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Topics - mohsina

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BBA Discussion Forum / Land phones -phones without a future
« on: February 12, 2014, 10:46:41 AM »

A decade ago, people who had financial solvency would dream of getting a land phone connection. Land phone was then considered a sign of aristocracy. Many people then depended on one phone - not only land phone owners would be beneficiaries but also the people who lived near them.

People used the land phone as unique mode of communication beyond correspondence over letter. However, people's access to such communication system in general was difficult for not having the service available. People mostly would depend on commercial phones in cities where they would wait in a queue to talk their near and dear ones back at home. They would have to count cost for both incoming and outgoing calls.   

At that time, it was a tough job getting a land phone connection from the then Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB), now Bangladesh Telecommunications Company Ltd (BTCL).

People even had to wait for years for getting a connection. Besides, hectic lobbying and paying kickbacks were the usual norm. In fact, getting a BTTB land phone without paying a substantial amount of bribe was like winning a lottery in Bangladesh, a land phone user recounted.

But times changed after some private land phone operators launched their operations. As the new operators offered low cost line rate with minimal connection charge, the demand of the state owned companys service reduced drastically and people started going for private operators' services.

Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (BTRC) issued a number of licences under PSTN (public switched telephone network) category in 2004 and later. The private operators gained a substantial amount of subscribers. But the leading five operators, out of 11, could not survive for long time due to their involvement with the illegal Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) business. Their operation were first shut in March 2010 and then cancelled. As a result, the growth of the sector halted.

Meanwhile, the demand for land phones fell dramatically across the world following the advent and rapid development of the mobile technology. Mobile technology gained popularity everywhere for its cost advantage and flexible nature. Bangladesh witnessed a similar situation, but before the maturity of its land phone market.

At present, both government and private PSTN operators have just above 1.0 million users. However, the six mobile phone operators have all together around 111 million users. This scenario shows that almost everyone who is adult has a cell phone in the country of 160 million people. Now there is no land phone use among city dwellers generally, except a few government offices.

So it can safely be said, the countrys land phone business is on the verge of extinction. There is no possibility of this sector flourishing in the era of mobile communication. Proper initiatives from both the government and the operators are also absent.

Already, nine private PSTN operators out of 11 have closed down their businesses. The remaining two--RanksTel and Bangla Phone-- are now limping along with state-owned BTCL that is only surviving with no growth. Subscriber-based private land phone operators stood at just above 0.25 million which was more than 0.84 million before shutdown of operation of five PSTN companies in 2010 by the telecom regulator.  Moreover, the BTCL subscribers varied between 0.7 million and 0.9 million in last 11 years, according to data released by its annual report.

Telecom experts also do not see any hope of the service in the future. The 3G consultant of the BTRC Abdullah Ferdous, said, "The landline is a dead issue not only in Bangladesh, but also globally. Only difference is 'history'. Others had a glorious past and we never had one. Our landlines just couldn't take off the ground. Others which flew high are all heading back to their graves!"

In his opinion, public company BTCL could not flourish because of inefficiency and corruption. The private PSTN companies failed because they never really tried to make business out of selling PSTN services. Telecom is a serious business which needs huge investment.

Of the 11 private PSTN operators, operations of five companies-- Dhaka Phone, WorldTel, RanksTel, PeoplesTel and National Telecom - were shut down in March 2010 and their licences were cancelled in May the same year due to their alleged involvement in illegal VoIP business.

Later in 2011 and 2012, licences of RanksTel, WorldTel and National Telecom were revalidated. But only one operator--RanksTel resumed its operation. In the meantime, the companies incurred huge losses due to lack of maintenance of their capital machinery and increased burden of bank loans.

In this situation, no one can think positively about the sector. In the next ten years, perhaps our next generation will not know about the land phone service, like correspondence over letter. Mobile and text messages have reduced the importance of the written letter. Same thing will happen to land phone for innovation of mobile technology.

[The financial Express]

Business Administration / Target costing
« on: February 03, 2014, 03:23:41 PM »

Target costing is the process of determining the maximum allowable cost for a new product and then developing a prototype that can be made for that maximum target cost figure. (Garrison and Noreen, 2000).

Target cost = Anticipated selling price – Desired profit

Target costing principles:

1. Price-led costing.
2. Focus on customers.
3. Focus on design.
4. Cross-functional involvement.
5. Value-chain involvement.
6. Life-cycle orientation.

Faculty Sections / Benefits of guava to loss weight
« on: January 29, 2014, 02:15:17 PM »

Guava is very helpful for those who want to lose weight without compromising with their intake of proteins, vitamins and fiber. Guava, being very high in roughage and very rich in vitamins, proteins and minerals, but with no cholesterol and less digestible carbohydrates, is very filling and satisfies appetite very easily. Just have a medium sized guava in the lunch and you will not feel hungry till night. But ironically, it helps gaining weight in lean and thin people. This is probably due to its richness in nutrients, which keeps your metabolism right helping proper absorption of nutrients.


BBA Discussion Forum / Balance Scorecard Approach
« on: January 26, 2014, 11:37:55 AM »
The Balance Scorecard  (BSC) Approach incorporates non financial performance with financial performance measures. It was introduced by Kaplan and Norton in 1946.

The Balance Scorecard:

Balances financial and non-financial measures.

Balances short and long-term objectives.

Balances performance drivers (leading indicators) with outcome measures (lagging indicators).

The Balance Scorecard approach view the organization from four different perspectives. It provide answer to four basic questions:

Financial Perspective: What must we do to create sustainable economic value?

Internal Business Process Perspective: To satisfy our stakeholders & customers, what must be our level of productivity, efficiency and quality?

Learning and Growth Perspective: To achieve our goals, how must we learn, communicate and grow?

Customer Perspective: What do our customers require from us and how are we doing according to those requirements?

BBA Discussion Forum / Food safety tips
« on: July 30, 2013, 02:53:46 PM »
List of Tips On Food Safety To Prevent Illness Caused by Bacteria Contamination in Foods:

  • Washing hands, cooking foods to proper temperatures, and storing food are key to         preventing food borne illness.
  • Rinse fruits and vegetables under running tap water, including those with skins and rinds that are not eaten. Dry with a paper towel.
  • Washing hands is the number 1 way to prevent getting sick. Teach your children to always wash their hands.
  • Meat quality can be affected when thawing in the microwave, but this is an acceptable way to defrost meat.
  • Wash insulated lunch totes or boxes with hot soapy water after each use.
  • Your child’s lunch could include perishable items (sandwiches, fresh fruit) and shelf-stable items (packaged pudding). Use an insulated lunch box, with an insulated bottle for hot foods or a frozen gel pack or a frozen juice box to keep foods cold.
  • When packing egg or meat sandwiches for school lunches, include an ice pack to ensure these items stay cold.
  • Use leftovers for school lunch. If your child ate the beef stew last night for dinner, serve it up for lunch (place an ice pack in the lunch box though to prevent food illness).
  • Avoid bacteria by buying foods that need to be refrigerated last when you are grocery shopping.
  • Defrost meat in the refrigerator is a good food safety practice.
  • Scrub the cantaloupe before slicing into it to prevent bacteria contamination.
  • If lunches are made at home the night before, keep them in the refrigerator until it’s time to go. Make sure the refrigerator is 40° F or below at all times and use an appliance thermometer to check the temperature.
  • Use a separate cutting board when slicing meat and vegetables to prevent cross contamination of bacteria.
  • While shopping for food, check out the sell by dates to make sure they are current.

Business Administration / imputed cost
« on: July 29, 2013, 04:58:58 PM »
Imputed costs are not actually incurred in some transactions but which are relevant to the decision as they part into a particular situation.This cost doesn’t enter into traditional accounting system but they are being related with economic reality, help in making better decision.

For example,  The owner of a house ha not to pay rent but it should take into consideration in making decision, otherwise cost will be understated.

BBA Discussion Forum / Most Common Interview Mistakes.....
« on: July 28, 2013, 12:35:37 PM »
1. Dressing Inappropriately
2. Arriving Late
3. Bringing a Drink With You
4. Using Your Phone During the Interview
5. Not Knowing Anything About the Company
6.  Fuzzy Resume Facts
7. Not Paying Attention
8. Talking Too Much
9. Not Being Prepared to Answer Questions
10. Badmouthing Past Employers

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