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Science and Information / The Technology That Will Define 2019
« on: January 08, 2019, 02:34:41 PM »
 year ago, I picked seven technologies that would play significant roles in 2018. Some of my predictions were correct, and some of them reappear on this list — 5G hasn’t quite happened yet, but we’re getting closer.

As George Saville, the 17th-century English statesman and essayist, once wrote, “The best qualification of a prophet is to have a good memory.” It’s a fancy way of saying the past is prologue, and no vision for the near future is possible without analyzing past trends. That’s what I’ve done to concoct these informed guesses about the state of tech in 2019.

Of course, there are bound to be surprises and off-base prognostications. Don’t sue me if things go a bit differently than expected.

1. Cryptocurrency

Bitcoin opened 2018 at almost $17,000 in value and exited at under $4,000. This does not mean the end of it or other emerging cryptocurrencies.
The year 2018 taught us that the broad concept behind cryptocurrency — the blockchain — could be useful elsewhere. Expect token experiments in banking, business, and media to expand in 2019. Many will fail as token entrepreneurs struggle to connect offerings to real-world value. But immutable ledgers are attractive to an increasingly security-conscious world, and they will become the foundation of innumerable new ways of buying, selling, and accounting.

2. “Screen Time” Services
We loved social media, we overused it, and now we’re finding that it probably isn’t that good for us. In addition, whatever trust we once had in the world’s most popular social platform, Facebook all but vanished in 2018. Thus, 2019 should bring a reconsideration of our obsession with sharing and those dopamine-producing likes and hearts.
Instead of measuring followers, we’ll start comparing screen times. Expect more apps, hardware, and IRL services to reward us for the time we don’t spend online. Apple’s iOS Screen Time, Android’s Dashboard, and third-party apps like Hold are just the tip of the iceberg.

3. Cyberwarfare
World War III is upon us, but instead of boots on the ground, it’s all about binaries in the ether.
After Russia essentially — albeit secretly — declared war on the United States by undermining the 2016 presidential election, it and other insurgents have turned their attention to manipulating hearts, minds, elections, and even Brexit. The quietest worldwide conflagration will continue this year.
Educating the populace on how they’re being manipulated every single day through technology and social media will become a critical priority in 2019. P.W. Singer and Emerson T. Brooking’s LikeWar should become required reading in high schools and colleges.

4. Regulation
The year 2018 was a low point for privacy, with revelations that the most popular social media platform on the planet all but handed the keys to our personal profiles to a range of partners. Americans, following the General Data Protection Regulation in Europe, will demand change.
In 2019, we’ll see movement on the collection of bills from the U.S. House and Senate that are aimed at officially regulating the tech industry. They could eventually be combined into one overarching Personal Data Privacy Act of 2019.
This kind of policy will have broad, bipartisan support and perhaps grudging support in the tech sector. Assuming the legislation doesn’t overreach, the big question will be if the regulation-averse Trump White House will sign. If and when that happens, expect GDPR-level changes in how companies like Google, Facebook, and Amazon do business. You’ll like some of it — it will be harder for companies to use your data without explicit consent, for example — but regulations may also slow innovation.

5. Electric Self-Driving Cars
Most states now have some sort of self-driving automotive legislation on the books, and many new cars have enough built-in intelligence to do typical driving tasks. Still, the spread of autonomous driving was sporadic at best in 2018. This year could be a huge turning point.
States that have yet to get on board with the technology are being spurred by new federal guidelines enacted in September. In addition, Tesla’s Model 3, the bestselling sedan in the United States (by revenue, not total units sold), already has some of the most powerful autonomous driving technology on the road.
Expect new, all-electric Model 3 competitors and tests with self-driving-only lanes on some highways.

6. Apple’s Mobile Lead Shrinks
Every time I run Geekbench on the latest flagship phones from Apple, Samsung, Motorola, LG, and others, the iPhone comes out on top. Apple’s custom silicon isn’t just marginally more powerful than the Qualcomm CPUs most Android handsets are running — it’s leaps and bounds better.

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Faculty Forum / Re: Important Tutorial For DIU Forum Member........!!!
« on: January 08, 2019, 12:51:50 PM »
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Venture Capital / Venture capital: Bangladesh perspective
« on: January 08, 2019, 12:48:26 PM »
In Bangladesh, the financial system is bank-based. Securities market has started developing, but market of Non-Bank Financial Institutions (NBFIs) is a recent development. In such a scenario, banks have been the single most important sources for both short-term and long-term funds for the entrepreneurs.  However, banks generally handle known and proven clients, and commonly ask for collaterals, guarantees from a company's directors, consider past performance, etc., to assess credit worthiness. Approaches of banks and NBFIs do not match with the capital/financing requirements and the growth of startups. For addressing the need and capitalising on the true potential of these entreprises, it is mainly about understanding, owning and financing potentially innovative business ideas.

In regard to Bangladesh, venture capital financing institutions are primarily registered with the Registrar of Joint Stock Companies (RJSC) as limited companies under the Companies Act 1994. Subsequently, these companies are required to obtain separate registration from the Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission (BSEC) for establishing the fund as per the Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission (Alternative Investment) Rules, 2015. As per the rules, alternative investment funds must appoint fund managers and trustees. The aforementioned BSEC rules are applicable not only for the registration and regulation of alternative investment funds but also for fund managers and trustees of such funds.

All venture capital financing companies, particularly those which wish to enjoy government declared tax advantages and other benefits for such companies, must operate within the rules issued by BSEC. These rules have been in force since June 22, 2015. As of January 31, 2018, a total of 11 companies got registration as alternative investment fund under the BSEC rules. Though 11 companies got registration, a few are yet to start their operation in full swing. Three types of funds are given registration under this rules which are 'private equity fund', 'venture capital fund' and 'impact fund'. Of these funds, venture capital fund means an alternative investment fund which invests primarily in non-listed equity and equity linked securities of startups with less than two years' operational history or green field companies or emerging early-stage undertakings mainly involved in new products, services, technologies or intellectual property rights based activities or new business models. A venture capital fund under this rule is established for a specific period from five to fifteen years which shall be disclosed in the constitutive documents. Such funds can sell units to collect fund only from eligible investors and there are restrictions on investment from the fund too. Apart from Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission (Alternative Investment) Rules, 2015, Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission (Qualified Investor Offer by Small Capital Companies) Rules, 2016 have also been formulated for easing the exit route of venture capitalist firm. According to the new rules, companies with small capital (less than Tk 300 million) can also be listed in the capital market through IPO process. Other than these, the government and Bangladesh Bank have certain circulars/arrangements to support and promote venture capital in the market. Considering the key challenge of the shortage of fund, Bangladesh Bank provision allowing BDT 2.0 billion by a commercial bank for venture investment is a remarkable one. However, response from banks is almost absent in this connection. Practically, it is all about the collective initiatives of the stakeholders of venture capital financing in Bangladesh.

Almost all the venture capital financing  companies are relatively new and yet to start their business. Only one fund has so far registered and some funds are in the process of registration. A few companies have started venture financing from their own capital. As the companies are new in this arena, it is difficult to measure their financial performance. Apart from these, several companies which are yet to be registered with BSEC, are also providing venture capital. Practically, some of these companies have produced several success stories (for example, Popular Pharma by Brummer & Partners Asset Management); and have also proven workable environment for the venture funds in the country.

As a broad sector, the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) is probably the biggest relevant area. Investment/financing demand-supply gap is glaring in the sector.  As traditional bankers are relatively conservative in offering loans to SMEs, venture capitalists have huge opportunities to bridge this gap by way of provision of equities or loans or both and 'participative management approach' where venture capitalists can also reduce information asymmetry and transactions costs of lending SMEs which are basically characterised by uncertainties. In some instances, banks usually face problems in intermediating funds for SMEs whereas venture capitalists do not feel so. It is to be mentioned here that venture capitalists not only supply finance to investee firms but also provide non-financial services, which a traditional bank can never offer. Institutionally, banks are in the lending business whereas venture capitalists are in a partnership business. It is argued that most of the SMEs in Bangladesh also suffer from shortage of managerial skills, marketing skills, lack of standard products, communication skills and so on besides being overburdened with financial problems. So, venture capitalists have the opportunity to offer different non-financial services like strategic decision making, marketing, management, contracts and so on for the betterment of the firm.

Banks and NBFIs are not at present interested to extend finance to Greenfield but high potential firms considering high risk. As such, high potential Greenfield firms suffer much due to shortage of funds. Venture capitalists' are trying to bridge this financing gap. However, due to shortage of fund from their own source, venture capitalists are facing hardship. By investing in venture capital funds, there is opportunity for banks and NBFIs to be benefited in the long-run having some clients suitable for financing.

Though banks and NBFIs are allowed to invest in alternative investment funds, as per Bangladesh Bank (BB) guideline, we have only one instance at this stage. A large part of the micro and small entrepreneurs is out of the banking services. Bangladesh Bank, as part of its financial inclusion programme, is motivating banks to include these unbanked groups under the fold of banking services. But banks are not interested to provide financing facility due to incomplete documentation, absence of collateral and other necessary information in several instances. Now this could be a great opportunity for the venture capitalists. So, the micro and small entrepreneur willing to get the fund from banks can be diverted to the venture funds/impact funds. Venture capitalists may nurture the entrepreneurs, prepare necessary documents, provide managerial services and offer other assistance.

There is a common fear of greater involvement of regulator in the development process of the financial segment like venture. It is to be mentioned here that policymakers and regulators generally acknowledge that venture capital funds should be exempted from the new stringent regulatory and reporting requirements. However, certain regulations must be in place to reduce systemic risk and promote the stability and efficiency of the markets. There must also be monitoring need and guideline to address high degree of information asymmetry between the fund managers, and the passive investors. Moreover, involvement of banks with such investment demands certain requirements to ensure safety and trust issues. At the end, it is about a customised balancing of regulatory and monitoring framework with sufficient incentive for the market players and investors to operate comfortably.


Bangladesh became the third tourist sending country to Indian Jummu and Kashmir, popularly known as "Paradise on Earth" last year after Malaysia and Thailand.
"We started our promotional campaign in Bangladesh last year and it is amazing that we received third largest number of foreign tourists from here in 2017 after Malaysia and Thailand," visiting Chairman of Association of Tour Operators of Kashmir (AKTO) Nazir Mir told BSS yesterday.

In 2017, he said around 5,500 Bangladeshi tourists visited different places in Kashmir followed by 15,000 Thai and 20,000 Malaysian tourists.

Mentioning that Domestic travellers are the backbone of Kashmir's tourism, he said, "As we are getting only 50,000 foreign tourists every year, now we concentrate more on international tourists to flourish our tourism industry."

About the security issue, AKTO Vice Chairman Nazir Ahmad Tunda said there is no security hazard for the tourists at all. "You can't find a single unwanted incident around the tourist spots so far," he said.

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions -- Jammu, the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, he said, adding "We get pilgrims for Jammu, families and groups for Kashmir valley and youth for Ladakh," he added.

Tunda said tourism in the state is improving every year. This year, we have lined up many interesting activities for the tourists including fairs, festivals, sports and adventure and expect satisfactory growth in arrivals, he added.

AKTO organised a Kashmir night at a city hotel in Dhaka on Saturday to make a road show on different exciting tourist destinations of Kashmir.

Bangladesh Tourism Board CEO Dr Nasir Uddin, President of Tour Operator Association of Bangladesh (TOAB) Taufiq Uddin Ahmed and Secretary General of Association of Travel Agents of Bangladesh (ATAB) Abdus Salem Aref also spoke on the occasion.

The ATKO members made a visual presentation on different tourism features of Jummu and Kashmir.


A new ranking that evaluated countries on everything from economic influence, power, citizenship and quality of life, has declared Switzerland the world's best country for 2018.
It's the second time the country has topped US News and World Report's Best Countries report, which looked at 80 countries for this year's ranking.

After Switzerland, Canada, Germany, UK and Japan round out the top five spots -- all countries with progressive social and environmental policies, analysts note.

Nordic countries like Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway are also heavily represented on the list and top other subcategories thanks to their famously progressive social policies: Denmark, for instance, is named the best country for women, and for raising children, while Norway ranks the top country for citizenship.

The category of citizenship considers a country's record on human rights, gender equality and religious freedom.

"For the countries that rose to the top of this year's rankings, it is once again clear that military vigor and economic power are no longer the key determinants to a country's brand success," said David Sable, Y&R Global CEO in a statement.

Y&R's BAV Group helped develop the model for the ranking.

"The Best Countries rankings continue to show us that just as brands must focus on a wide range of attributes to raise profiles and win over audiences, nations that are multidimensional and that reflect a wider range of qualities, such as innovation and compassion, have the brand appeal that propels them on the global stage."

New this year, respondents were also asked to evaluate major world leaders. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and German Chancellor Angela Merkel were deemed the most respected leaders globally, while US President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin received the dubious distinction of receiving the worst approval ratings.

To determine the top countries, Y&R's BAV Group and The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania developed a model that identified 65 attributes, which were then presented in a survey to more than 21,000 business leaders, elites and general citizens around the world.

Participants assessed how closely they associated an attribute with a nation.

Here are the top 10 countries on the Best Countries 2018 list:

1. Switzerland

2. Canada

3. Germany

4. United Kingdom

5. Japan

6. Sweden

7. Australia

8. United States

9. France

10. Netherlands

To Start a Business: Thailand

To Headquarter a Corporation: Switzerland

Most Powerful: United States

For Women: Denmark

For Education: UK

For Comfortable Retirement: New Zealand


Thanks no doubt to the fact that Easter falls during the same period as this year's cherry blossom season, Tokyo has topped a list of the most popular Easter destinations among Asia-Pacific travelers for 2018.
In the ranking, compiled by online hotel booking site Agoda, the Japanese capital knocked out last year's chart-topper, Manila, to take this year's top spot.

While the Philippines has the largest Christian population in Asia-Pacific and hosts no shortage of religious events for the holiday, the results of the list suggest that this year, travelers are keener to witness the miraculous beauty of Japanese cherry blossoms over the long weekend.

The list is based on Agoda's booking data for Easter weekend across Asia-Pacific.

According to the Japanese Meteorological Corporation, parts of the country are currently in full bloom, including Tokyo, Kyoto and Osaka.

The Tokyo Tower (background) is seen lit up as visitors row boats in a moat surrounding Edo Castle to admire full-bloom cherry blossoms in Tokyo on April 4, 2016. Viewing cherry blossoms is a national pastime and cultural event in Japan, where millions of people turn out to admire them annually. Photo: AFP
After Tokyo, the most popular destinations this weekend will be Bangkok and Manila.

The report also breaks down the top spots for specific regions. For Australians, for instance, the most popular international destination is Bali; for Filipinos it's Manila and for Singaporeans it's Bangkok.

Here are the top 10 destinations for Easter this year overall:

1. Tokyo, Japan

2. Bangkok, Thailand

3. Manila, Philippines

4. Bali, Indonesia

5. Singapore

6. Seoul, South Korea

7. Taipei, Taiwan

8. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

9. Hong Kong

10. Johor Bahru, Malaysia


Tourism & Hospitality Management (THM) / Asia’s most visited countries
« on: January 08, 2019, 01:43:03 AM »
China attracts the highest number of tourists in the region with a record number of inflow of 59.27 million people in the year 2016.

South East Asian region receives the highest number of travellers with China topping the list, according to the World Tourism Organisation report.

Tourism has been one of the growing economic sectors across the world.  According to the report by World Tourism Organisation the international tourist arrivals have increased from 25 million globally in 1950 to 278 million in 1980, 674 million in 2000, and 1,235 million in 2016.

The Asia Pacific region accounts for 30 per cent of the world’s international tourism receipts. The region has outperformed all other regions in terms of growth, with international tourist arrivals increasing an average 7% per year compared to the world average of 4%.

China remains one of the leading destinations in Asia. It attracted the highest number of tourists in the region with a record number of inflow of 59.27 million people in the year 2016.  Great Wall of China draws highest number of visitors followed by Forbidden city, Ming dynasty palaces. Apart from the architectural feats China has many natural sites that attract international tourists.

Thailand attracted second highest number of tourists in the region with 32.58 million visitors in 2016. The country has an easy visa policy that makes it easier for tourists to travel. Malaysia attracted 26.75 million tourists last year, although the average number of days of stay decreased.

Japan and India followed with 24.04 and 14.56 million tourists respectively.  In India, it was a new high since foreign tourist arrival crossed ten million for the first time and pushed the country’s earnings to 27 billion dollars. The numbers also helped the country go up 25 places in the Tourism competitive Index.

South Korea had the sixth highest number of tourists in the year 2016. However the numbers plunged to a low owing to the boycott by Chinese tour groups after South Korea installed the Thaad system.  Singapore and Vietnam followed with 12.91 million and 10.01 million tourists respectively.

In 2017, Philippines’ tourist arrival went up by 11 per cent at 5.96 million. South Koreans remained the highest numbers of visitors to the country.  It was followed by Cambodia, Laos and Sri Lanka. The lesser visited countries of the region remained Mongolia, Brunei and Bhutan.


Tourism & Hospitality Management (THM) / Tourism booming with economy
« on: January 08, 2019, 01:41:22 AM »
Bangladesh's tourism sector has grown with the pace of the country's economic growth in the past decade, as more and more people are having sizeable disposable income.

In the past decade, the economy grew at an average of 6.5 percent; and in the last three years it clocked in more than 7 percent growth.

At the end of last fiscal year, the per capita income stood at $1,751, in contrast to $703 nine years earlier.

Though Bangladesh does not get a big number of foreign tourists, it has millions of domestic tourists who go for vacations often.

According to different tour operators, the number of domestic tourists rose to 70 lakh in 2017 from 60 lakh a year earlier.

And, December is the second busiest month after July for tourism in Bangladesh, as the schools break up for winter vacations then.

“We have no room to rent until December 25,” said Iqbal Mohsin, general manager of Hotel Sea Crown, located on the beachfront at Cox's Bazar.

The hotel has 90 rooms and the prices range from Tk 4,000 to Tk 7,500 a room.

Winter is the peak season for tourism in Rangamati's Sajek, which has a strong appeal to tourists for its pristine natural beauty and indigenous population, said Suparna Debbarman, president of Cottage Malik Samity of Sajek, a forum of owners.

“Now a tourist must book in advance for a room in Sajek.”

Sajek has 90 resorts and cottages that can accommodate only 2,000 persons daily.

The middle- and higher middle-class now love to spend money for recreation and leisure purposes, said Santus Kumar Deb, assistance professor of the department of tourism and hospitality management of the University of Dhaka.

Referring to his research findings, he said the middle-class spend Tk 15,000 to Tk 20,000 per year, while the higher middle-class spend more than Tk 80,000 a year for tourism.

Many Bangladeshis go abroad for recreation due to lack of facilities in the country.

About 20 lakh people visited India last year and 7 lakh Thailand, he said, adding that several lakh Bangladeshis go to Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia a year for tourism.

However, an official of the Indian embassy in Dhaka said they issued 14 lakh visas in 2017. But the number of tourists may be higher as they get visas for one year with multiple entries.

MGR Nasir Majumder, a director of the Travel Operators Association of Bangladesh, said domestic tourism has been increasing in Bangladesh riding on young visitors as they have high interest in exploring new areas and also the time.

The market size of domestic tourism reached Tk 5,000 crore in 2017 while it was not more than Tk 500 crore 10 years earlier, said Majumder, also the managing director of Century Travels Services.

About 70 percent of tourists prefer visiting Cox's Bazar and Chittagong Hill Tracts, followed by Sundarban and Sylhet.

Tour operators generated about 25,000 jobs directly across the country; about 500 operators provide services including hotel and transport booking, guide etc, he added.

“Domestic tourism is booming, but there is no hard data on it,” said Aktar Ahmed, deputy director (marketing and public relations) of Bangladesh Tourism Board, a state-owned agency.

The tourism board recorded 778,143 inbound tourists last year and the country made revenue of $97.05 million from foreign tourists.


Guidance for Job Market / Bangladesh 2nd largest economy in South Asia
« on: January 08, 2019, 01:36:43 AM »
Bangladesh has been ranked 41st among the world's largest economies in 2019, moving up two notches from last year's. The country has become the second biggest economy in South Asia, according to an analysis by a London-based think-tank.

Among the other South Asian countries, India is ranked 5th, Pakistan 44th, Sri Lanka 66th, Nepal 101st, Afghanistan 115th, the Maldives 156th, and Bhutan 166th, in the World Economic League Table, published annually by the Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR).

With the United States at the top of the table, China, Japan, Germany, and India take the lead as the top five economies.

The report which forecasts the fortunes of 193 countries to 2033 says China is likely to overtake the US as the world's number one economy in 2032, two years later than previously expected, due to a laxer monetary policy and lower exchange rate.

In the long run, many Asian economies will rise through the ranks of the table as these countries cash in on their demographic dividends.

The two most prominent examples are Bangladesh, which will enter the top 25 largest economies in 24th place in 2032, and Pakistan, which will rise to 27th in 2033, said the report.

“We expect annual rates of GDP growth [in Bangladesh] to average 7 percent between 2018 and 2033. This will see the country climb 19 places in the World Economic League Table to become the world's 24th largest economy by 2033,” said the report, which was released on December 26.

Bangladesh will rank 36th in 2023 and 27th in 2028.

According to the report, Bangladesh has benefitted from garments exports, strong increase in remittances, duty free access to the Indian market, domestic consumption expenditure and government spending.

Bangladesh's economy is expected to have grown by 7.3 percent in 2018, just shy of the 7.4 percent in the previous year. The country has benefitted from a strong increase in remittances in the financial year ending 2018, after declines in the previous two years. Moreover, the export sector benefitted from the duty free access to the Indian market, pushing exports to $375 million in the three months to September.

Indian clothing retailers, as well as global retailers opening Indian outlets, increasingly import from Bangladesh due to the competitive prices of their products.

“Bangladesh's competitiveness relative to India was further boosted by the introduction of a general sales tax in India, a step that is still outstanding in Bangladesh,” said the 10th edition of the CEBR report.

It, however, warned the country runs the risk of negating gains from its successful export sector through its growing appetite for imports. The current account tipped into a deficit in 2017, and this is expected to widen in 2018, it added.

“The government will also need to explore options on how to increase revenues in order to finance upgrades for infrastructure while maintaining the social safety net.”

The country is further grappling with the Rohingya refugee crisis, the report added.

The CEBR predicts that three of the top five global economies by 2033 will be Asian, with China at the top, India third and Japan fourth position. The US will be second and Germany fifth.

In a statement, CEBR Deputy Chairman Douglas McWilliams said: “The World Economic League Table shows that despite global uncertainty and the tightening in US monetary policy which has pushed down some of the emerging market currencies, the 21st century is still likely to be the Asian century.”

The table gives a ranking of the world's developed and emerging economies by gross domestic product measured in US dollars at market prices to 2033.


It’s called Project Oxygen. Beginning in 2008, Google researchers wanted to understand what makes a manager great at Google.

Here’s what they found.

Project Oxygen

Google sought to identify the common threads among Google’s highest performing managers. Based on internal research, Google then applied its findings to its manager development programs.

Over time, Google found that by publicizing and training managers on these central principles, Google experienced improved team outcomes such as turnover, satisfaction, and performance.

As Google has grown and evolved, the company also has incorporated employee feedback and refined the central behaviors that make a great manager.

The 10 Behaviors Of A Great Manager

So, here are the 10 behaviors that make a great manager at Google:

1. Is a good coach

Great managers are not simply great performers. They invest the time and energy to coach others. Great managers share best practices so that their teams can grow.

2. Empowers team and does not micromanage

It’s all about empowerment. What are you doing to empower others on your team and across the organization? Micromanagement is one of the great blunders of poor managers. Give your team space. Be flexible. Sometimes, you just need to get out of their way. No one likes a micromanager.

3. Creates an inclusive team environment, showing concern for success and well-being

Be inclusive. Embrace your team and make them part of the mission. Create an environment where anyone can ask a question, experiment and propose a new idea.

4. Is productive and results-oriented

Results matter, but you need to create a culture in which everyone can thrive to produce the desired results. Show your team how to produce the results that you want. Don’t just set goals and then expect outcomes.

5. Is a good communicator — listens and shares information

Too many managers fail because they can’t communicate. Communication is not top-down or unidirectional. It’s essential to be a good listener. Invest the time to get in the arena and listen to your team.

6. Supports career development and discusses performance

Don’t focus on what your team can do for you. Focus on what you can do for them – and how you can work with them to advance the goals and mission of the organization. Career development is essential – give your team the tools they need to thrive. Feedback (positive and constructive) is so important – make sure to get it right.

7. Has a clear vision/strategy for the team

If the manager doesn’t have a clear vision and strategy, how can the team thrive? It starts with the manager to set the tone and lay the foundation and direction for the team.

8. Has key technical skills to help advise the team

Substance matters. Managers don’t “check out” when they become managers. Rather, they get in the weeds. Not only can you help achieve better outcomes, but also you can gain credibility with your team when you demonstrate your technical expertise.

9. Collaborates across Google

Your team is not an island. You must collaborate across the organization. You have expertise that someone in another group can use. They too have skills that can benefit you. The more everyone shares, the more the organization rises. Collaboration leads to wonderful synergies.

10. Is a strong decision maker

Analysis is helpful. The strategy is important. Scenario testing provides focus. However, there is no replacement for being a strong decision maker. You can spend unlimited time analyzing, strategizing and scenario-testing. It’s the action that matters.

These 10 behaviors make a great manager at Google. What makes a great manager in your organization?


Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a broad term for technologies that imitate human intelligence.  It covers a range of techniques such as voice and image recognition, machine learning techniques and semantic search. Machine Learning Techniques use algorithms to learn from past data and create predictive models. Other AI applications do the work of human operators.

Marketing has been under pressure since the time rapid technological development disrupted marketing as it was traditionally practiced. Pressure from both highly trackable performance measures and an increase in the activities that marketers have to command has made lives of CMO tougher.
AI has come along as probably the most important technological breakthrough of this century. Marketing stands to be disrupted further. Large technology companies are restructuring themselves around AI. Those who don’t, run the risk of being less capable of creating top class customer experiences.

Though AI is not exactly new, the data and computing capabilities flowing from technological innovation has made it accessible to many. In marketing, AI has been embraced by ad tech agencies to optimize ad campaigns and send emails to cultivate customers and qualify leads. AI will impact activities wherever marketers have to examine data and make decisions based on that data. There is a caveat here for AI using companies: ensure the quality of data that goes into AI is very good. Otherwise, what will result is Garbage In Garbage Out (GIGO).  Martech requires quality inputs to generate the expected outcomes.

Besides simplifying marketing processes, improving customer experience, is being attempted by many companies globally. Among others, San Francisco, USA-based Sentient Technologies helps its clients optimize customer experiences and performs Alpha / Beta testing on a very large scale in real time using AI. Reducing time and examining multiple options for best customer response is a capability offered by AI applications which otherwise would have been very tedious and time-consuming. 

AI will undoubtedly help marketers pick up a lot more of the money that is left on the table in the customer need monetization process. Helping to test hundreds of thousands of combinations of marketing collaterals such as a lead generation form or a point of purchase display can result in big improvements in conversion results. AI will also help marketers to take customer-focus to a whole new level, including the B2B sphere. The opportunity for optimization of individual and organizational needs will be very high.

Customers’ attention span has already narrowed drastically. Digital marketers are painfully aware of a 3-7 seconds window in which to engage with web visitors. Instant gratification is the need of the hour. AI with its machine learning core is capable of keeping marketers aligned with rapidly changing customer needs, preferences and dislikes. Customers expect marketers today to know who each customer is; what her need is; and how to fulfil it.  And yet not invade privacy in any unsettling way like Amazon Key or Uber have been known to. Customers want to feel empowered, not emasculated or entrapped.

So how do we respond to the bull in the china shop? It is a given that for starters, the more routine work at most marketing agencies and departments will become automated thus eliminating marketing jobs. The flip side is that the more creative aspect of marketing will continue to be run by humans. At least, in the immediate future. The distant future could be a different ball game as examples from advertising agencies in Japan show which use AI and ML to generate highly creative outputs, often better than what humans can do.

As much as it will take away some jobs, the assurance as per experts is that AI will also create new marketing jobs such as Growth Hackers (those marketers who will work in teams at the cusp of creative marketing, automation and engineering), Agile Marketers (marketers who respond to change rather than follow a plan),  Bayesian Strategists (marketers who find the common ground between Big Data and Big Thinking), and Chief Marketing Technologists (marketers who oversee a colliding world of technology and marketing). AI will delight the user experience as well as take away the paralyzingly painstaking work involved in marketing so that those who joined marketing in the first place can soothe their souls with more and more creative work of mining consumer insights and engaging with them.

The future of marketing (or Marketing 5.0) is moving from Traditional and Digital to Artificial and Sentient. With the current “Human created AI” and later “AI that can create AI” in the near future, major disruptions in marketing is the writing on the wall.

#Marketing #AI #DigitalMarketing


সৃজনশীলতা একটি নিরন্তর প্রচেষ্টা। কেবল মার্কেটিং বই পড়ে সেটা অর্জন সম্ভব নয়। জ্ঞানের রাজ্যে উদ্দেশ্যহীন অক্লান্ত ভ্রমণকারীরাই বেশি সৃজনশীল হয়। নতুন বাস্তবতায় সূত্রবদ্ধ মার্কেটিং ব্যবহার করে এখনো হয়তো কেউ কেউ টিকে আছে তবে আশঙ্কা তারা সহসাই পথ হারাবে। অধিকতর সৃজনশীলতার অনুশীলনের মাধ্যমে উদ্ভাবনই হচ্ছে আগামী দিনের মার্কেটিং।

গণমাধ্যম, ইন্টারনেট ও বহিরাঙ্গন ডিসপ্লে দ্বারা সৃষ্ট বাস্তবতা দেখে এমন ধারণা হওয়া স্বাভাবিক যে, সারাক্ষণ সবাই কিছু একটা বিক্রি করতে চাচ্ছে। অনেকেই এই বিক্রয় চেষ্টা বা বিক্রয় প্রসার কার্যক্রমকে মার্কেটিংয়ের সমার্থক ভেবে ভুল করছে। তীব্র প্রতিযোগিতার বাজারে বিক্রয় চেষ্টার বাড়াবাড়ি দেখে মনে হয় বিক্রেতার হাত থেকে কোনোভাবেই রেহাই পাওয়া যাবে না, অনেকটা মৃত্যুর মতো। প্রকৃতপক্ষে বিক্রয় হচ্ছে মার্কেটিং বা বাজারজাতকরণ হিমশৈলের উপরিভাগ মাত্র। সমুদ্রে ভাসমান তুষার স্তূপের যেমন সামান্য অংশ দেখা যায়, বিক্রয় হচ্ছে মার্কেটিংয়ের সেই দৃশ্যমান অংশটুকু। বাজারজাতকরণের অনেক কাজের একটি হচ্ছে বিক্রয়, যেটা সবসময় সবচেয়ে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ কাজও নয়। ব্যক্তি ও প্রতিষ্ঠানসমূহ আনুষ্ঠানিক ও অনানুষ্ঠানিকভাবে অসংখ্য কর্মকাণ্ডে ব্যাপৃত যার বেশিরভাগকেই মার্কেটিং হিসেবে অবহিত করা যায়। বিনিময় ভিত্তিক যাবতীয় সম্পর্ক স্থাপন ও সেসম্পর্ক টিকিয়ে রাখার সব চেষ্টাকেই আজকাল মার্কেটিং বলা হয়। সেটা ব্যবসায় বা মুনাফার জন্য না হলেও চলবে। মানুষের আচরণকে প্রভাবিত করার সব চেষ্টাকে আজকাল মার্কেটিং কার্যক্রম হিসেবে পর্যায়ভুক্ত করা হয়।

ডিজিটাল বিপ্লব এবং ব্যবসায় পরিবেশের অনবরত দ্রুতলয়ে বদলে যাওয়ার কারণে মার্কেটিং আরো বেশি গুরুত্বপূর্ণ হয়ে উঠছে এবং সম্পূর্ণ বদলে যাচ্ছে। ব্যবসায়ের অন্যান্য কার্যাবলি যেমন- ফাইন্যান্স উৎপাদন, হিসাব, মানবসম্পদ ব্যবস্থাপনা সবই অর্থহীন হয়ে যায় যদি কোনো প্রতিষ্ঠান তার দ্রব্য, সেবা, অভিজ্ঞতা, ইভেন্ট, ব্যক্তি, স্থান, সম্পত্তি, সংগঠন, তথ্য ও ধারণার জন্য যথাযথ চাহিদা সৃষ্টি এবং/অথবা ব্যবস্থাপনা করতে না পারে, যা থেকে মুনাফা বা ভ্যালু আসবে; যা সব সময় লভ্যাংশ আকারে বণ্টনযোগ্য না হলেও চলবে। যার কারণে অন্যান্য ‘সি’-লেভেলের নির্বাহী যেমন- CFO, CIO অপেক্ষা অধিকতর গুরুত্ব পাচ্ছে কোম্পানির প্রধান মার্কেটিং নির্বাহী ঈগঙ। মার্কেটিংয়ে ভুল করার সুযোগ একেবারেই নেই। ভুল করলে পতন অনিবার্য। কিছু দিন আগেও যে সব কোম্পানি নেতৃত্বে ছিল তাদের কেউ কেই এখন অস্তিত্বের সংকটে পড়েছে। পরিবর্তনের সঙ্গে দ্রুত খাপ খাইয়ে চলা, বাজার বাস্তবতাকে অফুরন্ত ধারণক্ষমতা দিয়ে গ্রহণ করা এবং নতুন উদ্ভাবন- এই তিন বিষয়ে যারা মনোযোগী হবে তারাই টিকে থাকবে, অন্যথায় বিদায় নিতে হবে। আজ থেকে অর্ধশতাধিক বছর আগে পিটার ড্রাকার বলেছিলেন কোম্পানির প্রথম কাজ হচ্ছে ‘ক্রেতা সৃষ্টি করা’। ক্রেতাই প্রথম। ক্রেতা এবং কোম্পানির মধ্যে সম্পর্ক স্থাপন এবং সে সম্পর্ক স্থায়ী এবং সুদৃঢ় করাই মার্কেটিংয়ের কাজ।

বিশ্বায়ন ও প্রযুক্তির প্রভাবে বদলে যাচ্ছে সবকিছু, বদলে যাচ্ছে ক্রেতা ও প্রতিযোগিতা। বদলে যাচ্ছে মার্কেটিংয়ের ল্যান্ডস্কেপ। একবিংশ শতাব্দীর প্রধান চ্যালেঞ্জসমূহ যেমন- প্রযুক্তির দ্রুত উন্নয়ন, বিশ্বায়ন, সামাজিক ও নৈতিক দায়বদ্ধতা, পরিবেশবাদ ও ভোক্তাবাদের বাড়তি দাবি মোকাবেলা করেই অধিকতর গ্রিন মার্কেটিংয়ের দিকে এগুতে হবে মার্কেটারদের। শতবর্ষ পূর্বে ফরাসি বিপ্লব প্রসঙ্গে লিখতে গিয়ে Charles Dickens তার ‘A Tale of Two Cities’ উপন্যাসে লিখেছিলেন, ‘It was the best of times; it was the worst of times’। পরিবেশের প্রত্যেকটি পরিবর্তনই একটি সংকট। ম্যান্ডারিন ভাষায় সংকটের জন্য কোনো একক প্রতীক নেই। সংকট বুঝাতে তারা দুটি প্রতীক ব্যবহার করে অনেকটাই যুক্তাক্ষরের মতো। এর একটি ‘হুমকি’, অপরটি ‘সুযোগ’। পরিবর্তন হচ্ছে খুব দ্রুত। আজ গতকালের মতো নয়, আগামীকালও আজকের মতো হবে না। বলা হয় যেখানে আছ সেখানে থাকতে চাইলেও দ্রুত দৌড়াও। আজকের কৌশল নিয়ে আগামীকাল চলা হবে ঝুঁকিপূর্ণ। নতুন দিনের কৌশলও হতে হবে নতুন।

ভবিষ্যতে আরো নতুন চ্যালেঞ্জ আসবে, এটা কোনো সম্ভাবনা নয়, নিশ্চিত করেই বলা যায়। পৃথিবীর বেশিরভাগ মানুষের আয়, আয়ু, ভোগ, জ্ঞান ও যোগাযোগ বাড়বে। প্রায় সবাই মেনে নিয়েছে বাজার ব্যবস্থার মাধ্যমেই অর্থনীতির মৌলিক সমস্যার সমাধান হবে যদিও ক্রমবর্ধমান বৈষম্যের প্রতি ইঙ্গিত দিয়ে এ ব্যবস্থার সমালোচকের সংখ্যাও কম নয়। বাজার ব্যবস্থায় যারা আস্থাশীল তাদের মতে, ঐ বাজারই সবচেয়ে ভালো যেখানে ক্রেতার পছন্দ অনুযায়ী বাজারে পণ্য বা সেবা পাবে, আর কোম্পানিও তার ক্রেতার পছন্দ অনুযায়ী পণ্য সেবা সরবরাহ করে সন্তুষ্টিদানের মাধ্যমে সর্বোচ্চ মুনাফা বা লক্ষ্য অর্জন করবে। ‘বিগ ডাটার’ ব্যবহারের মতো সাম্প্রতিক সময়ের পরিবর্তনগুলো নিয়ে এসেছে অফুরন্ত সুযোগ। এগুলোকে সমস্যা হিসেবে প্রত্যক্ষ করলেও ক্ষতি নেই। কারণ প্রত্যেকটি সমস্যার পেছনেই লুকিয়ে থাকে একটি সুযোগ। সুযোগ খুঁজতে প্রয়োজন সৃজনশীলতা। অনেক সফল ব্যবসায়ীর নাম করা যাবে যারা কোনো দিন মার্কেটিং শাস্ত্রটি পড়েনি। Philip Kotler-এর নাম পর্যন্ত শুনেনি। ব্যয়বহুল গবেষণা, গণবিজ্ঞাপন, বৃহৎ বিক্রয় বাহিনীর কোনোটাই ব্যবহার করেনি, অথচ তারা সফল মার্কেটার। সীমিত সম্পদ নিয়ে ক্রেতার খুব কাছে অবস্থান করে, তাদের প্রয়োজনের সবচেয়ে সন্তোষজনক সমাধান দিচ্ছে অনেক কোম্পানি। অনেক কোম্পানি প্রতিষ্ঠিত সনাতন মার্কেটিংয়ের সব প্রথা ভেঙে সফল হচ্ছে। বইপুস্তকে সুপারিশকৃত পথ (‘STP’, 4Ps, ব্র্যান্ডিং) না মাড়িয়ে সৃজনশীল পথে সফলতা এনেছে। অনেক সফল কোম্পানি আছে যারা ব্যয়বহুল গবেষণা ও বিজ্ঞাপনে একেবারেই সময় ও অর্থ বিনিয়োগ না করে ক্রেতা ক্লাব প্রতিষ্ঠা, সৃজনশীল গণসংযোগ, ক্রেতাবান্ধব ভ্যালু ডেলিভারি পদ্ধতি এবং দীর্ঘ ক্রেতা আনুগত্যের প্রতি বিশেষ মনোযোগী হয়েছে। সফল হতে হলে সবাইকে ‘P&G’ বা Unilever-কে অনুসরণ না করলেও চলবে। যেটা প্রয়োজন সেটা হচ্ছে অন্তউদ্যোগী বাজারজাতকরণ (Intrepreneurial Marketing)। অন্তউদ্যোগী বাজারজাতকরণ হচ্ছে পাঠ্যবইয়ের ফর্মুলার সঙ্গে (Formulated Marketing) সৃজনশীলতার কার্যকর মিশ্রণ। সৃজনশীল ব্যক্তিরা মেধার ওপর নির্ভর করেই বাঁচে। তারা সুযোগের পূর্বানুমান করতে পারে এবং নিজকে তার সঙ্গে জড়িয়ে ফেলে। সৃজনশীলতা একটি নিরন্তর প্রচেষ্টা। কেবল মার্কেটিং বই পড়ে সেটা অর্জন সম্ভব নয়। জ্ঞানের রাজ্যে উদ্দেশ্যহীন অক্লান্ত ভ্রমণকারীরাই বেশি সৃজনশীল হয়। নতুন বাস্তবতায় সূত্রবদ্ধ মার্কেটিং ব্যবহার করে এখনো হয়তো কেউ কেউ টিকে আছে তবে আশঙ্কা তারা সহসাই পথ হারাবে। অধিকতর সৃজনশীলতার অনুশীলনের মাধ্যমে উদ্ভাবনই হচ্ছে আগামী দিনের মার্কেটিং।

অধ্যাপক ড. মীজানুর রহমান : উপাচার্য, জগন্নাথ বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়।


In competitive markets, it can be easy to get lost in the crowd. One of the biggest challenges for entrepreneurs is standing out from their competitors. Marketing in new, unusual, or aggressive ways is the best way to illustrate what makes a business unique. Below are some marketing strategies that entrepreneurs have used successfully in the past. A company can direct all of its marketing efforts towards one strategy, or use several of them at once.

Relationship Marketing – Focuses on creating a strong link between the brand and the customer.
Expeditionary Marketing – Involves creating markets and developing innovative products. Companies act as leaders rather than followers.
One to One Marketing - Customers are marketed to as individuals. All marketing efforts are personalized.
Real Time Marketing – Uses the power of technology to interact with a customer in a real time.
Viral Marketing – Places marketing messages on the Internet so they can be shared and expanded on by customers.
Digital Marketing – Leverages the power of Internet tools like email and social networking to support marketing efforts

Tim Draper who has been investing in future technology since the earliest days of the web said that in five years no one will be trading with fiat currency. The legendary investor and prognosticator of where technology is taking us sat down with CNBC’s Fast Money to talk about the future of Bitcoin and blockchain technology.

Greatest Technological Change
Draper said the shift that is happening in technology today is bigger than the iron or bronze age. When asked how he compared the opportunities now to when he was investing in web 1.0 and 2.0 he talked about how the web transformed information. But now blockchain technology has the potential to change almost every industry including the way government works.

He sees individual governments breaking down in the future to become a group of international entities that will compete by supplying their services to citizens.

When asked to compare where blockchain development is now as compared to the way the internet was developed, he put the timeline at the early eighties for investor potential, saying “it is all just getting started.” “This is the most excited I’ve ever been as an investor, and I was right there at the beginning of the internet,” he added.

Talking about the future of currency Draper stated that in five years fiat currency will be a thing of the past. There will be no more currencies linked to specific countries.

“In five years you’re going to walk in and try to pay fiat [a government-backed currency like the U.S. dollar] for a Starbucks coffee, and the barista is going to laugh at you, because they’re going to say, ‘What is this? Are you counting out pennies? Give me shells?’

Whether Draper knows this or not, Starbucks has indicated that it may use blockchain technology for an application that will process consumer payments in cryptocurrency.

The End of Fiat Currency
When asked what he would do with a fresh dollar for investment, whether that would be for an ICO or existing currency, Draper directly talked about the dominance of Bitcoin in the future. That he saw other cryptocurrencies falling away leaving Bitcoin as the standard.

He ended by talking about the Bootcamp he is launching in April at his Draper university to encourage learning and investing in Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. “Because all of this engineering effort, all that excitement, this focus is really on bitcoin and all of the cryptos around it,”

Draper, who is known to have predicted when Bitcoin would hit the $10,000 mark almost to the day, was an early investor in Skype and Tesla. He bought and is still holding 30,000 Bitcoins from the 2014 US Marshals Service auction of assets seized from the Silk Road.

Cyber Security / How to talk to kids about internet safety?
« on: March 08, 2018, 01:17:36 AM »
Internet has had an undeniably profound and positive impact in Asia, and will continue to do so as the expansion of infrastructure sees a digital future for all in this region. At the same time, cyberspace undoubtedly presents a double-edged sword. Risks abound online, many of them threatening the most vulnerable among us, namely children. Data from the Boston Consulting Group on internet use among children in thirteen countries show that eight percent may have unknowingly subscribed to commercial services, one in 10 has potentially been subject to personal data misuse, and one in five potentially exposed to harmful contents.

For these reasons, coupled with a lack of awareness as to the positive value of internet, some parents in Asia have exhibited reluctance to embrace the technology. While their caution is understandable, by limiting their children's exposure to cyberspace they also inadvertently restrict their access to the life-changing positive possibilities offered by internet.

With Safer Internet Day on February 10, now is the time for a region-wide discussion on how to keep kids safe on internet. Telenor is committed to safe internet for all, and as part of this, will be releasing a Safe Internet Book in the coming months to provide parents with the tools to keep their children safe in cyberspace. Drawing on Telenor's global and regional expertise in transforming societies through connectivity, the book details simple techniques that parents with little or no experience of internet can use to ensure that their children's time spent online is positive, productive, and safe.

What do we recommend? Above all, building resilience rather than restricting access. Children will access internet, with or without their parents, and it thus is important to create rules that acknowledge that children can't be monitored at all times. This process can be facilitated by setting time limits to usage, and age limits and security measures on devices. Keep internet-enabled devices in sight, in order to avoid inappropriate use. Check browser history to keep abreast of what your children are seeing online, and make sure they always log out.

Fundamentally, keeping kids safe online is about communication, and thus it is important to start the conversation about online risks. Basic ground rules like protecting passwords and personal information should become second nature. Also, know the right questions to ask: parents should familiarise themselves with the online landscape, and know what risks are presented by what platforms.

We estimate that an overwhelming majority of an estimated 500 million children in emerging Asia markets will be accessing internet for the first time via mobile in the coming decade. Within the next three years alone, Telenor expects up to 85 million children will be introduced to internet via mobile in its global markets.

As operators we have a responsibility to ensure children's safety on internet, and Telenor works with multiple stakeholders to deliver on that commitment. With other leading ICT players, including Google, Facebook, and Microsoft, we are partners in the European Commission's CEO Coalition to make internet a better place for kids. We have worked with Interpol to become the first mobile operator in the world to introduce safety and child pornography filters for mobile phones, and we have joined industry forces to drive the establishment of the GSM Association's Mobile Alliance against Child Sexual Abuse Content.

We firmly believe the opportunities presented by internet outweigh the dangers, but all stakeholders – including parents, educators, regulators and telecoms operators – must commit to ensuring that our children are safe online.


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