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Messages - Md. Fouad Hossain Sarker

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Research and Publication / E-Governance Potential for Rural India
« on: July 22, 2018, 11:28:22 AM »
Potential for Rural India

Reinventing Local Governments and the E-Government Initiative

More than Digitisation - The Transformative Potential of E-Governance: An Exploratory Case Study

The purpose of this paper is to present our
conceptualization of e-governance. With e-governance,
we mean the current shifts in the state’s governance
mechanisms that are induced by information and
communication technology (ICT) along the three major
functions of state, namely policy making (political
process), regulation and service delivery. In the paper,
we describe the current state of our work on the
Lausanne Framework, which serves as an evaluation
method for e-governance projects. By applying it to an
exploratory case study, we first want to demonstrate its
usefulness for the understanding of state
transformation. And second, we want to outline the
transformative potential of e-governance on the state’s
systems of rules and regulation.

E-governance in India: its impacts on relations among citizens, politicians and public servants

Information and Communication Technology Applications in Development: India as a role model for other developing countries

Electronic government encompasses all government roles and activities, shaped
by information and communications technologies (ICTs). Going well beyond
analogies to e-commerce, it encompasses the four domains of governance and
public administration: the state’s economic and social programs; its relationships
with the citizen and the rule of law (e-democracy), its internal operations and its
relationship with the international environment. E-government builds on three
evolving forces: technology, management concepts and government itself. It has
given rise to several phenomena that are redefining the public sector environment,
including the International Institute of Administrative Sciences. Four aspects
of e-government have lasting impacts on public administration: citizen-centered
service, information as a public resource, new skills and working relationships, and
accountability and management models. The challenges of e-government are
even more acute in developing countries, although it also offers solutions. Public
administration in all countries requires new thinking and leadership to ensure that
e-government realizes its full potential.

The emergence of electronic government1 — both in practice and in concept — has
been one of the important developments in public administration in the past ten
years. It has introduced new vocabulary, theoretical models and linkages between
disciplines and between theory and practice. By its nature, e-government is an evolving
phenomenon. Only provisional judgements can be made about the relationship
between e-government and public administration, and it is a risky venture indeed to
predict e-government’s future direction and scope.
This article looks at e-government in a comparative public administration context.
There is no generally accepted definition of e-government, so the article begins
by proposing a description of what it is and what it concerns. It then reviews how

Research and Publication / E-GOVERNMENT AND E-DEMOCRACY
« on: July 22, 2018, 11:17:49 AM »

E-government can make government institutions more transparent, help citizens to
obtain access to public information and broaden their participation in the democratic processes.
But it is doubtful that all these possibilities can be fully realized today or in the very near future,
because only a small proportion of the world population has access to the Internet. This article
analyses the possibilities and obstacles to using the Internet to promote democracy in different
regions. It compares the situation of e-government and democracy in the North and South. The
article focuses in particular on South Africa’s experience, as a country which lives in both the
developed and developing world at the same time.

Keywords / democratization / digital divide / e-government / North and South

E-Government – The New Way of Governance
The concept of e-government appeared in the early 1990s but it was put into
practice only towards the end of the decade. E-governments first appeared
in industrialized countries. Nowadays, many countries in the world have
e-government projects; the most economically advanced states have the most
advanced e-government. In the post-Soviet territories only Estonia, Latvia
and, recently, Russia have made the first steps towards e-government.1
To adopt e-government means to transfer government activities into online
forms. The goal of this transformation is the same as the goal of transferring a
private company’s activity to the Internet, i.e. to increase work effectiveness.
The concept of e-government is to facilitate citizens’ access to a great amount
of diverse information. For the public, e-government means a simplification of
their interaction with government thanks to Internet connections. The speed of
the information exchange between bureaucrats and citizens is increasing
dramatically. The main characteristic of advanced e-government is interactivity.
Establishing e-government includes several stages.

E-government denotes the strategic, co-ordinated use of information
and communication technologies (ICT) in public administration and
political decision-making. The benefits it is expected to deliver are
greater efficiency of the institutions concerned, improvements in public
services, and political participation and transparency. But fast results
can only be expected where a sound institutional base and good
technical and infrastructural facilities already exist. In the foreseeable
future, the introduction of e-government will mainly be confined to the
industrialised and more advanced developing countries. However,
potential uses are also opening up for the poorer countries. In many
cases, the obstacles to reform are not so much financial and
infrastructural difficulties as political blockades. Development
cooperation can use e-government as a means of supporting partner
countries in devising and implementing political and administrative
reforms and in improving market-oriented frameworks. Beyond the
immediate benefits of the new technologies, e-government should be
taken as an instrument to promote good governance and to strengthen
reform-oriented actors in politics and civil society.

Governance of public administration, systems and utilities has been a subject of debate for quite
some time now, particularly in the developing economies. After having used the omnipotent weapon
of Information Technology to gain competitive advantage in businesses, IT experts have started
focusing on exploiting the potential of Information Technology for the benefit of common man. Political
leaders have been eyeing Information Technology as a useful CyberRath, which will take them to the
seat of power in the next elections. E-Governance, which promises to make public services
inexpensive, responsive, and truly transparent, has been inviting attention from polity, bureaucracy,
and the businesses alike, though for different reasons. Most of the Indian states are following the
SMART (Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive, and Transparent) Model of e-governance. On the
flip-side, there are criticisms that most of the sites, which are created by government departments,
are dysfunctional, dated, have ineffective links, and do not encourage interactive communication with
the population. In nutshell, for implementing a concept like e-governance, there is a total
transformation of the public systems and procedures led by a change in the administrative mind-set.
In this paper, the author has attempted to review the concept of e-governance; technology
requirements and impediments to e-governance; need for re-engineering as a pre-cursor to egovernance;
and made certain recommendations for implementing e-governance solutions. The
experiences of Indian governments have been used for discussions.

Keywords: E-Governance, Information & Communications Technology, Information Technology in
Government, Information Technology Management

Research and Publication / Towards the enhancement of e-democracy
« on: July 22, 2018, 11:07:36 AM »
Towards the enhancement of e-democracy: identifying the notion of the ‘middleman paradox’

The challenge towards e-democracy, through the electronic transformation
of political systems, has become increasingly evident within developed economies.
It is regarded as an approach for increased and better quality citizen
participation in the democratic processes. E-democracy forms a component of
overall e-government initiatives where technology adoption and diffusion, to
enhance wider access to, and the delivery of, government services, are apparent.
However, previous research demonstrates that very few e-democracy proposals
survive the stage of formal political decision-making to become substantive egovernment
projects within national or international agendas. Furthermore, the
implementation of e-democracy projects is undertaken at a much slower pace
and with dramatically less support than the implementation of other, so-called
e-administration, activities in the public sector.
The research in this paper considers the notion of the ‘middleman paradox’,
presenting theoretical and empirical evidence that further investigates the phenomenon
associated with potential e-democracy improvements. Specifically, the
paper adds a new dimension to existing theories on the hesitant evolution of
e-democracy that clearly identifies politicians as an inhibiting factor. Proposals are
made for an enhancement of these processes, and suggestions for further applicable
research are demonstrated.

e-government, e-administration, e-democracy, digital democracy

As the awareness for e-government is increasing, governments and societies all around the
globe are engaging with a digital future for the public sector. Government agencies are using
technology to enhance the access to, and the delivery of, government services to citizens,


E-governance is more than just a government website on the Internet.
The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify governance for
all parties; government, citizens and businesses. The use of ICTs can connect all
three parties and support processes and activities. In other words, in e-governance
electronic means support and stimulate good governance. Therefore, the objectives
of e-governance are similar to the objectives of good governance. Good
governance can be seen as an exercise of economic, political, and administrative
authority to better manage affairs of a country at all levels. It is not difficult for
people in developed countries to imagine a situation in which all interaction with
government can be done through one counter 24 hours a day, 7 days a week,
without waiting in lines. However to achieve this same level of efficiency and
flexibility for developing countries is going to be difficult. The experience in
developed countries shows that this is possible if governments are willing to
decentralize responsibilities and processes, and if they start to use electronic
means. This paper is going to examine the legal and infrastructure issues related
to e-governance from the perspective of developing countries. Particularly it will
examine how far the developing countries have been successful in providing a
legal framework.

Introducing E-governance in Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects

Use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT) in government activities has become a common phenomenon in recent years. In the late 1990s, ICT introduced a unique concept--electronic government (e-government)--in the field of public administration. To date, various technologies have been applied to support the unique characteristics of e-government, including electronic data interchange, interactive voice response, voice mail, email, web service delivery, virtual reality, and key public infrastructure. (1)


With the advent of the Internet and telecommunication technologies, business
organizations have jumped into the e-business bandwagon that has led to
better customer service through implementing Customer Relationship
Management tools. The same trend has now caught on with the governments
through e-Government initiatives. This paper presents a conceptual model of
Citizen Relationship Management (CzRM). The proposed model of CzRM
combines a set of functionalities and tools that enable government to become
citizen centric. It requires the creation of integrated Citizen Information System
(CIS) to provide personalized service and setting up of Citizen Interface Centers
(CIC) which can provide many services from a single point of contact. The
model is also being related with some of the existing e-Governance applications
in India. A number of research ideas in the area of CzRM have also been
proposed in the paper.

E-governance in India: its impacts on relations among citizens, politicians and public servants

In all societies, the formation of public governance is largely dependent on its
contextual parameters, including social structure, economic condition, political
atmosphere, cultural pattern and technological trend. The nature of governance
often changes depending on the intensity and speed of transition in some of these
surrounding factors. In the current age, one of the most significant contextual
phenomena affecting public governance is the revolution in information and
communication technology (ict).1 Internationally, this revolution in ict has
facilitated the globalization of the economy, business, finance and culture
(Berleur, 1997; Heeks, 1999). Today ict constitutes the fastest growing component
of the global economy and the revenue generated by the interactive
information industry may have reached $3.5 trillion (Hariharan, 1999). Internally,
within each society, the conventional forms of communication (print media,
motion pictures, radio, telephones, records) are increasingly being replaced with
digital and wireless technologies such as cellular telephones, satellites, electronic
mail and, above all, the internet (Gudaitis, 2001). However, the most influential
dimension of this revolution is the worldwide proliferation of access to the internet.
It is observed that the number of internet hosts increased from 100,000 in
1988 to over 36 million in 1998; and the number of internet users rose from 26
million in 1995 to 143 million in mid-1998, and it might reach 700 million by the
end of 2001 (UNDP, 1999; Norris, 2000). This contextual phenomenon, which
has changed the nature of the workforce, human relations and public expectations,
represents a considerable challenge to the state to adjust its public governance
(Centre on Governance, 1999a, b).
In response to this transition in the context of governance, in almost every
country, the state has taken the necessary initiatives to restructure political and
administrative institutions by adopting ict in order to enhance electronic interaction
and service delivery (Menzel, 1998; Galbi, 2001). Today public servants
are encouraged and trained to be familiar with the tools and languages of ict


Among many regional policy initiatives taken by states in East and Southeast Asia in the wake of the 1997 financial crisis, one
central project launched by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and taken up by its dialogue partners in East
Asia, was promotion of information and communication technology. While part of ASEAN’s 1999–2004 action plan focused on
services for business, another part sought to put public sectors online, and to promote electronic government, or e-government.
Taking the 16 states and quasi-states of East and Southeast Asia, this article evaluates progress at the action plan’s mid-point in
January 2002. It begins by defining e-government and reviewing three academic literatures on the information age, developmental
states, and Confucian societies. It then describes the major policy initiatives taken by ASEAN and its partner states, and
surveys implementation progress through an analysis of government homepages and sites. Its main finding is that e-government
activity in East and Southeast Asia is highly diverse, reflecting national strengths and weaknesses rather than regional capacity
for policy change. The article argues for increased attention to national implementation strategies. Copyright # 2002 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Among many regional policy initiatives launched by states in East and Southeast Asia in the wake of the 1997
financial crisis, one key project was promotion of information and communication technology (ICT). While much
of the resultant political activity focused on building ICT infrastructure for business, a significant policy strand
sought to develop ICT capacity within states, and to make a decisive shift towards electronic government, or
e-government. Led by the ten-member Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), states in the region
made ICT progress a key priority in ‘bridging the development gap’ (ASEAN, 2001, para 17). Largely on the
initiative of Japan, they also extended the project to the ‘plus three’ states of China, Japan and South Korea (Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2000). Outside regional structures, but still within the region, the quasi-states of Hong
Kong and Taiwan equally sought to become leading e-government players (Hong Kong Information and Technology
Broadcasting Bureau, 2002). In the five years after 1997, only the hermit state of North Korea did not join the
regional drive to put public sectors online.

This article evaluates e-government progress in East and Southeast Asia in January 2002, halfway through the
period covered by a 1999–2004 ASEAN action plan (ASEAN, 1998). To establish a context for that evaluation, it
begins by defining e-government and exploring the academic literature on the information age, as well as two
further literatures on developmental states and Confucian societies that are relevant in an East and Southeast Asian
context. Each focuses on the network concept that is central to much information age analysis. The article then
reviews regional e-government initiatives before assessing national implementation records. In this core section,
the article examines the ten ASEAN member states (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Copyright #

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