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Topics - Tahsina

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English / Motivating students
« on: October 19, 2017, 11:58:03 PM »
I am sharing a short article (4 page only) by Mu Fengying who describes the Chinese culture in classes (very similar to our village schools and sometimes Dhaka ones too). What I liked about the article is the differentiation between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced testing and how the latter should be able to motivate students more. Please have a look.

English / Assessment
« on: October 11, 2017, 01:22:52 AM »
A group of English Department faculty members has enrolled in the Art of Everyday Classroom Assessment of English Language Learners course online. This course is provided as part of the American English (AE) E-Teacher Program. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of State. The 5-week long course commenced from 25th September.

Every week what we learn, the reading materials we are given has to be shared with others outside the course. Therefore, I am taking this platform as a means to cascade the knowledge I am receiving there. I would be grateful if teachers who are NOT enrolled in the online course, can read/respond to the ideas here.

Today I am sharing a few articles.
1. The first article tells you why it is important to have the assessment matched with the learning goals and how you can do it.
2. The second article shows some ways to have summative assessments.
3. The last two articles show ways to have formative assessments.   

Student's Project / William Shakespeare: In Students’ Eyes
« on: July 17, 2016, 12:13:40 PM »
APRIL 23 - Historians believe Shakespeare was born on this day in 1564, the same day he died in 1616.

The plays of Shakespeare are the most widely read in the English language. There used to be a time when people worshiped him so much and they had so much reverence for his creation, that adhering strictly to his work was primarily important. But with the change of time, we have seen so many varieties of adoption to his plays and other works that it has become in interesting field.

Thus to commemorate the 400th year after Shakespeare’s death, the students of Shakespeare: Comedy & Tragedy course will create alternate endings for 4 plays i.e. As You Like It, The Merchant of Venice, Hamlet, and Macbeth and enact them on stage as part of their course work.

The program will take place in the afternoon in the Auditorium of Uttara Campus on 8th August (Monday) 2016.

English / The Perfect Woman
« on: October 26, 2015, 10:38:35 AM »
Please go to the following link and watch the 2minute 14 second video.

I think all modern/ post-modern women need to see this.
Shelly Brown's video on Facebook already has 1,463,941 Views. She just posted it in September.

Heat can affect anyone, but most at risk are the elderly, children, the poor and those with pre-existing medical conditions. Also those who are outdoors often, like athletes and laborers, are also in danger.

The number one thing that you can use to protect yourself from extreme heat is air conditioning. If you have to be outdoors, try to schedule your activities to avoid the hottest points of the day. Take frequent breaks and cool showers or baths to keep your temperature down. Never leave a child, person or pet in a closed vehicle.

In hot weather, people should stay hydrated and try to keep their body temperature down. Sipping on water may help you regulate temperature. "Water is the ideal fluid for hydration, and it is recommended to avoid excessive amounts of caffeine, which can lead to dehydration," Dr. Robert Glatter, an emergency medicine physician at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York, previously told "Sports or energy drinks, which contain high amounts of caffeine as well as sugar, and are not recommended in the setting of extreme heat as they also predispose individuals to great amounts of water loss and subsequent dehydration."

Wear appropriate clothing for the weather, even if you are indoors. Loose, lightweight clothing in light colors is usually best.

Make sure you pay attention to any heat-related announcements on local news or weather channels. Know what the signs of heat-related illness are: Two of the most common sicknesses during heat waves are heat stroke and heat exhaustion.

Heat stroke occurs when the body cannot regulate its own temperature or increased heat production, which overwhelms the body's ability to get rid of excess heat. The victim may experience a body temperature higher than 103 degrees F, dizziness, nausea, confusion, headache and unconsciousness. Their skin may be red, hot and dry, and despite their temperature, they may not be sweating. Such patients may initially develop nausea, abdominal cramping, vomiting, muscle cramping dizziness headache difficulty breathing which can precede the onset of heatstroke, and may go unnoticed.

"There are two forms of heatstroke which need to be differentiated," Glatter said to "Classic heatstroke, which occurs during heat waves, is more common in the elderly and very young persons. It should be suspected in elderly, young people, and older persons who are chronically ill who develop confusion and altered mental status,"he said.

"Exertional heat stroke can affect young and healthy people who engage in vigorous physical activity in the heat," Glatter added. "It should be suspected in people with irrational and strange behavior in the heat, or a history of fainting during strenuous exercise. In this case, heatstroke is the result of increased heat production, which overwhelms the body's capacity to dissipate heat."

If untreated, heat stroke may lead to permanent disability or death in either type. When you see someone experiencing heat stroke, get them to a cooler area and try to drop their temperature to 101 or 102 degrees F by putting them in cool water or a cool shower. Loosen or remove any heavy clothing. Do not give them anything to drink, and seek immediate medical attention.

"If there is a major mood change like irritability, confusion or disorientation, seek medical attention immediately and start to cool them off with ice packs to the armpits, groin and back of neck," Dr. Thomas Waters, staff physician for Cleveland Clinic's Emergency Services Institute, suggested in a statement.

When a person is having heat exhaustion, which is a milder form of heat stroke, they typically are reacting to a lack of fluids after being exposed to hot temperatures. Heat exhaustion can manifest a few days after the heat event as well. A person may have heavy sweating, paleness, muscle cramps, tiredness, weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting and fainting. The person could have a fast, weak pulse and breathing rate, and their skin may feel cool and moist.

If you see someone going through heat exhaustion, get them to a cool area and have they drink cool, nonalcoholic beverages. If their symptoms persist more than an hour, seek medical help.


Good Morning. It is only my fourth time delivering a speech in public. One was a practice, to a group of 20. One was a private event that was closed to the media. And then there was my brother’s wedding, where much imbibing had already occurred. So if I seem nervous, forgive me, because I am. I’m a little emotional too.
My name is Monica Lewinsky. Though I have often been advised to change it, or asked why on earth I haven’t. But, there we are. I haven’t.
I am still Monica Lewinsky.
You are an audience of young superachievers, on average probably 15 years younger than me. Lucky, lucky you. And your youth is one of the reasons I wanted to talk to you today.
It does mean, though, that some of you might be asking: “Who the h ell is she, this Monica? And what is she doing here?” And maybe even, “What is she doing in all those rap lyrics?”
Thank you, Beyonce and Eminem. And Nicki Minaj and Kid Cudi, Lil B and Lil Wayne, and of course G-eazy. But let’s not forget Jeezy, and all the rest.
So allow me to briefly recap my story. Sixteen years ago, fresh out of college, a 22-year-old intern in the White House — and more than averagely romantic – I fell in love with my boss in a 22-year-old sort of a way. It happens. But my boss was the President of the United States. That probably happens less often.
Now, I deeply regret it for many reasons. Not the least of which is that people were hurt. And that’s never okay.
But back then, in 1995, we started an affair that lasted, on and off, for two years.  And, at that time, it was my everything. That, I guess you could say, was the golden bubble part for me; the nice part. The nasty part was that it became public. Public with a vengeance.
Thanks to the internet and a website that at the time, was scarcely known outside of Washington DC but a website most of us know today called the Drudge report. Within 24 hours I became a public figure, not just in the United States but around the entire globe. As far as major news stories were concerned, this was the very first time that the traditional media was usurped by the Internet.
In 1998, as you can imagine, there was a media frenzy. Even though it was pre-Google, (that’s right, pre-Google). The World Wide Web (as we called it back then) was already a big part of life.
Overnight, I went from being a completely private figure to a publicly humiliated one. I was Patient Zero.
The first person to have their reputation completely destroyed worldwide via the Internet. There was no Facebook, Twitter or Instagram back then. But there were gossip, news and entertainment websites replete with comment sections and emails could be forwarded.
Of course, it was all done on the excruciatingly slow dial-up. Yet around the world this story went. A viral phenomenon that, you could argue, was the first moment of truly “social media.”
If only I could collect some royalties.
How on earth did this happen?
A sexual harassment case against a sitting President (brought by someone else, not me);  a politically motivated independent prosecutor; a so-called friend, who had surreptitiously audio-taped over 20 hours of private and intimate phone chats.
(Turned out, not so private because she then turned them over to the same prosecutor.)
The confluence of these events were against a changing media backdrop with the advent of the 24 hour cable news networks and the internet, a perfect political media storm brewed.
This is what my world looked like: I was threatened in various ways. First, with an FBI sting in a shopping mall. It was just like you see in the movies. Imagine, one minute I was waiting to meet a friend in the food court and the next I realized she had set me up, as two FBI agents flashed their badges at me.
Immediately following, in a nearby hotel room, I was threatened with up to 27 years in jail for denying the affair in an affidavit and other alleged crimes. Twenty-seven years. When you’re only 24 yourself, that’s a long time.
Chillingly, told that my mother too might face prosecution if I didn’t cooperate and wear a wire; (and, in case you didn’t know, I did not wear the wire). My friends and my family were subpoenaed to testify against me.
For the first several months, I was unable to speak to my younger brother who was in college and some other family members to protect them from being dragged into the legal fray. Before a Grand Jury seated in the case of The United States vs. Lewinsky, I was called upon to testify to a room full of strangers on unimaginably intimate details of my life. Unimaginably intimate details which were later made public in a report online.
During this period, I gradually came to realize that there were two Monica Lewinskys. Yes, the world was big enough for two of us. There was me. And there was public Monica Lewinsky, a somewhat curious character constructed by political factions and the media, constructed with a little fact and a lot of fiction.
My friends didn’t know that Monica; my family didn’t know that Monica; and this Monica – the real Monica standing here today — didn’t know her either.
Let me tell you about being publicly separated from your truth. And I mean publicly in the broadest sense, because we all have our publics.
Being publicly separated from your truth is one of the classic triggers of anxiety, depression and self-loathing.
And the greater the distance between the you people want you to be and the you you actually are, the greater will be your anxiety, depression, sense of failure and shame.
When I ask myself how best to describe how the last 16 years has felt, I always come back to that word: Shame. My own personal shame, shame that befell my family, and shame that befell my country – our country.
Frankly, I came close to disintegrating. No, it’s not too strong a word. I wish it were,  but it isn’t.
That I didn’t (or not completely) when things were at their worst was mainly thanks to the compassion of my friends and my family.
They gave me their love and support; we shared a lot of gallows humor – a lot. And critically – critically — they continued reflecting back to me, the real me.
But these are all just words. What does it actually feel like? What does it really feel like to watch yourself – or your name and likeness—to be ripped apart online?
Some of you may know this yourself. It feels like a punch in the gut. As if a stranger walked up to you on the street and punched you hard and sharp in the gut.
For me, that was every day in 1998. There was a rotation of worsening name calling and descriptions of me. I would go online, read in a paper or see on TV people referring to me as: tramp, slut, whore, tart, bimbo, floozy, even spy.
The New York Post’s Page Six took to calling me, almost daily, the Portly Pepperpot. I was shattered.
Thankfully, people aren’t punched every day on the street. But it happens all the time on the internet. Even as I’m talking to you now, this is happening to someone online. And depending on what you guys are tweeting, this may be happening to me later.
The experience of shame and humiliation online is different than offline. There is no way to wrap your mind around where the humiliation ends — there are no borders.
It honestly feels like the whole world is laughing at you. I know. I lived it.
A flashback. When the Starr Report was released online, on September 11, 1998, I  was holed up in a New York City hotel room with my Sony Vaio laptop and a horrifically slow connection.
To keep me company, I had a gargantuan supply of peanut M&M’s — my form of Xanax for the day.
Staring at the computer screen, I spent the day shouting: “Oh my god!” and “I can’t believe they put that in.” Or “That’s so out of context.”
And those were the only thoughts that interrupted a relentless mantra in my head: I want to die.
This was different than the embarrassment I felt when my younger brother read my diary, or when my 7th grade crush shared the love letter I had written him with everyone he knew.
Now, my brother – and all his fraternity brothers – were privy to my most intimate details. As were my dad and his fellow doctors. And my stepdad, and his World War 2 war buddies. My stepmom and her knitting circle. Even both my grandmothers, then in their 80s, knew about the internet. My whole family. My friends. My friends’ parents. My parents’ friends.
I would read later that when Congress released the Starr Report online it was the first time you missed history being made if you didn’t have access to the internet.
But almost worse, I knew, as I painstakingly read each word that there was not a connected person in the world who wasn’t reading it too.
The image of strangers reading the report was endless – there was no border. That amplified by a thousand fold the shame and humiliation I felt.
I couldn’t imagine ever showing my face in public again. I cringed. I yelled. I sobbed. And the mantra continued: I just want to die.
Let’s come back to now, to 2014.
We are all vulnerable to humiliation, private and public figures alike. (I’m sure Jennifer Lawrence would agree with that. Or any of the 90,000 people whose private Snapchat pictures were released last week during “the Snappening”).
The consequences can be devastating. And anyone can be next. One day in 2010, an 18-year-old Rutgers freshman called Tyler Clementi, was next. After his roommate secretly videotape streamed him via Webcam kissing another man, Tyler was derided and ridiculed online.
A few days later, submerged in the shame and public humiliation, he jumped from the George Washington Bridge to his death.
That tragedy is one of the principal reasons I am standing up here today. While it touched us both, my mother was unusually upset by the story and I wondered why. Eventually it dawned on me: she was back in 1998, back to a time when I  was periodically suicidal; when she might very easily have lost me; when I, too, might have been humiliated to death.
Tyler’s story is meaningful to me. His parents, whom I have now met, have set up the Tyler Clementi Foundation in his memory.
The outstanding mission of that foundation is to promote – I am quoting now – “safe, inclusive and respectful social environments for vulnerable youth, LGBT youth and their allies.”  The Clementi’s tragedy was four years ago.
Quite sadly, the trend of being humiliated to death online has only continued.
Of the cyberbullying related suicides in the last decade, 43% have occurred since Tyler sadly jumped from that bridge. And that’s not even including stats for last year.
Among young Facebook users, close to 54% say they’ve been cyberbullied.
College kids? One in 5 report being victims of cyberbullying; 1 in 4 for young women. And it’s not just those younger than you, it’s my generation and above, too. No one is immune.
It’s been said: It takes a lifetime to build a good reputation but you can lose it in a minute.  That’s never been more true than today.
You’re not here in this room by accident. You’re here, all of you, because of your reputations in your chosen fields, your reputations as talented, driven, serious people with something important to contribute to the world.
Reputation is important to everybody whether you’re exceptional people like yourselves or people who count themselves as ordinary.
A reputation isn’t like a fashion accessory or a status symbol: an Apple watch, a Tesla or even an engagement ring from Tiffany’s (though I wouldn’t mind one of those).
It’s part of who you are. It’s part of who you are, socially and professionally. It’s part of how you think about yourselves. It’s part of your personal and your public identity. Lose it, as you so easily can, and you lose an integral part of yourself.
That’s what happened to me in 1998 when public Monica – that Monica, that woman – was born. The creature from the media lagoon.
I lost my reputation. I was publicly identified as someone I didn’t recognize. And I lost my sense of self. Lost it, or had it stolen; because in a way, it was a form of identity theft.
Today, I think of myself as someone who – who the hell knows how – survived. Believe me, denial can be pretty useful still, but these days I need it less and less and in smaller and smaller doses.
But having survived myself, what I want to do now is help other victims of the shame game survive too. I want to put my suffering to good use and give purpose to my past.
Remember the words of Carl Rogers, the psychologist, “the most personal is the most universal.” People who share with me their experiences often qualify what they say. “Oh, it was a nightmare for me but of course nothing compared to what happened to you.”
What I say to them is, if I drowned in 60 feet of water, and you in 30, is there really a difference? We both drowned.
But there are those who say, Monica, why don’t you just shut up? Why don’t you just go away? They said it in June, after a piece I wrote in Vanity Fair, my first public words in over ten years. And they will say it today after this one, my first major public talk, ever, and they will say it tomorrow and the day after that.
“They” never shut up.
The problem is that I believe in the power of story. In the power of stories to inspire, comfort, educate and change things for the better: fictional stories, stories from history, news stories and yes, personal stories.  I believe my story can help.
Help to do something to change the culture of humiliation we inhabit and that inhabits us. I had been publicly silent for a decade. But now, I must – as T.S. Eliot’s Prufrock said – disturb the universe.
Prufrock didn’t. I understand and empathize with him. But in the end, I’m no Prufrock. Bystander apathy is half the problem. I’d much rather be part of the solution. I don’t know which came first: the coarsening of the culture or the worsening of behavior.
Either way, what we need is a radical change in attitudes — on the internet, mobile platforms and in the society of which they are a part.
Actually, what we really need is a cultural revolution. Online, we’ve got a compassion deficit – an Empathy Crisis — and something tells me that matters a lot more to most of us.
Oscar Wilde wrote: “I have said that behind sorrow there is always sorrow. It were wiser still to say that behind sorrow there is always a soul.  And to mock at a soul in pain is a dreadful thing.”
My feelings, exactly.
Thank you for your time.


Grammar / Grammar for communicating in English
« on: June 02, 2015, 11:00:17 AM »
Please participate in the poll on the use of grammar in today's communicative world.

Grammar / Grammar in today's life
« on: June 02, 2015, 10:50:08 AM »
I am writing this post because I got an email from one of my students undertaking 'Elementary English Grammar' course this semester (Summer 2013) last night. He asked me, what would be the voice change of the sentence 'I go to school'. In reply I sent him the following link so that he gets clarification about transitive and intransitive verbs:

But his email made me think deeply about grammar and its position in terms of communication in life. Do we ever use this kind of sentences in practical life - 'Rice was eaten by me'? Or do we use 'I ate rice'? Why do we need to frame English usage within the boundary of grammar? The world is functioning with 'he go' type of sentences. Don't we need to focus more on functional English?

Bangladeshi students and teachers alike have a tendency to over emphasize grammar in terms of learning English. I am a product of grammar-translation method. I believe the later generation who studied in communicative method also focused hard on grammar. Can't we get away from it?

English / Games that I practically used in my classes
« on: May 17, 2015, 12:15:29 PM »
In this thread I have planned to give details about some games I play/played/will play in my classes. As these are tried and will be tried, you can adopt a few in your classes too.  :D
Do comment if you have any suggestions or add if you have any games. But please do not copy a game from any source which you didn't practice.

English / 90% of People Can't Pronounce this Whole Poem
« on: May 09, 2015, 01:09:29 PM »
 If you can pronounce correctly every word in this poem, you will be speaking English better than 90% of the native English speakers in the world.

After trying the verses, a Frenchman said he’d prefer six months of hard labor to reading six lines aloud.

Try this:

Have fun!

English / How to settle at work after a holiday break?
« on: May 04, 2015, 10:32:03 AM »
Now ladies and gentlemen, at the onset of this writeup let me tell you that this is not taken from any Internet source. This is a personal feeling imbued thought provoking idea that kicked me when I came to the office and sat at the desk after a 7 day long semester break. The first feeling in the morning was, 'NO! I don't want to go to office!'/ 'Why do people need to go to office?' etc. And I am absolutely sure that my readers (colleagues) have had the same kind of feeling.

I'll suggest the things that work for me in this regard.

First of all, I remind myself of the good family and friends time that I spent during the holidays and tell myself, 'This will again happen after this semester.' Inside I try to look forward to that future.

Next I organize myself and list the things to be done right after coming back to office and get those done one by one, even if all the things cannot be done in a single day.

I start to do things slowly, not in a rush on the first day. The pace settles in and then I do fine in the next days. Having a good chat with colleagues around you about the things you did and things you'll do can also work like a tonic.

Overall, try to get slowly immersed at the work station and things will work fine with you.

And oh! Remember! We don't live to work!  ;D

English / 6 Ways to Unleash Creativity in the Workplace
« on: April 27, 2015, 10:28:52 AM »
The demand for creativity from employees is rising in this age of rapid technological advancement. This is evident when we see multinational companies like Google setting up something known as a the 20 percent program or policy where Google developers get to spend 20 percent of their working hours (a day at work) on side projects. It was an attempt to give employees the time and space to think innovatively. Indeed, the policy works well, with some of the best products of Google (e.g. Google News) originating from the program.

Some of you may think that creativity is an inborn trait rather than something that can be learned and developed. This may be so, but without a conducive environment for creativity to be expressed, how can we expect to see ideas arising from creative employees? This is precisely what this article is about, to show you ways which you can adopt in the workplace to encourage employees to seek innovation in their work.

This article written by Michael Poh is available at

English / 11th Asia TEFL International Conference, Philippines
« on: November 12, 2013, 03:45:29 PM »

The 11th Asia TEFL International Conference 2013 on “Englishes Across Asian Context: Opportunities and Challenges” was an academic multicultural gathering at Ateneo de Manila University’s beautiful green-clad campus. The Opening Ceremony took place at its Irwin Theater on 26th October 2013 with the national anthem and the invocation to Ateneo de Manila Glee Club. The welcome address was presented by Jose Ramon Villarin, S.J., President, Ateneo de Manila University and opening remarks by Hyo Woong Lee, President, Asia TEFL.
Right after the formal ceremony, the insightful keynote speech on “English as a Multicultural Language and its Pedagogical Implications” by Nobuyuki Honna, Professor Emeritus Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan was presented to the hallroom-packed audience. Mr Honna sketched the diffusion and the intercultural adaptation of English language. He showed with proofs how the modified, realistic Japanese English Speaker Model proved to be fruitful for the English learning situation in his country. Variations of word play such as ‘paper driver’, ‘hot carpet’, ‘one-man bus’ etc along with bilingual ambiguity and pun are infused in Japanese English. Thus, he professed for intercultural literacy by improving sensitivity to and tolerance of linguistic diversity. He then provided examples from entries in ESSC (Extremely Short Story Competition) conducted by Japanese Association for Asian Englishes and published in The Japan Times website. 
The 3 day-long conference held 6 Plenary Presentations out of which the followings are worth to be mentioned: “Language Variation and Education” by Ahmar Mahboob, University of Sydney, Australia; “Competence and Capability: Rethinking the Subject English” by Henry Widdowson, University of Vienna, Austria; “Non-native English Speakers and Pronunciation Teaching: Myths, Realities and Practicalities” by Ee Ling Low, National Institute of Education, Singapore; and “Teaching, learning and context: What we can learn from studying the lives and careers of English language teachers” by David Hayes, Brock University, Canada. 
About 400 paper presentations in 18 sessions along with poster presentations, teaching demonstration and workshop sessions in these mind-boggling 3days were held at Loyola Schools of Ateneo de Manila University. There were also Featured Presentations at the conference which would later be published. Professor Dr. Arifa Rahman, presented her research on “Conditions for English Language Learning in Bangladesh: A Sociological Perspective” at one of the sessions. There were two paper presentations by Bangladeshi academicians – “Madrasah Students' Learning Styles, Techniques and Their Preferences” by Harunur Khan (Professor,  Dept. of English, East West University) and “Creating Materials for the Class: A Student-Centered Approach” by Tahsina Yasmin (Assistant Professor, Dept. of English, Daffodil International University). In the midst of all these intellectual discussions and sharing, participants enjoyed lunch at the Loyola Schools Covered Courts.
The Closing Ceremony began with the message by Bernard Spolsky, Publications Executive Director, Asia TEFL, in which he pointed out the changes and transformation of ELT ideologies and practices over the years.
The Turnover ceremony was conducted by Hyo Woong Lee, President, Asia TEFL and Isabel Pefianco Martin, 11th Asia TEFL Conference Chair. They handed over the Asia TEFL drum to Ganakumaran Subramaniam, 12th Asia TEFL Conference Chair. The program came to an end with a multimedia presentation of the 12th Asia TEFL International Conference which would be held in Malaysia in August 2014.
The mingling lingered for one more day on 29th October 2013 for the participants who enrolled for the exciting Villa Escudero tour at the outskirt.

English / Queen Elizabeth I - a male monarch!?
« on: September 07, 2013, 01:47:34 AM »
In his book, The King's Deception, published in March, Steve Berry - an American author proves that the Queen Elizabeth I, who ruled from 1558 to 1603, was not only an imposter, but male.

Berry claims the real Elizabeth died of fever when she was 10 years old. Her governess, Lady Kat Ashley, and guardian, Thomas Parry, were apparently responsible for replacing Elizabeth with a boy from the Cotswold village of Bisley, in Gloucestershire. King Henry VIII, who had barely seen his daughter and was already suffering from severe health problems of his own, was apparently fooled when he visited her.

To read more about the deception in English monarchy, please visit the following link of International Business Times:

English / Research Adda
« on: September 07, 2013, 01:17:24 AM »
As all of you know Ms. Umme Kulsum has started a venture to read a bit more theory by initiating Research Adda. This week we are meeting to discuss Ferdinand de Saussure's 'Course in General Linguistics.'

I'd like to share a few key points that I understood after my reading.

Meaning or significance is not a kind of core or essence inside things. Meaning is always an attribute of things not contained within them.
(1) Meanings given to words are arbitrary. Thus language as a sign system is based on arbitrariness. A language is not a reflection of the world.
(2) Meanings of words are relational. No words can be defined in isolation from other words. Each designates the absence of the characteristics included in the other.
(3) Language constitutes our world; it does not record or label it.

Here's a link that you can also check out:

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