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Topics - farzanamili

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You need to know / Pregnant? Don't under-estimate yourself!
« on: September 25, 2011, 02:34:53 PM »
We all know that motherhood is the most important feature of a woman. But we all do not know how to take care of ourselves in our first pregnancy. For that reason, many problems happen to mother & baby. Here are the following some things which I would like to share:

1. Every woman need to take vitamin,calcium 500 mg & iron tablet daily even before pregnancy which will help a lot to mitigate pregnancy weakness during the first trimester which consists of first 12 weeks.

2. Pregnancy period is divided into three period-
    1st trimester(0-12 weeks)
    2nd trimester(12-27 weeks)
    3rd trimester(27-41 weeks)

3. The discomforts of 1st tri-mester are morning sickness & losing taste of food cooked by self,feeling vomity in brushing teeth,in smelling food smell. One can get rid of it by taking some measures like eating biscuits before leaving bed, eating cooked food by others.

4. The probability of abortion inside womb happens in this trimester. So every woman should be careful to take care of her during this time. She should not do heavy works or carry heavy things in the first 3 months.

5.There is a saying that a pregnant woman should eat food of two persons-wrong conception,just adding of 300-400 calories are extra needed.

6. During pregnancy,raw eggs or half-fried eggs can cause infection to the baby. So eggs should be properly boiled or cooked,so that liquid portions can be hardened which will be safe for baby inside.

7.Green papaya,jali kodu should be avoided,because these creates heat inside womb.

8. Shrimp should be cleaned properly,hard portion should be pilled of. Sometimes shrimp creates problem in pregnancy of some women by causing heat inside abdomen & increasing vomity feeling.

9. Those foods should be avoided which creates vomity feeling. Vomity injures stomach.

10.During public transportation, try to avoid crowdy portion or take precaution so that sudden jump of bus or suddenly hitting by others on your belly cannot injure you.

11. Stairs riding should be done cautiously.

12. Minimum 8 glasses of water is required for drinking.

13. Try to drink water rather than processed juice,as processed juices & instant noodles contain preservatives which are injurious for baby's nourishment in the first tri-mester.

To be continued...

Faculty Forum / 6 Traits of Successful Teachers!
« on: December 22, 2010, 11:00:25 AM »

                                          What We Can Learn From Successful Teachers:

The successful teachers remain intellectually curious and professionally vital both inside and outside the classroom for decades. They avoid stagnation at all costs and maintain an enviable passion for children and the learning process. They remain vivid in the students' memories forever because of their creativity, sense of fun, and compassion.
Here are the qualities the successful teachers contribute  most to a successful, durable, and happy teaching career:

1. Successful teachers hold high expectations:
The most effective teachers expect great accomplishments from their students, and they don't accept anything less. In education, expectations form a self-fulfilling prophecy. When teachers believe each and every student can soar beyond any imagined limits, the children will sense that confidence and work with the teacher to make it happen.

2. They think creatively:
The best teachers think outside the box, outside the classroom, and outside the norm. They leap outside of the classroom walls and take their students with them! As much as possible, top teachers try to make classroom experiences exciting and memorable for the students. They seek ways to give their students a real world application for knowledge, taking learning to the next action-packed level. Think tactile, unexpected, movement-oriented, and a little bit crazy... then you'll be on the right track.

3. Top teachers are versatile and sensitive:
The best teachers live outside of their own needs and remain sensitive to the needs of others, including students, parents, colleagues, and the community. It's challenging because each individual needs something different, but the most successful teachers are a special breed who play a multitude of different roles in a given day with fluidity and grace, while remaining true to themselves.

4. They are curious, confident, and evolving:
We're all familiar with the stagnant, cynical, low-energy teachers who seem to be biding their time until retirement and watching the clock even more intently than their students. That's what NOT to do.
In contrast, the successful teachers renew their energy by learning new ideas from younger teachers, and they aren't threatened by new ways of doing things on campus. They have strong core principles, but somehow still evolve with changing times. They embrace new technologies and confidently move forward into the future.

5. They are imperfectly human:
The most effective educators bring their entire selves to the job. They celebrate student successes, show compassion for struggling parents, tell stories from their own lives, laugh at their mistakes, share their unique quirks, and aren't afraid to be imperfectly human in front of their students.
They understand that teachers don't just deliver curriculum, but rather the best teachers are inspiring leaders that show students how should behave in all areas of life and in all types of situations. Top teachers admit it when they don't know the answer. They apologize when necessary and treat students with respect.

6. Successful teachers emphasize the fun in learning and in life:
The successful teachers create lighthearted fun out of serious learning. They aren't afraid to be silly because they can snap the students back into attention at will - with just a stern look or a change in tone of voice.

Next Steps:
For those of us aiming to increase these qualities in our professional lives, it can be intimidating to think that we have to do everything all at once. Instead, it is recommended for choosing one of these qualities to focus on each school year and expand one’s repertoire slowly but surely. Even the most successful teachers have to start somewhere!


Law / Trafficking in Persons Report 2010 - Country Narratives-Bangladesh
« on: December 19, 2010, 12:25:20 PM »


Bangladesh is a source and transit country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced labor and forced prostitution. A significant share of Bangladesh’s trafficking victims are men recruited for work overseas with fraudulent employment offers who are subsequently exploited under conditions of forced labor or debt bondage. Children – both boys and girls – are trafficked within Bangladesh for commercial sexual exploitation, bonded labor, and forced labor. Some children are sold into bondage by their parents, while others are induced into labor or commercial sexual exploitation through fraud and physical coercion. Women and children from Bangladesh are also trafficked to India for commercial sexual exploitation.

Bangladeshi men and women migrate willingly to Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates (UAE ), Qatar, Iraq, Lebanon, Malaysia, Liberia, and other countries for work, often under legal and contractual terms. Most Bangladeshis who seek overseas employment through legal channels rely on the 724 recruiting agencies belonging to the Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies (BAIRA ). These agencies are legally permitted to charge workers up to $1,235 and place workers in low-skilled jobs typically paying between $100 and $150 per month. According to NGOs, however, many workers are charged upwards of $6,000 for these services. A recent Amnesty International report on Malaysia indicated Bangladeshis spend more than three times the amount of recruitment fees paid by other migrant workers recruited for work in Malaysia. NGOs report many Bangladeshi migrant laborers are victims of recruitment fraud, including exorbitant recruitment fees often accompanied by fraudulent representation of terms of employment. The ILO has concluded high recruitment fees increase vulnerability to forced labor among transnational migrant workers. Women typically work as domestic servants; some find themselves in situations of forced labor or debt bondage where they face restrictions on their movements, non-payment of wages, threats, and physical or sexual abuse. Some Bangladeshi women working abroad are subsequently trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation. Bangladeshi children and adults are also trafficked internally for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and bonded labor. Recent reports indicate many brothel owners and pimps addict Bangladeshi girls to steroids, with devastating side effects, to make them more attractive to clients; the drug is reported to be used by 90 percent of females between 15 and 35 in Bangladeshi brothels.

Bangladesh does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. The government has continued to address the sex trafficking of women and children. Despite these significant efforts, the government did not demonstrate evidence of increased efforts to prosecute and convict labor trafficking offenders, particularly those responsible for the fraudulent recruitment of Bangladeshi workers for the purpose of forced labor overseas. Similarly it did not demonstrate increased efforts to prevent the forced labor of Bangladeshi workers overseas through effective controls on high recruitment fees and other forms of fraudulent recruitment; therefore, Bangladesh is placed on Tier 2 Watch List for the second consecutive year. Some government officials and members of civil society continue to believe the forced labor and debt bondage of Bangladeshi workers abroad was not considered labor trafficking, but rather employment fraud perpetrated on irregular migrants.

Recommendations for Bangladesh: Draft and enact legislation criminalizing the forced labor of men; integrate anti-labor trafficking objectives into national anti-trafficking policies and programs; significantly increase criminal prosecutions and punishments for all forms of labor trafficking, including those involving fraudulent labor recruitment and forced child labor; consider establishing special courts to prosecute labor trafficking offenses; greatly improve oversight of Bangladesh’s international recruiting agencies to ensure they are not promoting practices that contribute to labor trafficking; provide protection services for adult male trafficking victims and victims of forced labor, including improving consular assistance in embassies abroad; and increase awareness campaigns targeted at potential domestic and international migrants.

The Government of Bangladesh did not provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat sex trafficking or forced labor during the reporting period. Bangladesh prohibits the trafficking of women and children for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or involuntary servitude under the Repression of Women and Children Act of 2000 (amended in 2003), and prohibits the selling and buying of a child under the age of 18 for prostitution in Articles 372 and 373 of its penal code. Prescribed penalties under these sex trafficking statutes range from 10 years’ imprisonment to the death sentence. The most common sentence imposed on convicted sex traffickers is life imprisonment. These penalties are very stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Article 374 of Bangladesh’s penal code prohibits forced labor, but the prescribed penalties of imprisonment for up to one year or a fine are not sufficiently stringent.

During the reporting period, the government obtained the convictions of 32 sex trafficking offenders and sentenced 24 of them to life imprisonment; eight were sentenced to lesser prison terms. This is a slight decrease from the 37 convictions obtained in 2008. The government did not report the conviction of any labor trafficking offenders. The government prosecuted 68 cases involving suspected sex trafficking offenders and conducted 26 investigations, compared with 90 prosecutions and 134 investigations during the previous year. Forty-nine prosecutions resulted in acquittals; however, under Bangladeshi law the term “acquittal” can also refer to cases in which the parties settled out of court or witnesses did not appear in court. Despite administrative actions taken against labor recruitment agencies involved in fraudulent recruitment and possible human trafficking, the government did not report any criminal prosecutions or convictions for labor trafficking offenses. The Bangladeshi judicial system’s handling of sex trafficking cases continued to be plagued by a large backlog and delays caused by procedural loopholes. Most sex trafficking cases are prosecuted by 42 special courts for the prosecution of crimes of violence against women and children spread throughout 32 districts of the country; those courts are generally more efficient than regular trial courts.

The Ministry of Home Affairs’ Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Cell reportedly collected data on trafficking arrests, prosecutions, and rescues, and coordinated and analyzed local-level information from regional anti-trafficking units. During the year, there was some evidence of official complicity in human trafficking. Several NGOs reported a nexus among members of parliament and corrupt recruiting agencies and village level brokers and indicated that politicians and regional gangs were involved in human trafficking. Some NGOs also report that official recruitment agencies in Dhaka have linkages with employers in destination countries who sometimes put their migrant workers in situations of servitude. Low-level government employees were also complicit in trafficking. According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, the government prosecuted a civil servant who was complicit in trafficking; the trial remained ongoing at the end of the reporting period. The government confirmed the existence of allegations against some Bangladeshi soldiers in Sierra Leone who may have engaged in or facilitated trafficking, but the government did not provide any information on investigations or prosecutions of these cases. The country’s National Police Academy provided anti-trafficking training to 2,876 police officers in 2009. The 12 police officers of the Ministry of Home Affairs’ “Trafficking in Human Beings Investigation Unit” continued to receive training on investigation techniques. Other government officials received training from NGOs, international organizations, and foreign governments. A 2009 report from a prominent NGO suggested that law enforcement trainings have not translated into increased prosecutions or a change in outlook.

The Government of Bangladesh made limited efforts to protect victims of trafficking over the last year. The government’s lack of efforts to protect victims of forced labor – who constitute a large share of victims in the country – and adult male victims of trafficking is a continuing concern. While the government did not have a systematic procedure to identify and refer female and child victims of trafficking, the courts, police, or Home Ministry officials referred victims of internal trafficking to shelters. Law enforcement officials identified and rescued 68 victims (38 females and 30 children) in the reporting period, but it is uncertain whether they were referred to shelters. In the previous year, law enforcement officials identified and rescued 251 victims. While the government did not provide shelter or other services dedicated to trafficking victims, it continued to run nine homes for women and children victims of violence, including trafficking, as well as a “one-stop crisis center” for women and children in the Dhaka general hospital. These centers, in cooperation with NGOs, provided legal, medical, and psychiatric services. During the last year, 384 victims were served by government and NGO care facilities in Bangladesh; some of these may have been victims of trafficking. The Ministry of Expatriate Welfare and Overseas Employment continued to operate shelters for female Bangladeshi victims of trafficking and exploitation in Riyadh and Jeddah. Law enforcement personnel encouraged victims of trafficking, when identified, to participate in investigations and prosecutions of their traffickers, but there was no evidence of the number of victims who assisted in investigations and prosecutions of traffickers in the reporting period. Authorities did not penalize victims for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of their being trafficked. When no space was available in shelter homes, however, female victims of trafficking – as wards of the police or court – stayed in jails. From February to October 2009, local police in India rescued seven adult female Bangladeshi sex trafficking victims. In March 2010 – after some of the women had remained in shelters for over a year in India – the Government of Bangladesh began working with NGOs and the Indian government to repatriate these women. As of the writing of this report, the process has not been finalized.

While workers ostensibly had several options to address complaints of labor and recruitment violations and to get compensation, the process most often used – arbitration by Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies (BAIRA ) – did not provide sufficient financial compensation and rarely addressed the illegal activities of some recruitment agencies, all of which are BAIRA members. The Bureau of Manpower Employment and Training (BMET ), which is charged with overseeing recruitment agencies and monitoring the condition of Bangladeshi workers overseas, regularly steers workers with complaints to BAIRA for resolution. Workers are drawn to the BAIRA complaint mechanism because it offers quick cash payouts (though usually much less than the wages they were denied and the recruitment fees paid) and requires significantly less proof of paid fees – most fees charged were illegal and thus had no corresponding receipts. If there are “major” disputes, recruitment agencies may lose their licenses; however, NGOs report that friends and family members of agency heads successfully file for new licenses. Recruitment agencies may also incur criminal charges.

According to Ministry of Expatriate Welfare and Overseas Employment (MEWOE ), the government disposed 893 of 1,030 labor complaints in the reporting period (as opposed to disposing 745 complaints of 1,010 the year before); some of these complaints were likely due to trafficking offenses. NGOs allege officials working at Bangladeshi embassies abroad were mostly unresponsive to complaints and attempts to seek restitution abroad were rare. The Government of Bangladesh continued to donate land for an IO M project which established a coffee stand run by rehabilitated trafficking victims.

PreventionThe Bangladeshi government failed to take adequate efforts to prevent the forced labor of Bangladeshis abroad and at home, and made modest efforts to prevent sex trafficking over the reporting period. During the reporting period, the BMET reportedly shut down one recruiting agency, cancelled the licenses and confiscated the security deposit money of six agencies for their involvement in fraudulent recruitment practices that potentially facilitated human trafficking. This is a decrease from the nine agencies shut down and 25 agencies whose licenses were cancelled in the previous reporting period. BMET collected approximately $830,000 in fines from recruitment agencies for fraudulent recruitment practices and other infractions. The government continued to allow BAIRA to set fees, license individual agencies, certify workers for overseas labor, and handle most complaints of expatriate laborers, while not exercising adequate oversight over this consortium of labor recruiters to ensure their practices do not facilitate debt bondage of Bangladeshi workers abroad. Various ministries disseminated numerous anti-sex trafficking messages in a number of different forums, including public service announcements, discussions, songs, rallies, and posters. The Monitoring Cell reported anti-sex trafficking messaging was included in monthly public outreach sessions conducted by government heads in each of Bangladesh’s 65 units. The Home Secretary continued to chair the monthly inter-ministerial National Anti- Trafficking Committee Meetings, which oversees districtlevel committees in 64 districts. The Home Secretary also regularly holds coordination committee meetings with NGOs, although some NGOs note that the meetings often have broad agendas and do not focus adequately on trafficking. The Ministry of Home Affairs published the Bangladesh Country Report on Combating Trafficking in Women and Children. While the government made the registration compulsory in 2006, the national rate of birth registration is only between seven and10 percent, and most children born in the rural areas are still not properly documented. During the year, the government did not demonstrate measures to reduce the demand for forced labor or for commercial sex acts. Bangladesh is not a party to the 2000 UN TI P Protocol.

Law / Working Women in Bangladesh
« on: December 19, 2010, 11:59:56 AM »
Working women in Bangladesh are increasing day by day as it is the demand of time! Now women do not want to be dependant on others financially. For self-honour and self-confidence, to get self-identity is much required. Every morning on my way to my workplace, I see many women dressed in either salwar kameez or saree on their way to work, waiting for a CNG, CAB or sitting on the back seat of their car. They dress themselves quite elegant yet simple and professional, with their hair neatly groomed. Women, particularly in our society are expected to be house wives, taking care of the house hold chores and bringing up their children. But now-a-days, quite a number of women taking care of their house hold duties are working. Really it is not so easy to manage both house and job at a time! Few years back working for women only meant to teach at schools, but today the scenario is totally changed. Women today are working as bankers, telecom professionals, lecturers, etc.or are running their own ventures quite successfully. Many designers of different fashion houses are women and are promoting their designs by their own event management firms. They are opening  their own fashion institute or interior design schools where many students are enrolling.With so many private TV channels & radios opening up in our country, women  are choosing their career in the mass media and communication. Lots of women are seen choosing journalism as their profession, not to mention they are already doing good as presenters and news caster. Also, after opening up of the radio channels we see many female singers are now releasing their albums under different record labels. Due to all the opportunity around women seems to be one step ahead in choosing what they want to do professionally.
As women entrepreneurs, we see women are leading in the fashion world. Many of them owning their own fashion house, beauty salons, and also advertising firms. I was really surprised to learn few days back that the managing director of one the shipping company in Bangladesh is a woman. I am really proud and happy to let you all know that Mrs. Afruja Bari is the managing director of the one of the first shipping building companies in Bangladesh to get ship export orders from abroad. Experts believe that ship building industry will be the next top foreign currency earning sector in the near future. So, we see that women are not behind anymore though they are facing hardships and challenges everyday. By facing hardships of life & job quite successfully, now they are more confident to challenge the world!

Law / Ensuring Healthy Work Environment
« on: December 14, 2010, 12:55:30 PM »
 To get a job now-a-days is very difficult. So the question of getting a healthy work environment in offices may appear to some of the people as ridiculous! But it is a very important issue as a healthy work environment provides people with opportunities to meet work and personal goals. Undoubtedly earning livelihood is necessary, but people also need to balance work life with family life, social opportunities outside work and physical well-being. If unhealthy work pressure and work environment exists in workplace,it will impede the flourishment of creativity and self-development of employee which will ultimately affect the office or institution. Therefore employers should think over it & try to ensure maximum healthy work environment.

Law / Present Education System of Bangladesh
« on: December 07, 2010, 11:57:10 AM »
 The present education system of Bangladesh may be broadly divided into three major stages, viz. primary, secondary and tertiary education. Primary level institutions impart primary education basically. Junior secondary/secondary and higher secondary level institutions impart secondary education. Degree pass, degree honors, masters and other higher-level institutions or equivalent section of other related institutions impart tertiary education. The education system is operationally categorized into two streams: primary education (Grade I-V) managed by the Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME)) and the other system is the post-primary education which covers all other levels from junior secondary to higher education under the administration of the Ministry of Education (MOE). The post-primary stream of education is further classified into four types in terms of curriculum: general education, madrasah education, technical-vocational education and professional education.

1. General Education

a) Primary education
The first level of education is comprised of 5 years of formal schooling   (class / grades I - V). Education, at this stage, normally begins at 6+ years of age up to 11 years. Primary education is generally imparted in primary schools. Nevertheless, other types of institutions like kindergartens and junior sections attached to English medium schools are also imparting it.

b) Secondary education
The second level of education is comprised of 7 (3+2+2) years of formal schooling. The first 3 years (grades VI-VIII) is referred to as junior secondary; the next 2 years (grades IX -X) is secondary while the last 2 years (grades XI - XII) is called higher secondary.

There is diversification of courses after three years of schooling in junior secondary level. Vocational and technical courses are offered in vocational and trade institute/schools. Moreover, there are high schools where SSC (vocational) courses have been introduced.
In secondary education, there are three streams of courses such as, Humanities, Science and Business Education, which start at class IX, where the students are free to choose their course(s) of studies.
High schools are managed either by government or private individuals or organizations. Most of the privately managed secondary schools provide co-education.
The academic programme terminates at the end of class X when students are to appear at the public examination called S.S.C. (Secondary School Certificate). The Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Educations (BISE) conduct the S.S.C. examination. There are seven such Boards at different places in Bangladesh namely: Dhaka, Rajshahi, Jessore, Comilla, Chittagong, Sylhet, and Barisal.

The secondary education is designed to prepare the students to enter into the higher secondary stage. In higher secondary stage, the course is of two-year duration (XI - XII) which is being offered by Intermediate Colleges or by intermediate section of degree or master colleges.

c) Tertiary Education

i) College

The third stage of education is comprised of 2-6 years of formal schooling. The minimum requirement for admission to higher education is the higher secondary certificate (H.S.C). HSC holders are qualified to enroll in 3-year degree pass courses while for honours, they may enroll in 4-year bachelors' degree honours courses in degree level colleges or in the universities. After successful completion of a pass/honours bachelors' degree course, one can enroll in the master's degree course. Master degree courses are of one year for honours bachelor degree holders and 2 years for pass bachelor degree holders. For those aspiring to take up M.Phil and Ph.D courses in selected disciplines or areas of specialization, the duration is of 2 years for M.Phil and 3-4 years for Ph.Ds after completion of master's degree. Higher education is being offered in the universities and post HSC level colleges and institutes of diversified studies in professional, technical, technological and other special types of education.

ii) University

            There are 73 universities in Bangladesh. Out of these, 21 universities are in the public sector, while the other 52 are in the private sector. Out of 21 public sector universities, 19 universities provide regular classroom instruction facilities and services. Bangladesh Open University (BOU) conducts non-campus distance education programmes especially in the field of teacher education and offers Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) and Master of Education (M.Ed) degrees. Bangladesh National University mainly functions as an affiliating university for degree and post-graduate degree level education at different colleges and institutions in different field of studies. But in case of fine arts this university also offers Pre-Degree BFA Course (which is equivalent to HSC).After successful completion of the specified courses, it conducts final examinations and awards degree, diplomas and certificates to the successful candidates. The degrees are B.A., B.S.S., B.Sc., B.Com.  (Pass & Honours) BFA(Pass),  M.A., M.Sc., M.S.S, M.Com. and MFA. Moreover, this university also offers LL.B., and other degrees. Bangladesh National University offers part-time training to university teachers.
There is only one medical university namely, "Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University", like other public universities, offers courses on a different system where FCPS Degree is offered in the disciplines of medical education; diploma courses are offered in 12 disciplines, MD degree in 15 subjects and MS courses on 8 subjects are also offered.

2. Madrasah Education

            The old scheme of madrasah education was introduced in 1780 with the establishment of Calcutta Madrasah. In madrasah education, one can learn Islamic religious education along with the general education as complementary to each other in the system of education. The madrasah education system has been continuing with some modifications according to the demand of the time, and many madrasahs grew up in this sub-continent. The government has been providing government grants to the teachers and employees of the non-government madrasahs like other non-government education institutions (schools and colleges). There are five levels in the madrasah education system, namely:

a. Primary level or ebtedayee education. This is equivalent to primary level of general education. The first level of madrasah education is comprised of 5 years of schooling  (grades I - V). Normally, the children of 6 years of age begins in class 1 and finishes class V at the age of 11 years. Ebtedayee education is imparted in independent ebtedayee madrasahs and ebtedayee sections of dhakhil, alim, fazil and kamil madrasahs. It is also imparted in some of the private quami - kharizi madrasahs.

b. Secondary level. The secondary level of madrasah education is comprised of 7 (5+2) years of  formal schooling. It takes five years in dhakhil stage (S.S.C. level) from grade VI - X while the last 2 years in alim (higher secondary) stage. Dhakhil level education is imparted in dhakhil madrasahs and in dhakhil level of alim, fazil and kamil madrasahs. Alim is equivalent to higher secondary certificate education imparted to alim madrasahs and in alim level of fazil and kamil madrasahs.
            There are diversification of courses after three years of schooling in secondary level of education from grade IX of dhakhil stage and grade XI of alim stage. There are streams of courses such as humanities, science and business education, where students are free to choose their courses of studies. Private individuals or private bodies manage all madrasahs of this level. Most of these madrasahs provide co-education. However, there are some single gender madrasahs in this level of madrasah education. There are two public examinations namely; dhakhil and alim after the completion of 10 years of schooling and twelve years of education, respectively. The Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board (BMEB) provides these two certificates.

c. Tertiary level of madrasah education. This level is comprised of 4 (2+2) years of formal education. The minimum requirement for admission to higher level of madrasah education is the alim (equivalent to HSC) certificates . Alim pass students are qualified to enroll in 2-year fazil education. This level of education is imparted in fazil madrasah and in fazil level of kamil madrasahs. After successful completion of fazil degree one can enroll in 2 -years kamil level education. There are four streams of courses in kamil level education; streams are hadis, tafsir, fiqh and adab. Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board conducts these two fazil and kamil examinations and award certificates. After successful completion of the specified courses one can appear these examinations.
            Out of the total kamil the government manages madrasahs only three madrasahs and others are managed by either individual or by private bodies. However, there are few girls' madrasah for girl students.
The Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board has the following functions as regard to madrasah education: grants affiliations to different levels of madrasahs from ebtedayee to kamil; prescribes syllabi and curricula; conducts public examinations (dhakhil to kamil) and scholarship examinations. Besides the public system of madrasah education there are a good number of private madrasahs for the Muslim students, namely: hafizia, qiratia, quami and nizamiah. Most of these madrasahs are residential. These types of madrasah are sometimes called kharizia as these are beyond the purview of the general system of education. Recently, these quami madrasahs have been organized under the umbrella of a private board known as 'Befaqul Madaris or Quami Madrasah Board which constitutes curricula and syllabi of quami madrasahs, conducts examinations and awards certificates and degrees.

3. Technical - Vocational
For the students whose interests are not strictly academic may find technical-vocational programmes more interesting and more valuable for their future. Government tries to ensure that the course curriculum should be relevant to students' interest and aspirations while at the same time it should address the needs of the job market.

a. Primary level. There is no technical-vocational institution in primary level of education. Ebtedayee in the first level (Primary level) of madrasah education has no scope for technical-vocational education. Accordingly, technical - vocational education in Bangladesh is designed in three phases under two major levels of secondary and tertiary level of education.

b. Secondary level. Vocational courses starts from secondary level. The certificate courses prepare skilled workers in different vocations starting from ninth grade after completion of three years of schooling in secondary school. At this level the courses are diversified in different vocations spread over 1 to 2 years duration. Recently, 2 years duration vocational courses have been introduced at the higher secondary level in government managed vocational training institute (renamed as Technical School & College). Diploma courses prepare the diploma engineers at the polytechnic institutes. This course spread over 4 years duration after passing the secondary school certification examination. There is a technical education board called Bangladesh Technical Education Board (BTEB), which grants affiliation to the technical institutes. It conducts examinations of the students completing different courses in different vocational and technical education, and awards certificates to the successful candidates.

4. Professional EducationThe College of Textile Technology and College of Leather Technology offer four -year degree courses in Textile Engineering and Leather Technology respectively after completing Higher Secondary Education. The minimum requirement to be admitted to teachers training colleges (TTCs) for Bachelor of Education, Bachelor of Physical Education in Physical Education College is graduation degree. Generally, in-service teachers undertake this professional training course along with some unemployed graduates. Professional education also imparted in Medical Colleges, Dental Colleges, Nursing College, Homeopathic Colleges, Law Colleges etc.

Education system in Bangladesh is being managed and administered by two Ministries viz. Ministry of Education (MOE) and Ministry of Primary and Mass Education (MOPME) in association with the attached Departments and Directorates as well as a number of autonomous bodies.


Department Of Law

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