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Pharmacy / Pregnancy: Category C Drugs You Should Avoid
« on: November 06, 2017, 12:16:16 PM »
During my last pregnancy, I had frequent migraine headaches and wondered what medications were safe to take.

With rules about pregnancy medications constantly changing, it can feel overwhelming to know the risks and benefits. It usually comes down to weighing the benefits for a mother with a health condition — even one as simple as a headache — with potential risks to her developing baby.

The problem is, scientists can‘t ethically perform drug testing on a pregnant woman. It's never accurate to say a medication is 100 percent safe, simply because it's never been studied or tested. Instead, doctors assign medications during pregnancy to categories of safety by risk level.
Category    Risk
Category A    The safest drugs to take during pregnancy. No known adverse reactions.
Category B    No risks have been found in humans.
Category C    Not enough research has been done to determine if these drugs are safe.
Category D    Adverse reactions have been found in humans.
Category X    Should never be used by a pregnant woman.

In the middle of the scale, we find ourselves in the murky territory of category C drugs. These are drugs that may be safe, but may be harmful.

Category C Drugs to Avoid

Luckily, there are some guidelines for specific category C drugs that women should avoid during their pregnancies. With these drugs, there is a stronger link to an adverse reaction. Doctors warn pregnant women not to take them.

Below is a sampling of category C medications pregnant women should avoid. Many of them are antibiotics.

An antibiotic with a brand name of "Chloromycetin." This medication, usually given as an injection, is associated with serious blood disorders and gray baby syndrome.
Cipro and Levaquin

These antibiotics could cause problems with the baby's muscle and skeletal growth, joint pain, and potential nerve damage.

A drug used to treat malaria that can damage blood cells in a fetus.

The majority of these types of drugs, used as antimicrobials and antibacterials, cause jaundice in newborns.

An antibiotic that can cause neural tube defects in fetuses.

Can cause withdrawal symptoms in newborns.
Ibuprofen or Motrin

High doses of these can cause many serious problems, including:

    delayed onset of labor
    premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus
    hemorrhaging for both mom and baby
    necrotizing enterocolitis
    fetal kernicterus
    abnormal vitamin K levels

Be sure to speak to your doctor if you are unsure if a medication is safe to take during your pregnancy. Also ask about updated studies, as medication categories can change with new research.

According to the Associated Press, the FDA was able finally to prove that the chickens who are being given the drug, the examinations held over them are actually positive for inorganic arsenic.

This problem was in a sort of why ignored for a long time, however the FDA decided that this is the right time to say once and for all that the chicken meat which is found in the stores in the USA is consisted of arsenic, this represent an extreme toxic chemical which created cancer, plus is life threating when used in high doses. However, the real story it originates from where exactly it appears from: It’s added to the chicken feed with intention! A long time ago more specifically in 2006, the IATP’s report Playing Chicken: Avoiding Arsenic inside the meat you eat, it was shown that more than 70 percent of all U.S. chickens who are kept in order to be used as meat are filled with arsenic. The reason for including the arsenic inside the meat is for quicker gaining of weight on less feed, as well as the meat from the turkeys, hogs and chickens to have their normal healthy color.

The Food and Drug Administration or known as the FDA was able to discover that almost half of all chickens who were examined have absorbed inorganic arsenic, the most toxic and dangerous form was found inside their liver. According to those information, the agency asked Pfizer to stop with the process of production and creation of Roxarsone, this has become part of them because it is an arsenic-containing drug which has been placed in feeding the fatten chickens plus it makes the meat to look with bright pink hue.

“The agency pointed out not a long time ago that a performed research which included 100 broiler chickens which discovered inorganic arsenic at bigger levels inside the livers of chickens healed with 3-Nitro opposed to the mot treated chickens … Pfizer pointed out that the sale of 3-Nitro it will certainly be forbidden by early July in order to give the animal producers to transmit to another treatments.

Still, even though the arsenic-containing product is taken off and removed from the shelves inside the stores, the FDA keeps promoting their campaign of denial, saying and trying to convince people that arsenic in chickens it is in an incredibly small amount a thing which makes the meat to be perfectly good and safe for eating. This is also like the FDA would say arsenic represents a carcinogen drug, so this just means that it makes bigger the risk of appearance of cancer.

However the thing which the industry does not want the public to know is that the arsenic is incredibly toxic for the health of people. The University of South Carolina Department of Environmental Health Sciences issued a warning saying that the arsenic, all together with lead and mercury, are well-known for the creation of disgusting and incredibly damaging effects especially to developing fetuses and young children. All in all arsenic has been pointed out that it is approximately four times as poisonous as Mercury.  Also, it has been pointed out that the trivalent Arsenic As+3 is 60 times much more toxic opposed to the pentavalent As +5.

A research which was shown inside the Journal of the American Medical Association discovered that people who ate bigger amounts of arsenic-tinged rice, during the absence of another very well-known arsenic exposure, expressed an important cellular changes connected with the creation of cancer.

From that moment a bunch of reports proved and have said that ingested arsenic has the ability to create invasive squamous cell carcinoma; Bowen illness (squamous cell carcinoma in situ); basal cell carcinoma of the skin; as well as internal cancers of the liver, the kidney, the lung and the bladder. These last ones do not appear so often.

The most incredible and surprising thing regarding this issue is that the FDA says to their clients that it is perfectly good and safe the consummation of arsenic which creates cancer however on the other hand they say that it is very serious if people consume elderberry juice!

Hopefully You Will Consider This Article To Be Very Useful And Helpful.

Bangladesh: Court bans 34 pharmaceuticals from producing drugs
The court also ordered the government to form a five-member committee to submit its report quarterly and monitor whether the directives were implemented.

The High Court has ordered 20 pharmaceutical companies to stop production of all medicines and 14 others to stop production of antibiotics over the allegation of failure in producing standard quality medicines.

Delivering its verdict on a writ petition filed by the human rights organisation 'Human Rights and Peace for Bangladesh', the HC bench of Justice Syed Muhammad Dastagir Husain and Justice Md Ataur Rahman Khan ordered passed the order on Monday.

The court also ordered the government to form a five-member committee to submit its report quarterly and monitor whether the directives were implemented. The lawyer of the writ petitioner Manjil Morshed said, government has already canceled the licenses of 11 pharmaceuticals among the 34.

The 20 companies which were banned from producing all medicines are: Exim Pharmaceuticals, Avert Pharma Ltd, Bikalpa Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Dolphin Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Drugland Ltd, Globe Laboratories Pvt Ltd, Jolpa Laboratories Ltd, Kafma Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Medico Pharmaceuticals Ltd, National Drug Pharma Ltd, North Bengal Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Rimo Chemicals Ltd, Rid Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Skylab Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Spark Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Star Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Shunipun Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Today Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tropical Pharmaceuticals Ltd and Universal Pharmaceuticals Ltd

Also read: Bangladesh: Girl suffering from 'tree man' syndrome successful undergoes surgery

Fourteen companies banned from producing antibiotics are: Ad-din Pharmaceutical Ltd, Alkad Laboratories Ltd, Belsen Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bengal Drugs and Chemicals (Pharma) Ltd, Bristol Pharma Ltd, Crystal Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Indo-Bangla Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Millat Pharmaceuticals Ltd, MST Pharma and Healthcare Ltd, Orbit Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Pharmic Laboratories ltd, Phoenix Chemical Laboratory Ltd, Rasa Pharmaceuticals Ltd and Save Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Meanwhile, lawyer of the pharmaceutical companies said they will appeal against the judgement. 


Pharmacy / Is it safe to use metformin during pregnancy?
« on: May 29, 2017, 01:59:08 PM »
Metformin is a commonly used drug for managing type 2 diabetes. It is considered an effective treatment option for many people with diabetes, but is it safe for pregnant women?

Metformin is a drug that helps to lower blood sugar. It is considered one of the best first line treatments for type 2 diabetes.

A review posted to Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome notes that metformin helps to lower blood sugar levels, strengthens the endocrine system, improves insulin resistance, and reduces fat distribution in the body.

Before taking any drugs, including metformin, a pregnant woman has to be absolutely sure that the drugs will not affect her or her baby.

Contents of this article:

    Effects of metformin use during and after pregnancy
    Possible effects of metformin on fertility before pregnancy
    Common risks and side effects of metformin
    Metformin dosage

Effects of metformin use during and after pregnancy
[pregnant woman taking pills]
Women with type 2 diabetes who already take metformin may be concerned about its effects during pregnancy.

Some people are concerned about using metformin during and after pregnancy because it crosses the placenta. This means that when a pregnant woman takes metformin, so does her baby.

However, the results of the few studies that have been carried out so far into the effects of taking metformin during pregnancy have been positive.

A 2014 review posted to Human Reproduction Update found that the drug did not cause birth defects, complications, or diseases.

The researchers did note, however, that larger studies should be carried out to make this evidence more conclusive.
 Metformin and gestational diabetes

A separate review posted to Human Reproduction Update noted that women who took metformin to treat gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) gained less weight than women who took insulin.

A 2-year follow-up study found that babies born to the women treated with metformin had less fat around their organs, which could make them less prone to insulin resistance later in life.

This could mean that children who are exposed to metformin at a young age could gain long-term benefits. This is only a hypothesis at this stage, and long-term studies will have to be carried out before anything is certain.
Possible effects of metformin on fertility before pregnancy
[couple with a newborn baby]
Metformin appears to have a positive effect on fertility.

Metformin is commonly used to treat PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome. According to research posted to the Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences, women with PCOS, particularly those who are overweight, tend to be insulin resistant.

PCOS can cause missed periods and infrequent ovulation, which may lead to infertility or difficulty in conceiving.

Metformin is used to lower insulin levels by regulating the body's blood sugar. It also helps regulate menstruation and ovulation. Metformin can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes or help manage the symptoms for those women who already have the condition.

Because metformin helps ease the symptoms of PCOS, many women find it easier to conceive when on the drug.
Reduced pregnancy problems

According to a review posted to Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, women with PCOS or with gestational diabetes, who use metformin, appear to have reduced rates of early miscarriage, premature labor, and unhealthy fetal weight, compared with those using insulin.

The researchers noted that the body appears to accept metformin better than insulin. They also noted that metformin caused no developmental delays, fetal deaths in the uterus, or had any disturbing effects on the embryo or fetus during pregnancy. This is promising news for the safety of the drug.
Common risks and side effects of metformin

When used correctly, the risks and side effects of metformin are relatively low. Some people do experience mild side effects, however. The most common side effects of metformin are:

    stomach pain
    gastrointestinal changes

For pregnant women, these symptoms may make the feeling of morning sickness worse. It is important to be on the lowest effective dose to help reduce or prevent side effects with metformin.

Metformin can also reduce the blood sugar too much, causing hypoglycemia. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include:

    weakness and fatigue
    confusion, drowsiness, or dizziness
    fast heart rate, shaking, feeling jittery
    sweating or chills

The risks of serious complications, such as lactic acidosis, when lactic acid builds up in the tissues, are also possible with metformin. Lactic acidosis is caused by problems with the metabolism, and symptoms include:

    strong stomach pains
    nausea and vomiting
    irregular heart rate
    dizziness, weakness, or feeling light headed
    tiredness or extreme fatigue
    trouble breathing
    muscle pains
    difficulty sleeping or sparse sleep

If a person feels they have any serious symptoms or signs of lactic acidosis, they should contact an emergency medical team immediately.
Metformin dosage

The dosage of metformin for people with type 2 diabetes varies from person to person. It is based on their medical history, insulin sensitivity levels, and sensitivity to side effects.
[pregnant woman talks with doctor]
The dose of metformin varies depending on the individual. Women should talk to their doctor if they have concerns about taking too much or too little of the drug.

Pregnant women who take insulin for type 2 diabetes may also be prescribed metformin to help with symptoms that develop during pregnancy.

The dosage for women with PCOS also varies based on their reaction to the medication. If side effects cannot be managed, doctors will often try to lower the dose or seek other options.

To minimize side effects, doctors start an individual on very low doses and gradually increase these until their symptoms are in check. When used correctly, the drug is considered to have a high safety profile.
Alternatives to metformin

Pregnant women with gestational diabetes or type 2 diabetes are commonly given metformin during their pregnancy.

If they have an adverse reaction to the drug, changes to their gastrointestinal system, or simply do not wish to take it, there are other options. The most common alternative to metformin is to be treated with insulin alone, which helps to stabilize blood sugar levels.
Outlook for taking metformin during pregnancy

All current research points to the fact that metformin has a low risk of complications during pregnancy, though further clinical trials are still being called for.

Some studies suggest that metformin may even have benefits for pregnant women and their babies when taken correctly.

Doses of any medication should be carefully managed by a doctor, but there is currently little risk to pregnant women or their offspring at all stages of development.


Pharmacy / AIDS virus drugs was discovered Bengali scientist Anita
« on: May 28, 2017, 10:30:30 AM »
If Bengali scientist Anita government dengira the AIDS virus among drug .. According to avoid sometimes, is edasera vaccine is to get us? Whether a country or my house or to think in your body to prevent the enemy, in our earlier assumption. And if the enemy is that it increases the number of duddariye whose family is on the rise as Cannibal tribe, it became more complex, it is anita stop.
AIDS is a chronic disease, as in the past two to three decades has on the whole world, because of its one. The virus “HIV positive”, a large number of lines as a cannibal. Very quickly, within moments. Dengi, flu (influenza) as the AIDS virus “mutation rate”, because it is much more. This deadly disease, see for so ways to contain the virus, experts kalaghama ran.
Sometimes a little dark, light tuned! At the end of March in the journal Science, “Science title of ‘One HIV-neutralizing antibodies, precursor is a bubbling from the papers. B bradali sales of ribhilada jarmalaina targeting imiunojena. California, skripsa inastitiutera computational biologist William siphera led research team of researchers, the only Indian, Bengali. Anita government.
Anita was born in Calcutta. The National Library at school was a big part of the campus. Mahesatalaya left. St. Paul and St. Teresa School with honors at the University of Delhi conclusion julajite across borders. Dillirai Jamia Millia Islamia University postgraduate level from the end of bayoinapharmetikse grenobala PhD from France. Anita first Habilitation now runs skripsa Research Institute in California.
Skripsa AIDS Research Institute is the research.
Associated researcher at the California La hoyaya ‘skripsa research inastitiutera says structural biologist Anita government “,” the enemies of the body, such as viruses, natural ways to prevent it, some of the antibodies are produced in the body. Hanadari contain antibodies specific for certain virus. For example, sword, shield or armor to fight against them. The ball hit the flak jacket to escape the rain. Although the device quite similar pattern of resistance is different. ”
Structural biologist Anita sarakaraanitara words “, the study found that in the last 30 years, very few people are infected with HIV pajitibhe a special type of antibody can produce. The number of antibodies and the virus mutation reta rapid changes in their ability to compete with the HIV virus does not spread quickly in the body. researchers are trying the HIV virus in our body has a special kind of janyeo developed ayantibadigabesakara’re attempts to produce a vaccine, the antibody, which keeps the body generated. As a result, healthy human body the deadly virus hanadarike to resist. ”
EDS virus vaccine, which is manufactured with.
AIDS has become an epidemic in the world. No remedy or prevention of modern medical science still could not find the way. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations AIDS Prevention Association (iuenaedasa) reported that recent statistics, 013 million people have been infected worldwide with edase. AIDS-infected people in India alone the number 1 Goal achieved three years ago. EDS EDS in patients with very small parts of the virus in the body, preventing antibody rapid seed growth process, a natural way to build.
EDS EDS bhairasaye way to prevent the virus under the microscope haccheanita to strengthen the process, “the researchers try to AIDS has to artificially strengthen the defense system of the body. Structural Biology HIV through computational design, and we are a part one from protein.
That our ‘jarmalaina’ (which is our body from birth) antibodies to detect. And you can build to prevent HIV. As a result, sometimes we have the virus contained hanadari can be made in advance.

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Pharmacy / Aromatic, Medicinal Plants Flourish in the Himalayas
« on: May 24, 2017, 10:37:48 AM »
In the region of the Himalayas from Bhutan, Nepal, and India, many aromatic plants grow and comprise a part of local people’s lives as medicine and food. In their review paper “Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities” in the journal Medicines, Rakesh K. Joshi, Prabodh Satyal, and William N. Setzer analyze in detail the nutritional and medicinal value of 116 aromatic plant species.

The Himalayas are well-known as the world’s highest mountain range. The authors’ research area, located in the southern margin of the Himalaya range, is actually a narrow band of biodiversity. It is called by some researchers the center of plant diversity in the Himalayas. The monsoon brings rains concentrated in the summer and contributes a great deal to the rich biodiversity. The authors report, citing prior research, that “The Indian Himalaya is home to more than 8000 species of vascular plants of which 1748 are known for their medicinal properties.”

The authors of the review paper indicated that the plants growing in high elevation are important for local people. Those plants provide both nutrition and medicinal functions. Some of those wild plants have been eaten by people since ancient times, while the medicinal effects have been noticed just recently. In the article, the authors list the ethnopharmacology, biological activities, and essential oil compositions of Himalayan aromatic plants. Some of them not only are useful but have some special characteristics.

For example, there are around 400 species in the genus Artemisia, like mugwort and wormwood, growing in the temperate regions, and 19 species of this genus in Himalayan regions have been recognized as medicinal herbs. The plants of this genus are traditional medicines discovered a long time ago by indigenous cultures. Most species have strong aromas, and can be smelled from a long distance. Due to their strong aromas, some of the plants in this genus are used as incense and insecticide. For example, the leaf extract of Artemisia japonica is used to treat malaria, while a paste of the leaves is applied externally to treat skin diseases in northern Pakistan. Another species, Artemisia maritima, is used by several Himalayan peoples to treat stomach problems and intestinal worms.

When it comes to the Cinnamomum genus, which is in the laurel family, many people are quite familiar with the common spice, cinnamon. Chefs treat it as one important flavor and some people like cinnamon flavored coffee or tea. The Cinnamomum genus is another typical aromatic plant that are green from spring to winter. Their aromatic oils are preserved in the leaves and bark. In the Himalayan areas, eight out of 250 total species have been found. There are still many other genus of aromatic plants providing food and medicine for local people in the Himalayan places, such as the genus Cymbopogon, which is also known as lemongrass.

With its distinct environment of glacial and river valleys, the Himalayas nurture a rich biodiversity. Traditional herbs still play an important role in people’s health. More species are joining in the group of medicinal herbs. As a result, it should be highlighted that plants in Himalayas demand protection considering the challenge of climate change, environmental degradation, and other threats.

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