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Messages - diljeb

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I like the post... :)

I will be very much conscious from today about my kidney.

Good to know about it.

Humanities & Social Science / Re: Overcoming Fear
« on: December 02, 2014, 01:55:13 PM »
I like your post very much.
Thank you madam.

Humanities & Social Science / Re: Live Your Life
« on: December 02, 2014, 01:54:31 PM »
I am getting inspiration from this post  :)

Football / FIFA World CupTrophy
« on: October 12, 2014, 11:28:41 AM »
From 1930 to 1970, the Jules Rimet Trophy was awarded to the World Cup winning team. It was originally simply known as the World Cup or Coupe du Monde, but in 1946 it was renamed after the FIFA president Jules Rimet who set up the first tournament. In 1970, Brazil's third victory in the tournament entitled them to keep the trophy permanently. However, the trophy was stolen in 1983 and has never been recovered, apparently melted down by the thieves.[30]

After 1970, a new trophy, known as the FIFA World Cup Trophy, was designed. The experts of FIFA, coming from seven countries, evaluated the 53 presented models, finally opting for the work of the Italian designer Silvio Gazzaniga. The new trophy is 36 cm (14.2 in) high, made of solid 18 carat (75%) gold and weighs 6.175 kg (13.6 lb). The base contains two layers of semi-precious malachite while the bottom side of the trophy bears the engraved year and name of each FIFA World Cup winner since 1974. The description of the trophy by Gazzaniga was: "The lines spring out from the base, rising in spirals, stretching out to receive the world. From the remarkable dynamic tensions of the compact body of the sculpture rise the figures of two athletes at the stirring moment of victory."[31]

This new trophy is not awarded to the winning nation permanently. World Cup winners retain the trophy only until the post-match celebration is finished. They are awarded a gold-plated replica rather than the solid gold original immediately afterwards.[32]

Currently, all members (players, coaches, and managers) of the top three teams receive medals with an insignia of the World Cup Trophy; winners' (gold), runner-ups' (silver), and third-place (bronze). In the 2002 edition, fourth-place medals were awarded to hosts South Korea. Before the 1978 tournament, medals were only awarded to the eleven players on the pitch at the end of the final and the third-place match. In November 2007, FIFA announced that all members of World Cup-winning squads between 1930 and 1974 were to be retroactively awarded winners' medals.[


Football / History of FIFA World Cup
« on: October 12, 2014, 11:25:12 AM »
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has been awarded every four years since the inaugural tournament in 1930, except in 1942 and 1946 when it was not held because of the Second World War. The current champion is Germany, which won its fourth title at the 2014 tournament in Brazil.

The current format of the competition involves a qualification phase, which currently takes place over the preceding three years, to determine which teams qualify for the tournament phase, which is often called the World Cup Finals. 32 teams, including the automatically qualifying host nation(s), compete in the tournament phase for the title at venues within the host nation(s) over a period of about a month.

The 20 World Cup tournaments have been won by eight different national teams. Brazil have won five times, and they are the only team to have played in every tournament. The other World Cup winners are Italy and Germany, with four titles each; Argentina and inaugural winners Uruguay, with two titles each; and England, France and Spain, with one title each.

The World Cup is the most widely viewed and followed sporting event in the world, exceeding even the Olympic Games; the cumulative audience of all matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup was estimated to be 26.29 billion with an estimated 715.1 million people watching the final match, a ninth of the entire population of the planet.[1][2][3][4]

The 2014 World Cup took place in Brazil. The next two World Cups will be hosted by Russia in 2018 and Qatar in 2022. Both choices have been criticised in the media, Russia in light of the 2014 Crimean crisis and Qatar for allegations of vote-buying and poor working conditions for foreign workers.


History / The First Intifada
« on: October 12, 2014, 11:18:05 AM »
The First Intifada was a grassroots uprising against Israel’s occupation of the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem. Intifada is an Arabic word for “civil uprising” that literally means “shaking off.”

It began on 9 December 1987 in the Jabaliya Refugee Camp in the Gaza Strip, when an Israeli truck crashed into two vans carrying Palestinian workers killing four of them. This event served as a catalyst sparking rebellions throughout the occupied territories.

No single person or organization was responsible for the uprising and in fact it caught the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) by surprise. Palestinian youths, tired of Israel’s repressive policies in the occupied territories, carried the Intifada. They were directed by the Unified National Leadership of the Uprising, which was a coalition of the PLO’s four main parties operating in the West Bank and Gaza Strip: Fatah, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), and the Palestine People’s Party (PPP). The Intifada aimed to end the Israeli occupation and establish Palestinian independence.

Palestinians were frustrated and angry with Israel’s increasingly oppressive and colonialist policies towards them. Palestinians were forced to pay taxes to Israel, while they were subject to army raids, random detentions, and denied basic civil rights. Their collective national aspiration for their own state was also denied. These injustices were compounded by Israel’s annexation of East Jerusalem and the construction of illegal settlements on Palestinian land in the West Bank. Palestinians’ frustration had been simmering for years and the deaths of the Palestinians in Gaza on 9 December 1987 made it boil over.

Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians engaged in a variety of civil disobedience, including: strikes, demonstrations, refusal to pay taxes, and boycotts of Israeli products. Israel responded harshly, closing Palestinian schools, making mass arrests, imposing closure and curfew, and shutting down demonstrations with brutal force. In 1990 former Israeli Defense Minister Yitzak Rabin (who would later sign the Oslo accords with the PLO) famously ordered his soldiers to “break the bones” of the demonstrators. From 1987 to 1991 Israeli forces killed over 1,100 Palestinians, many of who were children, and injured tens of thousands.

The Intifada attracted International attention. The United Nations Security Council Resolution 605 condemned Israel for the large number of Palestinian deaths that occurred in the first weeks of the Intifada as a violation of the Geneva Conventions. News coverage of the uprising – depicting stone-throwing Palestinian teenagers confronting armed soldiers – also generated new international sympathy for the Palestinian cause.

The Intifada demonstrated to the world the legitimate national sentiments of the Palestinian people. It paved the way for future negations between Israel and the PLO culminating in the Oslo Accords.


History / The Real Story of How Israel Was Created
« on: October 12, 2014, 11:09:33 AM »
 To better understand the Palestinian bid for membership in the United Nations, it is important to understand the original 1947 UN action on Israel-Palestine.

The common representation of Israel’s birth is that the UN created Israel, that the world was in favor of this move, and that the US governmental establishment supported it. All these assumptions are demonstrably incorrect.

In reality, while the UN General Assembly recommended the creation of a Jewish state in part of Palestine, that recommendation was non-binding and never implemented by the Security Council.

Second, the General Assembly passed that recommendation only after Israel proponents threatened and bribed numerous countries in order to gain a required two-thirds of votes.
Third, the US administration supported the recommendation out of domestic electoral considerations, and took this position over the strenuous objections of the State Department, the CIA, and the Pentagon.

The passage of the General Assembly recommendation sparked increased violence in the region. Over the following months the armed wing of the pro-Israel movement, which had long been preparing for war, perpetrated a series of massacres and expulsions throughout Palestine, implementing a plan to clear the way for a majority-Jewish state.

It was this armed aggression, and the ethnic cleansing of at least three-quarters of a million indigenous Palestinians, that created the Jewish state on land that had been 95 percent non-Jewish prior to Zionist immigration and that even after years of immigration remained 70 percent non-Jewish. And despite the shallow patina of legality its partisans extracted from the General Assembly, Israel was born over the opposition of American experts and of governments around the world, who opposed it on both pragmatic and moral grounds.

Let us look at the specifics.
Background of the UN partition recommendation

In 1947 the UN took up the question of Palestine, a territory that was then administered by the British.

Approximately 50 years before, a movement called political Zionism had begun in Europe. Its intention was to create a Jewish state in Palestine through pushing out the Christian and Muslim inhabitants who made up over 95 percent of its population and replacing them with Jewish immigrants.

As this colonial project grew through subsequent years, the indigenous Palestinians reacted with occasional bouts of violence; Zionists had anticipated this since people usually resist being expelled from their land. In various written documents cited by numerous Palestinian and Israeli historians, they discussed their strategy: they would buy up the land until all the previous inhabitants had emigrated, or, failing this, use violence to force them out.

When the buy-out effort was able to obtain only a few percent of the land, Zionists created a number of terrorist groups to fight against both the Palestinians and the British. Terrorist and future Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin later bragged that Zionists had brought terrorism both to the Middle East and to the world at large.

Finally, in 1947 the British announced that they would be ending their control of Palestine, which had been created through the League of Nations following World War One, and turned the question of Palestine over to the United Nations.

At this time, the Zionist immigration and buyout project had increased the Jewish population of Palestine to 30 percent and land ownership from 1 percent to approximately 6 percent.

Since a founding principle of the UN was “self-determination of peoples,” one would have expected to the UN to support fair, democratic elections in which inhabitants could create their own independent country.

Instead, Zionists pushed for a General Assembly resolution in which they would be given a disproportionate 55 percent of Palestine. (While they rarely announced this publicly, their stated plan was to later take the rest of Palestine.)

U.S. Officials Oppose Partition Plan

The U.S. State Department opposed this partition plan strenuously, considering Zionism contrary to both fundamental American principles and US interests.

Author Donald Neff reports that Loy Henderson, Director of the State Department’s Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs, wrote a memo to the Secretary of State warning:

“ by the Government of the United States of a policy favoring the setting up of a Jewish State in Palestine would be contrary to the wishes of a large majority of the local inhabitants with respect to their form of government. Furthermore, it would have a strongly adverse effect upon American interests throughout the Near and Middle East...”
Henderson went on to emphasize:

“At the present time the United States has a moral prestige in the Near and Middle East unequaled by that of any other great power. We would lose that prestige and would be likely for many years to be considered as a betrayer of the high principles which we ourselves have enunciated during the period of the war.”
When Zionists began pushing for a partition plan through the UN, Henderson recommended strongly against supporting their proposal. He warned that such a partition would have to be implemented by force and emphasized that it was “not based on any principle.” He went on to write:

“...[partition] would guarantee that the Palestine problem would be permanent and still more complicated in the future...”
Henderson specifically pointed out:

“...[proposals for partition] are in definite contravention to various principles laid down in the [UN] Charter as well as to principles on which American concepts of Government are based. These proposals, for instance, ignore such principles as self-determination and majority rule. They recognize the principle of a theocratic racial state and even go so far in several instances as to discriminate on grounds of religion and race...”
Henderson was far from alone in making his recommendations. He wrote that his views were not only those of the entire Near East Division but were shared by “nearly every member of the Foreign Service or of the Department who has worked to any appreciable extent on Near Eastern problems.”

Henderson wasn’t exaggerating. Official after official and agency after agency opposed Zionism.

In 1947 the CIA reported that Zionist leadership was pursuing objectives that would endanger both Jews and “the strategic interests of the Western powers in the Near and Middle East.”

Truman Accedes to Pro-Israel Lobby

President Harry Truman, however, ignored this advice. Truman’s political advisor, Clark Clifford, believed that the Jewish vote and contributions were essential to winning the upcoming presidential election, and that supporting the partition plan would garner that support. (Truman’s opponent, Dewey, took similar stands for similar reasons.)

Truman’s Secretary of State George Marshall, the renowned World War II General and author of the Marshall Plan, was furious to see electoral considerations taking precedence over policies based on national interest. He condemned what he called a “transparent dodge to win a few votes,” which would cause “[t]he great dignity of the office of President [to be] seriously diminished.”

Marshall wrote that the counsel offered by Clifford “was based on domestic political considerations, while the problem which confronted us was international. I said bluntly that if the President were to follow Mr. Clifford’s advice and if in the elections I were to vote, I would vote against the President...”

Henry F. Grady, who has been called “America’s top diplomatic soldier for a critical period of the Cold War,” headed a 1946 commission aimed at coming up with a solution for Palestine. Grady later wrote about the Zionist lobby and its damaging effect on US national interests.

Grady argued that without Zionist pressure, the U.S. would not have had “the ill-will with the Arab states, which are of such strategic importance in our ‘cold war’ with the soviets.” He also described the decisive power of the lobby:

“I have had a good deal of experience with lobbies but this group started where those of my experience had ended..... I have headed a number of government missions but in no other have I ever experienced so much disloyalty”...... “in the United States, since there is no political force to counterbalance Zionism, its campaigns are apt to be decisive.”
Former Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson also opposed Zionism. Acheson’s biographer writes that Acheson “worried that the West would pay a high price for Israel.” Another Author, John Mulhall, records Acheson’s warning:

“ transform [Palestine] into a Jewish State capable of receiving a million or more immigrants would vastly exacerbate the political problem and imperil not only American but all Western interests in the Near East.”
Secretary of Defense James Forrestal also tried, unsuccessfully, to oppose the Zionists. He was outraged that Truman’s Mideast policy was based on what he called “squalid political purposes,” asserting that “United States policy should be based on United States national interests and not on domestic political considerations.”

Forrestal represented the general Pentagon view when he said that “no group in this country should be permitted to influence our policy to the point where it could endanger our national security.”

A report by the National Security Council warned that the Palestine turmoil was acutely endangering the security of the United States. A CIA report stressed the strategic importance of the Middle East and its oil resources.

Similarly, George F. Kennan, the State Department’s Director of Policy Planning, issued a top-secret document on January 19, 1947 that outlined the enormous damage done to the US by the partition plan (“Report by the Policy Planning Staff on Position of the United States with Respect to Palestine”).

Kennan cautioned that “important U.S. oil concessions and air base rights” could be lost through US support for partition and warned that the USSR stood to gain by the partition plan.

Kermit Roosevelt, Teddy Roosevelt’s nephew and a legendary intelligence agent, was another who was deeply disturbed by events, noting:

“The process by which Zionist Jews have been able to promote American support for the partition of Palestine demonstrates the vital need of a foreign policy based on national rather than partisan interests... Only when the national interests of the United States, in their highest terms, take precedence over all other considerations, can a logical, farseeing foreign policy be evolved. No American political leader has the right to compromise American interests to gain partisan votes...”
He went on:

“The present course of world crisis will increasingly force upon Americans the realization that their national interests and those of the proposed Jewish state in Palestine are going to conflict. It is to be hoped that American Zionists and non-Zionists alike will come to grips with the realities of the problem.”
The head of the State Department’s Division of Near Eastern Affairs, Gordon P. Merriam, warned against the partition plan on moral grounds:

“U.S. support for partition of Palestine as a solution to that problem can be justified only on the basis of Arab and Jewish consent. Otherwise we should violate the principle of self-determination which has been written into the Atlantic Charter, the declaration of the United Nations, and the United Nations Charter–a principle that is deeply embedded in our foreign policy. Even a United Nations determination in favor of partition would be, in the absence of such consent, a stultification and violation of UN’s own charter.”
Merriam added that without consent, “bloodshed and chaos” would follow, a tragically accurate prediction.

An internal State Department memorandum accurately predicted how Israel would be born through armed aggression masked as defense:

“...the Jews will be the actual aggressors against the Arabs. However, the Jews will claim that they are merely defending the boundaries of a state which were traced by the UN...In the event of such Arab outside aid the Jews will come running to the Security Council with the claim that their state is the object of armed aggression and will use every means to obscure the fact that it is their own armed aggression against the Arabs inside which is the cause of Arab counter-attack.”
And American Vice Consul William J. Porter foresaw another outcome of the partition plan: that no Arab State would actually ever come to be in Palestine.

Pro-Israel Pressure on General Assembly Members

When it was clear that the Partition recommendation did not have the required two-thirds of the UN General Assembly to pass, Zionists pushed through a delay in the vote. They then used this period to pressure numerous nations into voting for the recommendation. A number of people later described this campaign.

Robert Nathan, a Zionist who had worked for the US government and who was particularly active in the Jewish Agency, wrote afterward, “We used any tools at hand,” such as telling certain delegations that the Zionists would use their influence to block economic aid to any countries that did not vote the right way.

Another Zionist proudly stated:

“Every clue was meticulously checked and pursued. Not the smallest or the remotest of nations, but was contacted and wooed. Nothing was left to chance.”
Financier and longtime presidential advisor Bernard Baruch told France it would lose U.S. aid if it voted against partition. Top White House executive assistant David Niles organized pressure on Liberia; rubber magnate Harvey Firestone pressured Liberia.

Latin American delegates were told that the Pan-American highway construction project would be more likely if they voted yes. Delegates’ wives received mink coats (the wife of the Cuban delegate returned hers); Costa Rica’s President Jose Figueres reportedly received a blank checkbook. Haiti was promised economic aid if it would change its original vote opposing partition.

Longtime Zionist Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, along with ten senators and Truman domestic advisor Clark Clifford, threatened the Philippines (seven bills were pending on the Philippines in Congress).

Before the vote on the plan, the Philippine delegate had given a passionate speech against partition, defending the inviolable “primordial rights of a people to determine their political future and to preserve the territorial integrity of their native land...”

He went on to say that he could not believe that the General Assembly would sanction a move that would place the world “back on the road to the dangerous principles of racial exclusiveness and to the archaic documents of theocratic governments.”

Twenty-four hours later, after intense Zionist pressure, the delegate voted in favor of partition.

The U.S. delegation to the U.N. was so outraged when Truman insisted that they support partition that the State Department director of U.N. Affairs was sent to New York to prevent the delegates from resigning en masse.

On Nov 29, 1947 the partition resolution, 181, passed. While this resolution is frequently cited, it was of limited (if any) legal impact. General Assembly resolutions, unlike Security Council resolutions, are not binding on member states. For this reason, the resolution requested that “[t]he Security Council take the necessary measures as provided for in the plan for its implementation,” which the Security Council never did. Legally, the General Assembly Resolution was a “recommendation” and did not create any states.

What it did do, however, was increase the fighting in Palestine. Within months (and before Israel dates the beginning of its founding war) the Zionists had forced out 413,794 people. Zionist military units had stealthily been preparing for war before the UN vote and had acquired massive weaponry, some of it through a widespread network of illicit gunrunning operations in the US under a number of front groups.

The UN eventually managed to create a temporary and very partial ceasefire. A Swedish UN mediator who had previously rescued thousands of Jews from the Nazis was dispatched to negotiate an end to the violence. Israeli assassins killed him and Israel continued what it was to call its “war of independence.”

At the end of this war, through a larger military force than that of its adversaries and the ruthless implementation of plans to push out as many non-Jews as possible, Israel came into existence on 78 percent of Palestine.

At least 33 massacres of Palestinian civilians were perpetrated, half of them before a single Arab army had entered the conflict, hundreds of villages were depopulated and razed, and a team of cartographers was sent out to give every town, village, river, and hillock a new, Hebrew name. All vestiges of Palestinian habitation, history, and culture were to be erased from history, an effort that almost succeeded.

Israel, which claims to be the “only democracy in the Middle East,” decided not to declare official borders or to write a constitution, a situation which continues to this day. In 1967 it took still more Palestinian and Syrian land, which is now illegally occupied territory, since the annexation of land through military conquest is outlawed by modern international law. It has continued this campaign of growth through armed acquisition and illegal confiscation of land ever since.

Individual Israelis, like Palestinians and all people, are legally and morally entitled to an array of human rights.

On the other hand, the state of Israel’s vaunted “right to exist” is based on an alleged “right” derived from might, an outmoded concept that international legal conventions do not recognize, and in fact specifically prohibit.

Source: See the “History of US-Israel Relations” for detailed citations for the above information. Additional references can be found in “How Palestine Became Israel.”

History / History of Israel
« on: October 12, 2014, 11:06:33 AM »
The history of Israel encompasses the history of the modern State of Israel, as well as that of the Jews in the Land of Israel. The area of modern Israel is small, about the size of Wales or half the size of Costa Rica, and is located roughly on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah except that these ancient kingdoms also included what is now the West Bank. It is the birthplace of the Hebrew language spoken in Israel, and of the Abrahamic religions. It contains sites believed to be sacred to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Druze and Bahá'í Faith.

Although coming under the sway of various empires and home to a variety of ethnicities, the Land of Israel was predominantly Jewish until the 3rd century.[1] The area became increasingly Christian after the 3rd century and then largely Muslim from the 7th century conquest until the middle of the 20th century. It was a focal point of conflict between Christianity and Islam between 1096 and 1291, and from the end of the Crusades until the British conquest in 1917 was part of the Syrian province of first the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and then (from 1517) the Ottoman Empire.

In the late-19th century, persecution of Jews, particularly in Europe, led to the creation of the Zionist movement. Following the British conquest of Syria, the Balfour Declaration in World War I and the formation of the Mandate of Palestine, Aliyah (Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel) increased and gave rise to Arab–Jewish tensions, and a collision of the Arab and Jewish nationalist movements. Israeli independence in 1948 was marked by massive migration of Jews from both Europe and the Muslim countries to Israel, and of Arabs from Israel leading to the extensive Arab–Israeli conflict.[2] About 42% of the world's Jews live in Israel today.

Since about 1970, the United States has become the principal ally of Israel. In 1979 an uneasy Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was signed, based on the Camp David Accords. In 1993 Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization and in 1994 Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace was signed. Despite efforts to establish peace between Israel and Palestinians, many of whom live in Israel or in Israeli-occupied territories, the conflict continues to play a major role in Israeli and international political, social and economic life.

The economy of Israel was initially primarily socialist and the country dominated by social democratic parties until the 1970s. Since then the Israeli economy has gradually moved to capitalism and a free market economy, partially retaining the social welfare system.


মালয়েশিয়ায় পড়াশুনার খুঁটিনাটি

কুয়ালালামপুর: পর্যটনের পাশাপাশি মালয়েশিয়া এখন শিক্ষার তীর্থও হয়ে উঠেছে যেন। প্রতি বছরই এখানে বিভিন্ন দেশ থেকে আসছেন উল্লেখযোগ্য সংখ্যক শিক্ষার্থী। বাংলাদেশের শিক্ষার্থীরাও পিছিয়ে নেই মালয়েশিয়ায় এসে উচ্চ শিক্ষা গ্রহণের দৌড়ে।

কিন্তু পর্যাপ্ত তথ্য না থাকায় প্রতিনিয়তই নানামুখী বিড়ম্বনার শিকার হতে হচ্ছে শিক্ষার্থীদের। বিষয়টি বুঝেই মালয়েশিয়ায় পড়াশুনার খুটিনাটি তুলে ধরার এই উদ্যোগ নিয়েছে বাংলানিউজ। এ লেখায় ভর্তিসহ একাডেমিক বিষয় যেমন জানা যাবে, তেমনি জানা যাবে শিক্ষার ব্যয় নির্বাহের জন্য খণ্ডকালীন কাজের টুকিটাকিও।

পাঠকের সুবিধার্থে এ লেখায় শিক্ষা বিষয়ক তথ্যগুলোকে আলাদা আলাদা লাইনে বিন্যস্ত করা হলো-

১. আন্তর্জাতিক ইসলামিক বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় islamic
অবস্থানঃ গোম্বাক, কুয়ালালামপুর থেকে ২৫ কি.মি. দূরে।
ধরনঃ আধা-সরকারি।
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যা: প্রায় ২৫০
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ প্রকৌশল, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা, অর্থনীতি, চিকিৎসাবিজ্ঞান, ইসলামিক শিক্ষা, আইন, স্থাপত্য বিদ্যা ইত্যাদি।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএ: ন্যূনতমঃ ২.৫
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ৫ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]/
(১ রিঙ্গিত = ২৬ টাকা)
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

২. ইউনিভার্সিটি পুত্রা মালয়েশিয়াUPM
অবস্থানঃ সেরদাং
ধরনঃ সরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ১৫০। ৯০ শতাংশ মাস্টার্স।
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ কৃষি বিজ্ঞান, প্রকৌশল, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা, অর্থনীতি, আইন, স্থাপত্যবিদ্যা ইত্যাদি।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ নুন্যতমঃ ৩.০
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ৬ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

৩. মাল্টিমিডিয়া ইউনিভার্সিটি/multimedia
অবস্থানঃ সাইবারজায়া।
ধরনঃ বেসরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ১০০
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, সফটওয়্যার ডিজাইন, মাল্টিমিডিয়া ও ইনফর্মেশন কমিউনিকেশন, প্রকৌশল, তথ্যবিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ ন্যূনতমঃ ৩.০
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ১০ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

৪. ইউনিভার্সিটি কেবাংসান মালয়েশিয়াkebangsa
অবস্থানঃ বাংগি, সেলাঙ্গর
ধরনঃ সরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ৫০-৬০।
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ সমাজবিজ্ঞান, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, প্রকৌশল, তথ্যবিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা ইত্যাদি।
উনিভার্সিটি কেবাংসান মালয়েশিয়ায় এখন শুধু মাস্টার্স এর জন্য আন্তর্জাতিক শিক্ষার্থীরা আবেদন করতে পারবেন।
ব্যাচেলর এ শুধু অর্থনীতি ও কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান বিভাগে আবেদন করতে পারবেন।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ ন্যূনতমঃ ৩.৩
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ৪ হাজার ৬০০ রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ
৫. ইউনিভার্সিটি টেকনোলজি মারাmara_university
অবস্থানঃ শাহ আলম, সেলাঙ্গর
ধরনঃ আধা- সরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ২৫-৩৫।
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ সমাজবিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান ও প্রযুক্তি, ব্যবসা ও ব্যবস্থাপনা
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ নূন্যতমঃ ২.৮
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৫.৫ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ৫ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

৬. ইউনিভার্সিটি সায়েন্স মালয়েশিয়াsainas
অবস্থানঃ পেনাং
ধরনঃ সরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ৬০-৭০।
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ প্রকৌশল, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা, অর্থনীতি, চিকিৎসাবিজ্ঞান।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ ন্যূনতমঃ ২.৮
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টারফিসঃ ৪ হাজার ৬০০ রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

৭. ইউনিভার্সিটি মালায়াmalaya
অবস্থানঃ কুয়ালালামপুর
ধরনঃ সরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ৬০-৭০।
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ প্রকৌশল, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা, অর্থনীতি, চিকিৎসাবিজ্ঞান, সমাজবিজ্ঞান
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ ন্যূনতমঃ ২.৮-৩.০
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ৫ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

limkok৮. লিমকক উইং ইউনিভার্সিটি
অবস্থানঃ সাইবারজায়া।
ধরনঃ বেসরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ১০০-১২০
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ ফ্যাশন ডিজাইন, মিডিয়া, স্থাপত্যবিদ্যা, প্রকৌশল, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ নূন্যতমঃ ২.৩
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টারফিসঃ ১২ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

৯. ইউনিভার্সিটি টেকনোলজি মালয়েশিয়াUTM
অবস্থানঃ জোহর বারু
ধরনঃ সরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ১১০-১২০
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ প্রকৌশল, পুরাকৌশল, কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ ন্যূনতমঃ ২.৫
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৬.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫৫০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ৫৫০০ রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ

১০. টেইলর ইউনিভার্সিটিtylor
অবস্থানঃ সুবাং জায়া, সানওয়ে
ধরনঃ বেসরকারি
বর্তমানে বাংলাদেশি শিক্ষার্থীর সংখ্যাঃ প্রায় ৭০-৮০
উল্লেখযোগ্য বিষয়ঃ প্রকৌশল, পুরাকৌশল,  কম্পিউটার বিজ্ঞান, বিজ্ঞান, ব্যবসা শিক্ষা।
ভর্তির জন্য শিক্ষাগত যোগ্যতাঃ
জিপিএঃ ন্যূনতম ২.০
আই.এল.টি.এসঃ ৫.০ অথবা টোফেলঃ ৫০০
ইনটেকঃ ফেব্রুয়ারি ও সেপ্টেম্বর
সেমিস্টার ফিসঃ ১১ হাজার রিঙ্গিত প্রতি সেমিস্টার [বছরে দু’টি সেমিস্টার]- ব্যাচেলর
প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্যঃ
ইংলিশ মিডিয়াম
ইংলিশ মিডিয়ামের শিক্ষার্থীরা যে বিভাগে ভর্তি হতে চান, সে বিষয়ের প্রাথমিক বিষয়ে ন্যূনতম “বি” গ্রেড থাকতে হবে। (যেমন, প্রকৌশল এ ভর্তি ইচ্ছুক হলে, বিজ্ঞান বিষয়ে ও লেভেল/ এ লেভেল “বি” গ্রেড থাকতে হবে, ওয়েবসাইটে বিস্তারিত পাওয়া যাবে।)

থাকা খাওয়া খরচ
হোস্টেলে প্রতি মাসে খরচ পড়ে, ৫০০ থেকে ৬০০ রিঙ্গিত। খাওয়ার খরচ প্রতি মাসে প্রায় ৮০০ থেকে ১ হাজার রিঙ্গিত। ক্যাম্পাস এর বাইরে মালয়েশিয়াতে শিক্ষার্থীরা বেশিরভাগ রুম ভাড়া নিয়ে থাকে। খরচ ৬০০ থেকে ৮০০ রিঙ্গিত। পুরো একটি বাসা ভাড়া নিলে পড়বে দেড় হাজার থেকে ২ হাজার রিঙ্গিত।

যাতায়াত খরচ
যাতায়াত এর জন্য প্রতি মাসে ২০০  থেকে ৩০০ রিঙ্গিত হাতে রাখতে হবে। যাতায়াত এর মাধ্যম বাস, ট্রেন ও ট্যাক্সি।

পার্ট টাইম জব অথবা চাকরি
ব্যাচেলর প্রোগ্রাম এর ক্ষেত্রে কিছু কিছু শিক্ষা প্রতিষ্ঠান সপ্তাহে ২০ ঘণ্টা পার্ট টাইম জব করার অনুমতি দেয়। প্রতি ঘণ্টায় ৭ থেকে ১০ রিঙ্গিত আয় করা সম্ভব। মাস্টার্স শিক্ষার্থীরা রিসার্চ অ্যাসিসট্যান্ট হিসেবে ১৫০০ থেকে ১৮০০ রিঙ্গিত আয় করতে পারেন।

প্রতিটি শিক্ষা প্রতিষ্ঠান এর স্বাস্থ্য ইনস্যুরেন্স কভারেজ রয়েছে, যার মাধ্যমে বিনামূল্যে সরকারি হাসপাতালে স্বাস্থ্যসেবা পাওয়া যায়।
এছাড়া অন্যান্য বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় এর মধ্যে রয়েছে Lincon College, KDU college, Sunway University Malaysia Campus, Segi College, Asia Pacific University ইত্যাদি।

শিক্ষা ব্যয়

    মালয়েশিয়ান পাবলিক/প্রাইভেট বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়গুলোতে আন্ডার গ্র্যাজুয়েট পর্যায়ে টিউশন ফি ৮৮২১ মার্কিন ডলার থেকে ১৭৬৪২ ডলার (সর্বমোট)
    মাষ্টার্স পর্যায়ে খরচ পড়বে ৫৫৮৬ মার্কিন ডলার থেকে ১০২৯১ মার্কিন ডলার (সর্বমোট)
    ডক্টরেট ডিগ্রীর গবেষনার জন্য খরচ পড়বে ৮৮২১ মার্কিন ডলার থেকে ১০২৯১ মার্কিন ডলার।


জীবনযাত্রার ব্যয়

মালয়েশিয়ায় একজন বিদেশী ছাত্র/ছাত্রীর জীবনযাত্রার বাৎসরিক ব্যয় ২৭০০ থেকে ৩০০০ মার্কিন ডলার।


স্বাস্থ্য বীমা

মালয়েশিয়ায় পড়তে আসা বিদেশী ছাত্রছাত্রীদের অবশ্যই পর্যাপ্ত স্বাস্থ্য ও ভ্রমন বীমা থাকতে হবে।

    প্রতি সেমিষ্টারে বীমা খরচ ৩০ মার্কিন ডলার

অন্যান্য প্রয়োজনীয় তথ্য:

কাজের সুযোগ:

মালয়েশিয়ায় একজন বিদেশী ছাত্র/ছাত্রী তাদের পূর্ণকালীন (Full Time) শিক্ষা শুরু করার পর কাজের অনুমতির জন্য আবেদন করতে পারেন। একজন শিক্ষার্থী সেমিষ্টার পরবর্তী ছুটিতে অথবা ৭ দিনের অতিরিক্ত মেয়াদের কোন ছুটিতে সপ্তাহে সর্বোচ্চ ২০ ঘন্টা কাজ করার অনুমতি পেয়ে থাকেন। ক্যাম্পাসে কাজ করে যে উপার্জন করা সম্ভব তা দিয়ে টিউশন ফি বা জীবনযাত্রার ব্যয় নির্বাহ করা সম্ভব নয়। কাজ করতে আগ্রহী একজন শিক্ষার্থীর অবশ্যই “student pass” থাকতে হবে।


যেসব ক্ষেত্রে কাজ পাওয়া যায়:

মালয়েশিয়ায় বিদেশী শিক্ষার্থীরা রেস্টুরেন্ট, পেট্রোল পাম্প, মিনি মার্কেট ও হোটেলগুলোতে কাজ করতে পারেন। এসব কাজ থেকে মাসিক ৩০০ থেকে ৭৫০ মার্কিন ডলার পর্যন্ত উপার্জন করা সম্ভব।


ভিসা আবেদন :

মালয়েশিয়ায় উচ্চ শিক্ষার্থে “student pass” এর জন্য ঢাকাস্থ মালয়েশিয়ান দূতাবাসে যোগাযোগ করতে হবে। দূতাবাস কর্তৃক নির্দেশিত প্রক্রিয়ায় আপনাকে ভিসার জন্য আবেদন করতে হবে। তবে ভিসা ইস্যু করা হবে মালয়েশিয়া থেকে।


ঢাকাস্থ মালয়েশিয়ান হাইকমিশনের ঠিকানা:

বাড়ী- ১৯, রোড- ৬, বারিধারা,


ফোন: ৮৮২৭৭৫৯

বিশ্ববিদ্যালয় সম্পর্কিত আর কোন তথ্যের জন্য ইমেইল করুন:

History / Pritilata Waddedar
« on: May 06, 2014, 09:51:53 PM »
Pritilata Waddedar (5 May 1911 – 23 September 1932)[1] was a Bengali revolutionary nationalist.[2][3] She was the first Indian woman revolutionary to fight the British. She was very studious. After completing her education in Chittagong, she attended Bethune College in Calcutta (now Kolkata). Pritilata graduated in Philosophy with distinction.

After a brief stint as a school teacher, Pritilata joined a revolutionary group headed by Surya Sen. She led a 15 man team of revolutionaries[4] in a 1932 attack on the Pahartali European Club,[5][6] which had a sign board that read "Dogs and Indians not allowed".[2] The revolutionaries torched the club and were later caught by the British police. To avoid getting arrested, Pritilata consumed cyanide and died

Early life[edit]
Pritilata was born to a middle-class family on 5 May 1911[8] in Dhalghat village in Patiya upazila of Chittagong (now in Bangladesh).[9] Her parents were Jagabandhu Waddedar (father) and Pratibhamayi Devi (mother). Jagabandhu was a clerk in the Chittagong Municipality.[2] Her mother Pratibhamayi Devi was a housewife.[10] The couple had six children– Madhusduan, Pritilata, Kanaklata, Shantilata, Ashalata and Santosh. Pritilata was nicknamed Rani.[10] Waddedar was a title conferred to an ancestor of the family who originally had the surname Dasgupta.

Jagabandhu tried to arrange best possible education for their children.[11] He got Pritilata admitted in Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' School of Chittagong. Pritilata was a meritorious student.[12] A teacher in the school, whom students affectionately used called Usha Di, used stories of Rani Lakshmibai to inspire nationalism in her students. Kalpana Datta, a classmate of Pritilata, writes in the biography Chittagong Armoury raiders– "We had no clear idea in our school days about our future. Then the Rani of Jhansi fired our imagination with her example. Sometimes we used to think of ourselves as fearless...".[13] Arts and literature were Pritilata's favourite subjects.[14] She passed out of Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' School in 1928 and in 1929, got admitted to the Eden College, Dhaka. In the Intermediate examinations, she stood first among all students who appeared in that year's examination from the Dhaka Board.[2][11] As a student in Eden College, she participated in various social activities. She joined the group Sree Sangha, headed by Leela Nag, under the banner Dipali Sangha.[15]

In Calcutta[edit]
To pursue higher education, Pritilata went to Calcutta (now Kolkata) and got admitted to the Bethune College. Two years later, she graduated in Philosophy from the college with a distinction.[16] However, her degree was withheld by British authorities at Calcutta University. In 2012, she (and Bina Das) were conferred their certificates of merit posthumously.[3]

As a school teacher[edit]
After completing her education in Calcutta, Pritilata returned to Chittagong. In Chittagong, she took up the job of a school teacher at a local English medium secondary school called Nandankanan Aparnacharan School. She was appointed as the first Headmistress of the school.[2][11][17]

Revolutionary activities

oining Surya Sen's revolutionary group[edit]
"Pritilata was young and courageous. She would work with a lot of zeal and was determined to drive the British away."

Binod Bihari Chowdhury, a contemporary revolutionary[18]
Pritilata decided to join the Indian freedom movement. Surya Sen had heard about her and wanted her to join their revolutionary group.[18] On 13 June 1932, Pritilata met Surya Sen and Nirmal Sen in their Dhalghat camp.[10] A contemporary revolutionary, Binod Bihari Chowdhury, objected that they did not allow women to join their group. However, Pritalata was allowed to join the group because the revolutionaries reasoned that women transporting weapons would not attract as much suspicion as men.[18]

Inspiration from Ramkrishna Biswas[edit]
Surya Sen and his revolutionary group decided to kill Mr. Craig, Inspector General of Chittagong. Ramakrishna Biswas and Kalipada Chakravarty were assigned for this task. But they mistakenly killed SP of Chandpur and Traini Mukherjee instead of Craig. Ramakrishna Biswas and Kalipada Chakravarty were arrested on 2 December 1931.[19] After the trial Biswas was ordered to be hanged till death and Chakravarty to be exiled to Cellular Jail.[20]

The family and friends lacked the amount of money required to travel to Chittagong to Alipore Jail of Calcutta. Since at that time Pritilata was staying in Kolkata, she was asked to go to Alipore Jail and meet Ramkrishna Biswas.[20]

Activities in Surya Sen's group[edit]
Along with the revolutionary group of Surya Sen, Pritilata took part in many raids like attacks on the Telephone & Telegraph offices[8] and the capture of the reserve police line. In the Jalalabad battle, she took the responsibility to supply explosives to the revolutionaries.[2]

Pahartali European Club attack (1932)

In 1932, Surya Sen planned to attack the Pahartali European Club which had a signboard that read "Dogs and Indians not allowed".[21] Surya Sen decided to appoint a woman leader for this mission. Kapana Datta was arrested seven days before the event. Because of this, Pritilata was assigned the leadership of the attack. Pritilata went to Kotowali Sea Side for arms training and made the plan of their attack there.[11]

They decided to attack the club on 23 September 1932. The members of the group were given potassium cyanide and were told to swallow it if they were caught.[2]

On the day of the attack, Pritilata dressed herself as a Punjabi male. Her associates Kalishankar Dey, Bireshwar Roy, Prafulla Das, Shanti Chakraborty wore dhoti and shirt. Mahendra Chowdhury, Sushil Dey and Panna Sen wore lungi and shirt.[20]

They reached the club at around 10:45 PM and attacked the club. There were around 40 people inside the club then. The revolutionaries divided themselves into three separate groups for the attack. In the club, a few police officers who had revolvers started shooting. Pritilata incurred a single bullet wound. According to the police report, in this attack, one woman with a surname of Sullivan died and four men and seven women were injured


An injured Pritilata was trapped by the British police.[2] In order to avoid arrest, she swallowed cyanide and committed suicide.[18] On the next day police found her body and identified her. On searching her dead body police found a few leaflets, photograph of Ramkrishna Biswas, bullets, whistle and the draft of their plan of attack. After the post-mortem it was found that the bullet injury was not very serious and cyanide was the reason of her death.[20]

The chief secretary of Bengal sent a report to British authorities in London. In the report it was written–[22]

Pritilata had been closely associated with, if not actually the mistress of, the terrorist Biswas who was hanged for the murder of Inspector Tarini Mukherjee, and some reports indicate that she was the wife of Nirmal Sen who was killed while attempting to evade arrest of Dhalghat, where Captain Cameron fell.


Bangladeshi writer Selina Hossain calls Pritilata an ideal for every woman.[23] A trust named Birkannya Pritilata Trust (Brave lady Pritilata Trust) has been founded in her memory. Pritilata's birthday is celebrated by the trust in different places of Bangladesh and India every year. The trust considers her to be "a beacon of light for women".[24] The last end of Sahid Abdus Sabur Road to Mukunda Ram Hat of Boalkhali upazila in Chittagong has been named as Pritilata Waddedar Road.[25] In 2012, a bronze sculpture of Pritilata Waddedar and Suya Sen has been planned to be installed in front of Pahartali Railway School, adjacent to the historical European Club

« on: May 06, 2014, 09:46:09 PM »
His father's name was Ramaniranjan. A resident of Noapara in Chittagong, he was a teacher by profession. He was initiated into revolutionary ideas in 1916 by one of his teachers while he was a student of Intermediate Class in the Chittagong College and joined the renowned anarchist group Anushilan. But when he went to Behrampur College for BA course, came to know about Jugantar and became more inspired with their ideas. On his return to Chittagong in 1918, he organized Jugantar there. Every revolutionary groups were using Indian National Congress as umbrella to work. Consequently in 1929, Surya Sen became the president of the Chittagong district committee of the Indian National Congress[1]. He continued to organize the hardline patriotic organisations and first became a teacher of the National school in Nandankanan and then joined the Umatara school at Chandanpura. Hence, he was known as Mastarda (teacher brother).

By 1923 Surya Sen spread the anarchist organization in different parts of Chittagong district. Aware of the limited equipment and other resources of the freedom fighters, he was convinced of the need for secret guerrilla warfare against the colonial Government. One of his early successful undertakings was a broad day robbery at the treasury office of the Assam-Bengal Railway at Chittagong on December 23, 1923.

Chittagong armoury raid and its aftermath
Main article: Chittagong Armoury Raid
His major success in the anti-British revolutionary violence was the Chittagong Armoury Raid on April 18, 1930. Subsequent to the raid, he marched to the Jalalabad hills along with his fellow revolutionaries. After the battle with the British troops on April 22, he escaped from there.

Surya Sen, being constantly followed up by the police, had to hide at the house of Sabitri Devi, a widow, near Patiya. A police and military force under Captain Cameron surrounded the house on 13 June 1932. Cameron was shot dead while ascending the staircase and Surya Sen along with Pritilata Waddedar and Kalpana Dutta escaped to safety.

Surya Sen was always in hiding, moving from one place to another. Sometimes he used to take a job as a workman; sometimes he would take a job as a farmer, or milkman, or priest, houseworker or even as a pious Muslim. This is how he used to avoid being captured.

Either because of money, or out of jealousy, or because of both, Netra Sen told the British Government that Surya Sen was at his house. As a result, the police came and captured him on February 16, 1933. This is how India's supreme hero was arrested. But before Netra Sen was able to get his 10,000-rupee reward he was killed by the revolutionaries .

This is how it happened. Netra Sen's wife was all for Surya Sen, and she was horrified by her husband's deed. She felt mortified by her husband's betrayal of Surya Sen. She couldn't believe her eyes; she couldn't believe her ears.

One evening she was serving her husband food when a great admirer of Surya Sen came into the house. He was carrying a very big knife, which is called a dal. With one stroke of the dal he chopped off the head of Netra Sen in the presence of his wife. Then slowly and stealthily he went away.

When the police arrived to investigate, they asked Netra Sen's wife if she had seen who the murderer was. She said, "I saw with my own eyes, but my heart will not permit me to tell you his name. I am sorry. I feel miserable that I was the wife of such a treacherous man, such an undivine man as Netra Sen. My husband betrayed the greatest hero of Chittagong. My husband betrayed a great son of Mother India. My husband cast a slur on the face of India. Therefore, I cannot tell the name of the person who took his life. He has definitely done the right thing. You can do anything with me. You can punish me, you can even kill me, but I shall never tell the name of the person who killed my husband. Our Master-da will be hanged, I know, but his name will forever be synonymous with India's immortal freedom-cry. Everybody loves him. Everybody adores him. I, too, love him and adore him, for he is the brightest sun in the firmament of Chittagong. Surya means sun and he is truly our sun."

Tarakeswar Dastidar, the new president of the Chittagong Branch Jugantar Party, made a preparation to rescue Surya Sen from the Chittagong Jail. But the plot was unearthed and consequently frustrated. Tarakeswar and Kalpana along with others were arrested. Special tribunals tried Surya Sen, Tarakeswar Dastidar, and Kalpana Datta in 1933.

Surya Sen along with his comrade Tarekeshwar Dastidar was hanged by the British rulers on January 12, 1934. Before the death sentence Surya Sen was brutally tortured. It was reported that the British executioners broke all his teeth with hammer and plucked all nails and broke all limbs and joints. He was dragged to the rope unconscious. After his death his death body wasn’t given any funeral. The prison authority, it was found later, put his dead body in a metallic cage and dumped into the bay of Bengal.

His last letter to his comrades, written on 11th January, will remain enshrined in history as the most eloquent testimony of the excellence of his manhood... "Death is knocking at my door. My mind is flying away towards infinity ... this is the moment to myself to embrace death as the dearest of friends. In this happy, sacred and crucial moment, what am I leaving for you all? Only one thing, my dream, a golden dream, the dream of a Free India. Dear comrades, march ahead; never retrace your step. Days of servitude are receding. Freedom's illuminating ray is visible over there. Arise and never give way to despair. Success is sure to come.

Football / Brazil World Cup 2014 (World Cup 2014 Fixtures)
« on: May 05, 2014, 11:54:37 PM »
Follow the route to the final with the full list of World Cup 2014 fixtures. Covering all group, knockout and final stages along with match times and venues.

This page shows fixtures by group. You can also view the World Cup schedule in chronological order.

Skip to Knockout stages

Group stages


(All kick-off times are British Summer Time)

Group A

12 June 2014

Brazil v Croatia, Arena de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 21:00

13 June 2014

Mexico v Cameroon, Arena das Dunas, Natal, 17:00

17 June 2014

Brazil v Mexico, Estadio Castelao, Fortaleza, 20:00

18 June 2014

Cameroon v Croatia, Arena Amazonia, Manaus, 23:00

23 June 2014

Cameroon v Brazil, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 21:00

23 June 2014

Croatia v Mexico, Arena Pernambuco, Recife, 21:00

Group B

13 June 2014

Spain v Netherlands, Arena Fonte Nova, Salvador, 20:00

13 June 2014

Chile v Australia, Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba, 23:00

18 June 2014

Spain v Chile, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 20:00

18 June 2014

Australia v Netherlands, Estadio Beira-Rio, Porto Alegre, 17:00

23 June 2014

Australia v Spain, Arena da Baixada, Curitiba, 17:00

23 June 2014

Netherlands v Chile, Arena de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 17:00

Group C

14 June 2014

Colombia v Greece, Estadio Mineirao, Belo Horizonte, 17:00

15 June 2014

Ivory Coast v Japan, Arena Pernambuco, Recife, 02:00

19 June 2014

Colombia v Ivory Coast, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 17:00

19 June 2014

Japan v Greece, Arena das Dunas, Natal, 23:00

24 June 2014

Japan v Colombia, Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba, 21:00

24 June 2014

Greece v Ivory Coast, Estadio Castelao, Fortaleza, 21:00

Group D

14 June 2014

Uruguay v Costa Rica, Estadio Castelao, Fortaleza, 20:00

14 June 2014

England v Italy, Arena Amazonia, Manaus, 23:00

19 June 2014

Uruguay v England, Arena de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 20:00

20 June 2014

Italy v Costa Rica, Arena Pernambuco, Recife, 17:00

24 June 2014

Italy v Uruguay, Arena das Dunas, Natal, 17:00

24 June 2014

Costa Rica v England, Estadio Mineirao, Belo Horizonte, 17:00

Group E

15 June 2014

Switzerland v Ecuador, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 17:00

15 June 2014

France v Honduras, Estadio Beira-Rio, Porto Alegre, 20:00

20 June 2014

Switzerland v France, Arena Fonte Nova, Salvador, 20:00

20 June 2014

Honduras v Ecuador, Arena da Baixada, Curitiba, 23:00

25 June 2014

Honduras v Switzerland, Arena Amazonia, Manaus, 21:00

25 June 2014

Ecuador v France, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 21:00

Group F

15 June 2014

Argentina v Bosnia-Hercegovina, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 23:00

16 June 2014

Iran v Nigeria, Arena da Baixada, Curitiba, 20:00

21 June 2014

Argentina v Iran, Estadio Mineirao, Belo Horizonte, 17:00

21 June 2014

Nigeria v Bosnia-Hercegovina, Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba, 23:00

25 June 2014

Nigeria v Argentina, Estadio Beira-Rio, Porto Alegre, 17:00

25 June 2014

Bosnia-Hercegovina v Iran, Arena Fonte Nova, Salvador, 17:00

Group G

16 June 2014

Germany v Portugal, Arena Fonte Nova, Salvador, 17:00

16 June 2014

Ghana v United States, Arena das Dunas, Natal, 23:00

21 June 2014

Germany v Ghana, Estadio Castelao, Fortaleza, 20:00

22 June 2014

United States v Portugal, Arena Amazonia, Manaus, 23:00

26 June 2014

United States v Germany, Arena Pernambuco, Recife, 17:00

26 June 2014

Portugal v Ghana, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 17:00

Group H

17 June 2014

Belgium v Algeria, Estadio Mineirao, Belo Horizonte, 17:00

17 June 2014

Russia v South Korea, Arena Pantanal, Cuiaba, 23:00

22 June 2014

Belgium v Russia, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 17:00

22 June 2014

South Korea v Algeria, Estadio Beira-Rio, Porto Alegre, 20:00

26 June 2014

South Korea v Belgium, Arena de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 21:00

26 June 2014

Algeria v Russia, Arena da Baixada, Curitiba, 21:00


Knockout stages

Second round

28 June 2014

Second-round 1:

Winner Group A v Runner-up Group B, Estadio Mineirao, Belo Horizonte, 17:00

28 June 2014

Second-round 2:

Winner Group C v Runner-up Group D, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 21:00

29 June 2014

Second-round 3:

Winner Group B v Runner-up Group A, Estadio Castelao, Fortaleza, 17:00

29 June 2014

Second-round 4:

Winner Group D v Runner-up Group C, Arena Pernambuco, Recife, 21:00

30 June 2014

Second-round 5:

Winner Group E v Runner-up Group F, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 17:00

30 June 2014

Second-round 6:

Winner Group G v Runner-up Group H, Estadio Beira-Rio, Porto Alegre, 21:00

1 July 2014

Second-round 7:

Winner Group F v Runner-up Group E, Arena de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 17:00

1 July 2014

Second-round 8:

Winner Group H v Runner-up Group G, Arena Fonte Nova, Salvador, 21:00


4 July 2014

Quarter-final 1:

Winner Second-round 1 v Winner Second-round 2, Estadio Castelao, Fortaleza, 21:00

4 July 2014

Quarter-final 2:

Winner Second-round 5 v Winner Second-round 6, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 17:00

5 July 2014

Quarter-final 3:

Winner Second-round 3 v Winner Second-round 4, Arena Fonte Nova, Salvador, 21:00

5 July 2014

Quarter-final 4:

Winner Second-round 7 v Winner Second-round 8, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 17:00


8 July 2014

Semi-final 1:

Winner Quarter-final 1 v Winner Quarter-final 2, Estadio Mineirao, Belo Horizonte, 21:00

9 July 2014

Semi-final 2:

Winner Quarter-final 3 v Winner Quarter-final 4, Arena de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 21:00

Third-place match

12 July 2014

Loser semi-final 1 v Loser semi-final 2, Estadio Nacional, Brasilia, 21:00

World Cup Final

13 July 2014

Winner semi-final 1 v Winner semi-final 2, Estadio do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, 20:00


Football / Brazil World Cup 2014 (Stadium information)
« on: May 05, 2014, 11:31:55 PM »
The 2014 World Cup is heading to Brazil. In less than few months, the greatest football spectacle of them all will be heading to the country that introduced the notion of the beautiful game. For the first time in 64 years, football’s biggest event will grace Brazil’s shores and a feast of football is sure to be served up in front of passionate crowds.  True, there is the small matter of the World Cup in South Africa in 2010 to contend with first, but football fans across Brazil and indeed the world are rubbing their hands in anticipation of the 2014 Brazil World Cup.

Who will be there? Who will be defending champions? These are questions we have no answers to. Yet. Follow the route to the Brazil World Cup in 2014 with us as we will keep you up to date with all the ups and downs right up until the trophy is lifted at the end of the 2014 Brazil World Cup.

Brazilian World Cup Stadiums
With football being a way of life in Brazil, there is no shortage of stadia that will be capable of hosting matches when the World Cup begins.  FIFA’s rules state that no city may have two stadiums hosting matches and eight to ten cities must provide the stadia.  Brazil however have appealed to FIFA to allow them to use twelve host cities.  As yet, the venues haven’t been decided but nineteen stadiums have been put forward on the shortlist.

Estadio do Maracana (Estadio Jornalista Mario Filho)
City: Rio de Janeiro
Clubs: Fluminese & Flamengo
Current Capacity: 95,000
Record Attendance: 199,500

The Maracana Stadium is one of the world’s most famous stadiums.  It has the pedigree of already hosting a World Cup Final when Brazil and Uruguay faced off in the 1950 final.  It can also boast the biggest crowd ever at a football match when nearly 200,000 people watched the afore mentioned final.  It would be a major surprise if the final was not held in at the famous venue and it would place it alongside the Azteca Stadium in Mexico city as the only stadium to host two finals.

The Maracana was completed in 1950 and was the centre piece for the 1950 tournament despite not being entirely finished.  It is the eleventh largest stadium in the world and the largest in South America.  The famous ground is owned by the Rio de Janeiro State Government and is the home ground of Fluminese and Flamengo, arguably the biggest derby match in Brazil.  The opening match at the stadium was contested by Rio de Janeiro All-Stars and Sao Paulo All-Stars with the home side winning 3-1.  In 1969, an astonishing 177,656 people turned up to see a Fla-Flu derby, which must be a local derby record crowd.  The Maracana has hosted some memorable events post the 1950 World Cup Final.  It was at this stadium that Pele scored his 1000th professional goal in front of 125,000 people and in 1989 Zico scored his 333rd Maracana goal whilst playing for Flamengo.  The stadium has fond memories for England football supporters too.  It was at the Maracana where John Barnes waltzed through the Brazil side to score a Brazilian style goal and give England a one nil win.

In 1992 a tragic accident occurred at the stadium and 50 people lost their lives.  The stadium was closed and converted to an all-seater stadium which massively reduced its capacity and between 2005 and 2006 the stadium underwent further renovations to bring it up to standard.

In addition to high profile football matches, the famous old stadium has also hosted high profile music events, seen the Harlem Globetrotters strut their stuff and had a visit from the Pope.

Mangueirao (State Stadium Edgar Augusto Proenca)
City: Belem
Clubs: Paysandu Sport Club and Club do Remo
Current Capacity: 45, 007
Record attendance 65,000

The Mangueirao Stadium played host to its first match in 1978 when an all star team from the Para State region took on and beat a Uruguayan International youth team four nil.  Originally its attendance was 70,000 but was re-inaugerated as an Olympic Stadium in 2002 and the capacity was reduced to its current level.

Estadio Mineirao (Governor Magalhaes Pinto Stadium)
City: Belo Horizonte
Clubs: Atletico Miniero & Cruziero Esporte Clube
Current Capacity: 71, 680
Record attendance: 132, 843

The Estadio Mineirao was built and opened in 1965 and is one of the favourites to host World Cup matches in 2014.  The state built stadium was celebrated by an inaugural match between the Minas Gerais State team and Argentinean powerhouses River Plate.  In 2004, FIFA decreed that the capacity be reduced to its current size.  Two teams currently call the stadium home but a third, America Mineiro has also played there.  The Brazilian national team has played at the Estadio Mineirao which will improve its chances of hosting matches when the finals get underway.

Estadio Mane Garrincha
City: Brasilia (capital)
Clubs: Brasiliense Futebol  Clube
Current Capacity: 45, 200
Record Attendance:  51,000

The Estadio Mane Garrincha was built and opened in 1974 and is owned by the Department of Sports, Physical Education and Recreation of Distrito Federal.  The Stadium was named after the Brazilian legend Garrincha who starred for Brazil in the 1958 and 1962 World Cup triumphs.  Garrincha played 50 times for Brazil and is rated as Brazil’s second greatest player behind Pele.  The stadium opened with a match between Brazilian heavyweights Corinthians and local side CEUB which resulted in a 2-1 win for the more famous club.  The Stadium was home to Brasiliense Futebol Clube from 1996 – 2003.

Morenao (Pedro Pedrossian University Stadium)
City:  Campo Grande
Clubs: Operario & Esporte Clube Comercial
Current Capacity: 45, 000
Record Attendance:  38, 122

The Morenao stadium opened in 1971 and is owned by the Mato Grosso  do Sul Federal University.  It is the largest University stadium in Latin America.  The city of Campo Grande is nicknamed Cidade Morena (Brown City) and it is from this nickname that the stadium took its moniker.  The first match held at the Morenao was between Flamengo and Corinthians which resulted in a 3-1 win to the former.

Verdao (Estadio Governador Jose Fragelli)
City: Cuiaba
Clubs: Mixto
Current Capacity: 47, 000
Record Attendance: 44, 021
The Verdao Stadium was built in 1976 and is owned by the Government of the State of Mato Grosso.  It is a multi-purpose stadium but is mostly used for hosting football matches.  It was named after Jose Fragelli, who was governor of the state when the Stadium was built.  The first match was played between home side Mixto and Dom Bosco.  The home team were inspired by their new surroundings and won the match two goals to nil.  It was in this first match that the current record Attendance was set.

Arena da Baixada (Estadio Joaquim Americo Guimares)
City: Curitiba
Clubs: Atletico Parananense
Current Capacity: 25,272
Record Attendance: 31,740

The Arena da Baixada was built in 1914 and is the home stadium of Clube Atletico Parananense.  It was demolished in 1997 and rebuilt in 1999.  In 2005 the name of the stadium was changed to the Kyocera Arena as the Japanese company, Kyocera, bought the naming rights.  The sponsorship deal expired in early 2008 and was not renewed and therefore the stadium reverted to its original name.  The first match staged at the stadium was in 1914 and contested between Flamengo and Internacional, who were the home team at the time, and resulted in a 7-1 win for the away side.  When the stadium reopened current home side Atletico overcame Cerro Porteno of Paraguay by two goals to one.

Estadio Orlando Carpelli
City: Florianopolis
Clubs: Figueirense Futebol Clube
Current Capacity: 19,908
Record Attendance: 16,842

The Estadio Orlando Carpelli opened in 1961.  Construction on the stadium began in 1940 and took twenty one years to build.  It is named after former club president, Carpelli, who donated the land to enable the stadium to be built.  The first match after construction was completed took place between Figueirense and Aletico Catarinense.  The home side struggled and was beaten by four goals to nil.  The record Attendance of 16,842 was set when the home side faced Vasco de Gama and drew 0-0.  The stadium became all-seater in 2005.

Estadio Castelao
City: Fortaleza
Clubs: Ceara Sporting Club & Fortaleza Esporte Clube
Current Capacity: 69,000
Record Attendance: 118,496

The Estadio Castelao was opened in 1973 and is the home stadium for two teams.  It has also hosted the Brazil national team and it was a match between the Brazilians and Uruguay that recorded its biggest ever Attendance in 1980.  The stadium is owned by the Ceara State Government and is officially named after Placido Alderado Castelo who was State Governor for five years.  The first match played at the stadium was contested by the two resident teams who fought out a nil nil draw.  In 2000 the State Government decided to renovate the stadium and the capacity was reduced to its current level.  When the stadium reopened in 2002, the first match was between the Brazil national team and the Yugoslavian national team.  The Brazilians responded to the new surroundings and overcame the Europeans thanks to a solitary goal from Luizao.

Estadio Estrela dos Reis Magos
City: Natal
Clubs: n/a
Current Capacity: 65,100

The Estadio Estrela dos Reis Magos is yet another proposed stadium.  Once again it was proposed that it would be built if the Brazilian bid was successful.  If built, the stadium will seat over 65,000.

Estadio Beira-Rio (Estadio Jose Pinheiro Borba)
City: Porto Alegre
Clubs: Sport Club Internacional
Current Capacity: 56,000
Record Attendance: 106,554

The Estadio Beira-Rio was built in 1959 and its official name came from a Portuguese engineer who oversaw the building of the Stadium, yet died before the stadium could be finished.  The stadium takes its nickname from its location.  Beira-Rio literally translates as “River Bank” as Sport Club Internacional play the home matches along the River Guaiba.  He first match staged at the Beira-Rio was between the home side Internacional and Portuguese giants Benfica.  The Brazilian side won the match by two goals to one.  In 1972, the Brazilian National side took on a Rio Grande do Sull All-Stars eleven and drew three all.  The exhibition match attracted over 106,000 spectators which is a record for the stadium.  To be sure it is up to scratch for the finals, the stadium is to be renovated to  ensure it matches FIFA’s criteria.

Arena Recife-Olinda
City: Between Recife & Olinda
Clubs: n/a
Current Capacity: 48,500
Record Attendance: n/a
The Arena Recife-Olinda stadium is another proposed stadium that will be built for the 2014 World Cup.  When completed the stadium will seat over 48,000 spectators.

Arena da Floresta
City: Rio Branca
Clubs: Rio Branca AC
Current Capacity: 20,000
Record Attendance: 12,088
The Arena da Floresta or Forest Arena in English was built in 2006.  It is owned by the Acre State Government and Rio Branca AC play their home matches there.  It s the smallest of all the proposed stadia and would have to have its capacity significantly increased if it is to host matches.  In its first ever match, Rio Branca AC entertained the Brazil under 20 national side and emerged victorious by two goals to one.  In 2007, the stadium recorded its highest Attendance when Fluminese defeated Associacao Desportiva Senador Guiomard as 12,088 people attended the match.

Arena Bahia
City: Salavdor
Clubs: n/a
Current Capacity: 44,100 – 60,000

The Bahia Arena has yet to be built.  It is another  venue that was proposed would be built in the event that Brazil was awarded the finals.  When completed it is said the stadium will seat 44,000 to 60,000 people.

Estadio do Morumbi (Estadio Cicero Pompeu de Toledo)
City: Sao Paulo
Clubs: Sao Paulo FC
Current Capacity: 80,000
Record Attendance: 138,032

The Estadio do Morumbi opened in 1960 yet it wasn’t fully finished until 1970.  Its formal name comes from the Sao Paulo FC chairman who was in charge of the team during the majority of the construction.  The stadium, unlike so many in Brazil is owned by the team and not by the state.  The first match staged at the ground was between Sao Paulo and Sporting Lisbon of Portugal and the Brazilian side ran out winners by a goal to nil.  In 1970 the stadium was finally completed and the capacity rose to 140,000.  The  Attendance record was set in 1977 when over 138,000 people filed in to watch Corinthians defeat Ponte Preta.  As well as being home to Sao Paulo, the Morumbi Stadium has hosted some of the worlds biggest music stars including The Rolling Stones, Queen, U2 and Michael Jackson.

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