one organism to another (12). Impetus to the use of DNA probes in textile industry has come from importers to identify the products and overcome the labelling frauds such as to distinguish between wool and cashmere. Other areas where biotechnology is aiding are wet processing, treatment of effluents to remove colour and heavy metals, additive in aftercare products (detergents), production of dyes, surfactants, biosensors and genetic modification as well as production of biopolymers (9).

Various definitions are given for the term biotechnology by different institutes:

    The United States Office of Technology Assessment has defined biotechnology as "any technique that uses living organisms (or parts of organisms) to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses" (9).

    The definition given by the American Chemical Society involves "the use of living organisms to carry out chemical processes or to manufacture products" (10).

    In 1981 the European federation of biotechnology defined Biotechnology as ‚Integrated use of three disciplines i.e. Biochemistry, Microbiology and Chemical Engineering in order to achieve the technological application of the capacities of microbes and cultured tissue cells (12).

    An application of biotechnology in textile industry offers the ability to increase production, improve quality and functionality, reduce costs and protect the environment. Research within textile biotechnology is very broad and involves areas such as enzymology, chemistry, fibre testing, textile technology and effluent treatment process technology.

Areas of applications of biotechnology in the textile industry

    Improvement of plant varieties used in the production of textile fibres and in fibre properties.

    Improvement of fibres derived from animals and health care of the animals.

    Novel fibres from biopolymers and genetically modified micro-organisms.

    Replacement of harsh and energy demanding chemical treatments by enzymes in textile processing.

    Environmentally friendly routes to textile auxiliaries such as dyestuffs.

    Novel uses for enzymes in textile finishing.

    Development of low energy enzyme based detergents.

    New diagnostic tools for detection of adulteration and Quality Control of textiles.

    Waste management.

Thus the use of biotechnology holds promise for less environmental damage than harsh chemicals and for improvements in processing and in tailoring properties for specific applications. Therefore keeping in view benefits of biotechnology, application of biotechnology in textile sector must have following objectives5:

The primary objectives of the application of biotechnology in textile are:

    To develop environment- friendly production technologies for textile industry.

    To save resources like energy and chemicals.

    To improve the quality of final product.

This will be achieved by exchanging research information within world's research units active in textile biotechnology oriented research. The secondary objectives are the following:

    To increase basic as well as applied knowledge required to set up quality standards for assessing textile materials using physical, chemical and instrumental techniques.

    To develop standards and to support the fledgling non-textile end-users by providing quality characteristics for textile material assessment.

    Understanding of the structure-function relationships of textile materials.

    Evaluation of the potential of existing and novel enzyme activities on the properties of textile materials.

Thus the major areas of application of biotechnology in textile industry are: Production (Biopolymers), Processing (Enzymology), and Waste Management (Bioremediation)

Environmental Science and Disaster Management / Vulcanized Fibre
« on: September 09, 2013, 03:34:29 PM »

   Vulcanized fibre is a laminated plastic composed of only cellulose. The material is a tough, resilient, hornlike material that is lighter than aluminium, tougher than leather, and stiffer than most thermoplastics. The newer wood-laminating grade of vulcanized fibre is used to strengthen wood laminations used in skis, skateboards, support beams and as a sub-laminate under thin wood veneers.

 Commercial Grade; standard grey, black or red, used for many applications such as washers, gaskets, gears, handles, etc.
    Electrical Grade: high dielectric grey, 100% cotton, very flexible, (historically called fishpaper), this grade is suitable for layer and ground insulation and has variations including top-stick grade used for wedges in small motors.
    Trunk Fibre: Tough and abrasion resistant; used to surface steamer trunks, drum cases, wear and skid panels.
    Bone Fibre: Exceptionally hard and dense, used for tight machining, tubing, pool cue ferrules (tips), cut out fuses.
    Wood Laminating: Tough, multi-directional tensile and torsion strength, provides support and strength wherever wood laminations are used, particularly used under thin and exotic veneers as a stabilizer/strengthener.

Milk fiber was invented in 1930’s in Italy and America to compete wool. The fiber known as ARALAC, Lanatil, Merinova all different brands for the same fiber manufactured from milk casein fell victim to their minor flaws and the war.

Today’s Milk fiber is environmentally friendly, superior in strength and has far better qualities than man-made fibers. Some of the advantages of milk fiber :

    Milk fiber adopts continues graft copolymerization techniques. The producing process has no effect on environment and formaldehyde in the products is zero. So milk fiber can be considered as ‘green product’.

    Milk fiber is a new synthetic fiber, which adopts milk protein as main material and high-technical process. Milk fiber has the advantages natural fiber combined with synthetic fiber. Milk fiber PH is 6.8 which is the same to human skin. Milk fiber contains seventeen amino-acids and natural anti-bacterial rate is above eighty percent. So milk fiber has sanitarian function.

    Dyeing stuff for milk fiber is reactive, acid or cationic dyes. Milk fiber is made from milk casein, instead of fresh milk.

Bananas are the fourth-largest fruit crop and the most popular fruit in the world. They are also very nutritious, with each medium banana containing 105 calories, 22 percent of the daily value for vitamin B-6, 17 percent of the DV for vitamin C and 12 percent of the DV for both potassium and fiber. While bananas are a good source of soluble fiber, they are not high in fiber or soluble fiber; to be high in a nutrient, a food must contain at least 20 percent of the daily value.

Banana fibers expand when wet, naturally creating cavities. Accordingly, the more moisture or water is absorbed, so its diffusiveness improves. In other words, they efficiently absorb perspiration and water, and then dry quickly.
Shirts with banana fibers blended into the fabric are highly regarded for their comfort when worn - especially in summer.

Truly ecological! No additional fields required!

Natural materials have recently been attracting more attention, and dedicated acreage is necessary just to harvest fibers from cotton, linen, and eucalyptus, which is the raw material for tencel fiber. However, banana has long been grown as a product for both export and local consumption, so there are already established plantations for food production. Since the stems used to produce these fibers were previously just discarded amidst the banana harvest, no new cultivated acreage is required.

In the bound-resist method of hand-dying a scarf, we can use string and marbles. The marbles form a pattern resembling flowers or diamonds on the fabric. The two-part dying process described here uses silk blanks in a technique that involves immersion dyeing (in two steps) and a shibori resist technique to create pattern.

Shibori is a Japanese technique for wrapping fibers to create areas that resist dyes. You can create exciting color patterns by experimenting with resists and dyes.

Gather these materials:

    Four 11 x 60-inch crepe de chine silk scarf blanks

    An unexhausted acid dye bath

    Leftover acid dyes


    White cotton string

    Glass marbles

    Place the blank scarves in a warm presoak with 1⁄2 teaspoon Synthrapol. Allow them to soak for at least 1 hour.

An unexhausted dye bath with a visible amount of leftover dye will dye the scarves a pale overall color. You may add more dye to the unexhausted bath to deepen the color. Add more dye in small increments (25ml at a time). Check the dye bath, making sure the pH range is between 4 and 6. Add 1 teaspoon citric acid crystals if needed.

Add the scarves to the dye bath and gradually raise the temperature of the bath to 185°F (85°C).
Do not let the temperature go beyond this point or it will ruin the luster of the silk. Allow the scarves to simmer for 30 minutes.

When the dye bath has cooled completely, rinse the scarves in warm water. Then hang them on a rack to dry.

Tie thin cotton string around glass marbles placed beneath the scarf.

DIN V Test Method 53160-1, Colorfastness to Saliva; Determination of the colorfastness of articles in common use Part 1: Resistance to artificial saliva

Scope: This test method is used to determine the fastness of colored textiles to the affects of simulated saliva

        Sample is paired with a filter paper strip
        Saturated with artificial saliva solution
        Placed in an oven for 2 hours to simulate exposure
        Color change of the sample and staining of the filter paper is evaluated



Hate throwing out flowers? Use them to create natural dye for your fabric! This would be so cute to use for curtains, t-shirts, dresses, bedsheets, pillowcases, or just fabric- the sky’s the limit. In the above photo, lace was used. But it looks great on solid fabric, too. This recipe is so easy and has a very satisfying result!

Steps of Dyeing:

   1.  Take the petals off the flowers and chop into little pieces.
    2. Put cut up petals in a pot of water that’s double the ratio. [For example, 1 cup of flowers = 2 cups of water]
    3. Bring water to a boil and then turn flame down so that it simmers for about an hour.
    4. While your roses are boiling, place your fabric in a bucket [or sink] of cold water.  Add a splash of vinegar and let it soak until the dye is ready. If you are making an ombre effect, only soak half of the material, while the other half hangs off the side of the bucket/sink.
    5. Once an hour passes, squeeze the excess water from the fabric and strain out the now-white petals from the dye and turn off the flame.  Add a drop of lemon or lime to the dye.
    6. Place the wet half of the fabric into the bowl of dye for about 10 minutes [or until you get a very light shade of color].  After 10 minutes, pull the fabric upwards so that a few inches are now lifted out of the dye.  After 10 more minutes, repeat the process, until you are at the very end of the fabric. The tip of the fabric should soak for an hour or until it reaches the color desired.
   7. Run the fabric under cold water and let it air dry [or you can throw it into the dryer].

The greatest used class of compounds used in dyestuffs are azo compounds. There are azo dyes that have been found to be potential carcinogens. These were first regulated in the EU by Germany and the list is commonly called the German banned dye list. If a product has not been made using these compounds, it is sometimes called azo free. It is misleading, since the number of dyes on that list is very small as compared to the total number of azo dyes which are still used.

In short, some azo-based dyes (Azo dye group III A1 and A2) shed carcinogenic aryl amines as the garments are worn (they contain metallic elements) creating health risks, according to the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. Azo-dyed garments may also contain toxic chemicals such as chlorine bleach.

For example, your vibrant yellow sweater may contain an azo dye with 4-hydro-xyphenylazobenzene, or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (and you didn't have to pay extra!).

Given that baby's skin has a natural sensitivity and an undeveloped derma, the health risk of exposure to aromatic azo dyes is very high. The key benefit of azo-free dyes is the removal of the metallic component, which can create a textile-induced chemical sensitivity, or worse.

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