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Real Estate / Home Transfer and Recording Taxes
« on: October 22, 2010, 01:13:39 AM »
Most buyers and sellers in the housing market anticipate some tax consequences or implications from the purchase or sale of a home. And, it's natural for buyers and sellers to focus on federal tax issues, and particularly how the deal will impact your federal income taxes.
But, it's important to keep in mind that most states impose various taxes on home sales including "transfer and recording taxes." It can come as a surprise to you when you find out at closing that you have to pay these taxes, which can be a significant amount of money.Not all states have these taxes, and in those that do, not only do the tax rates vary, but the taxes have various names,

such as:
Transfer Tax.Recording Tax, Deed Recording Tax, Mortgage Recording Tax, or Mortgage Tax,Documentary Transfer Tax, Stamp Tax.

So, be careful to check the laws in your area to see if a transfer and recording tax will be applied to your transaction, and if so, how much the tax will be. Or, early on in the transaction, ask your real estate or tax attorney who might be helping you during the purchase and sale.

Real Estate / Responsibilities of a Property Manager.
« on: October 20, 2010, 12:20:57 AM »
A certified property manager can work independently to work in daily operations, or serve as part of a real estate management team as a liaison. Property managers that work onsite are often involved with owners of different properties and their tenants. Some property manager may also serve on real estate management boards to work with projects concerning financial planning, asset management, and resident regulations. The most common responsibilities for a certified property manager are:

Working with community association managers
Complying with provisions of the Federal Fair Housing Amendment Act and local fair housing laws
Ensuring that all renting practices are not discriminatory
Making sure the property complies with local, state, and national laws
Inspecting grounds and facilities
Enforcing rental regulations and guidelines
Initiating lease agreements
Serving as the liaison between owners and the real estate management team
Marketing and advertising the property
Providing asset management reports to real estate management supervisors and committees
Showing apartments or homes to prospective tenants
Working with building engineers, janitorial departments, and maintenance services

Real Estate / what are the washing in real estate?
« on: October 19, 2010, 01:56:55 PM »
any one describe the washing in Real Estate.........

Pharmacy / How Much Water Should I Drink every day.
« on: October 19, 2010, 03:01:59 AM »
Health benefits of water
Water is your body's principal chemical component and makes up about 60 percent of your body weight. Every system in your body depends on water. For example, water flushes toxins out of vital organs, carries nutrients to your cells and provides a moist environment for ear, nose and throat tissues.

Lack of water can lead to dehydration, a condition that occurs when you don't have enough water in your body to carry out normal functions. Even mild dehydration can drain your energy and make you tired.

How much water do you need?
Every day you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water.

So how much water does the average, healthy adult living in a temperate climate need? In general, doctors recommend 8 or 9 cups. Here are the most common ways of calculating that amount:

Replacement approach. The average urine output for adults is about 1.5 liters (6.3 cups) a day. You lose close to an additional liter (about 4 cups) of water a day through breathing, sweating and bowel movements. Food usually accounts for 20 percent of your total fluid intake, so if you consume 2 liters of water or other beverages a day (a little more than 8 cups) along with your normal diet, you will typically replace your lost fluids.
Eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day. Another approach to water intake is the "8 x 8 rule" — drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water a day (about 1.9 liters). The rule could also be stated, "Drink eight 8-ounce glasses of fluid a day," as all fluids count toward the daily total. Although the approach really isn't supported by scientific evidence, many people use this easy-to-remember rule as a guideline for how much water and other fluids to drink.
Dietary recommendations. The Institute of Medicine advises that men consume roughly 3 liters (about 13 cups) of total beverages a day and women consume 2.2 liters (about 9 cups) of total beverages a day.
Even apart from the above approaches, if you drink enough fluid so that you rarely feel thirsty and produce 1.5 liters (6.3 cups) or more of colorless or slightly yellow urine a day, your fluid intake is probably adequate. If you're concerned about your fluid intake, check with your doctor or a registered dietitian. He or she can help you determine the amount of water that's best for you.
Factors that influence water needs
You may need to modify your total fluid intake depending on how active you are, the climate you live in, your health status, and if you're pregnant or breast-feeding.

Exercise. If you exercise or engage in any activity that makes you sweat, you need to drink extra water to compensate for the fluid loss. An extra 400 to 600 milliliters (about 1.5 to 2.5 cups) of water should suffice for short bouts of exercise, but intense exercise lasting more than an hour (for example, running a marathon) requires more fluid intake. How much additional fluid you need depends on how much you sweat during exercise, and the duration and type of exercise. During long bouts of intense exercise, it's best to use a sports drink that contains sodium, as this will help replace sodium lost in sweat and reduce the chances of developing hyponatremia, which can be life-threatening. Also, continue to replace fluids after you're finished exercising.

Environment. Hot or humid weather can make you sweat and requires additional intake of fluid. Heated indoor air also can cause your skin to lose moisture during wintertime. Further, altitudes greater than 8,200 feet (2,500 meters) may trigger increased urination and more rapid breathing, which use up more of your fluid reserves.
Illnesses or health conditions. When you have fever, vomiting or diarrhea, your body loses additional fluids. In these cases, you should drink more water. In some cases, your doctor may recommend oral rehydration solutions, such as Gatorade, Powerade or CeraLyte. Also, you may need increased fluid intake if you develop certain conditions, including bladder infections or urinary tract stones. On the other hand, some conditions such as heart failure and some types of kidney, liver and adrenal diseases may impair excretion of water and even require that you limit your fluid intake.
Pregnancy or breast-feeding. Women who are expecting or breast-feeding need additional fluids to stay hydrated. Large amounts of fluid are used especially when nursing. The Institute of Medicine recommends that pregnant women drink 2.3 liters (about 10 cups) of fluids daily and women who breast-feed consume 3.1 liters (about 13 cups) of fluids a day.
Beyond the tap: Other sources of water
Although it's a great idea to keep water within reach at all times, you don't need to rely only on what you drink to meet your fluid needs. What you eat also provides a significant portion of your fluid needs. On average, food provides about 20 percent of total water intake. For example, many fruits and vegetables, such as watermelon and tomatoes, are 90 percent or more water by weight.

In addition, beverages such as milk and juice are composed mostly of water. Even beer, wine and caffeinated beverages — such as coffee, tea or soda — can contribute, but these should not be a major portion of your daily total fluid intake. Water is still your best bet because it's calorie-free, inexpensive and readily available.

Staying safely hydrated
It's generally not a good idea to use thirst alone as a guide for when to drink. By the time you become thirsty, you may already be slightly dehydrated. Further, as you get older your body is less able to sense dehydration and send your brain signals of thirst. On the other hand, excessive thirst and increased urination can be signs of a more serious medical condition. Talk to your doctor if you experience either.

To ward off dehydration and make sure your body has the fluids it needs, make water your beverage of choice. Most healthy adults can follow these tips:

Drink a glass of water with each meal and between each meal.
Hydrate before, during and after exercise.
Substitute sparkling water for alcoholic drinks at social gatherings.
Although uncommon, it is possible to drink too much water. When your kidneys are unable to excrete the excess water, the electrolyte (mineral) content of the blood is diluted, resulting in low sodium levels in the blood, a condition called hyponatremia. Endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, who drink large amounts of water, are at higher risk of hyponatremia. In general, though, drinking too much water is rare in healthy adults who eat an average American diet.

Law / Supreme Court of Bangladesh
« on: October 19, 2010, 02:45:29 AM »
The Supreme Court of Bangladesh (Bengali: বাংলাদেশ সুপ্রীম কোর্ট) is the highest court of law in Bangladesh. It is composed of the High Court Division and the Appellate division, and was created by Part VI Chapter I of the Constitution of Bangladesh adopted in 1972. This is also the office of the Chief Justice, Appellate Division Justices, and High Court Division Justices of Bangladesh. As of October 2010, there are 5 Justices in Appellate Division and 90 Justices in High Court Division.
Supreme Court of Bangladesh divided in two parts. First, the Appellate Division and second is the High Court Division. The High Court Division hears appeals from lower courts and tribunals; it also has original jurisdiction in certain limited cases, such as writ applications under article 102 of the Constitution of Bangladesh, and company and admiralty matters. The Appellate division has jurisdiction to hear appeals from the High Court Division. The Supreme Court is independent of the executive branch, and is able to rule against the government in politically controversial cases.
The chief justice and other judges of the supreme court are appointed by His Excellency the President of Bangladesh with prior mandatory consultation with the Prime Minister. The entry point to the sit of judges in the High Court Division is the post of Additional Judge who are appointed from among the practicing Advocates of the Supreme Court Bar Association and from the judicial service under the provision of article 98 of the constitution for a period of two years.The current ratio of such appointment is 80%-20%.Upon successful completion of this period and upon recommendation by the chief Justice an Additional Judge is appointed permanently by the President under the provision of article 95 of the constitution.The judges of the Appellate Division are also appointed by the Honorable President under the same provision.All such appointments come into effect on and from the date of taking oath by the appointee under the provision of article 148 of the constitution.
A judge of the Bangladesh Supreme court holds office till he/she attains the age of 67 years as extended by the provision of Constitution (Thirteen) amendment Act 2004 (Act 14 of 2004).A retiring judge faces disability in pleading or acting before any court or authority or holding any office of profit in the service of the republic, not being a judicial or quasi judicial office or the office of the chief Adviser or Adviser.
A Supreme Court Judge is not removable from the office except in accordance with the provision of article 96 of the constitution which provides for Supreme Judicial Council empowering it to remove a judge of the supreme court from the office upon allowing the delinquent judge an opportunity of being heard. The supreme judicial council is constituted with the Chief Justice of Bangladesh and next two senior judge of the Appellate Division,provided if at any time the council inquiring into the capacity or conduct of a judge who is a member of the supreme judicial council,or a member of the council is absent or is unable to act due to illness or other cause, the judge who is the next in seniority to those who are members of the council shall act as such member.
Supreme court judges are independent in their judicial function as empowered through article 94(4) of the constitution.

« on: October 19, 2010, 02:38:01 AM »
Bangladesh National Women Lawyers Association (BNWLA) is one of the pioneer organisations working for the establishment of human rights in Bangladesh. The Association was formed in 1979 at the initiative of some prominent women lawyers of Bangladesh, and subsequently registered as a legal aid body in 1981. The Association works for the uplift of women by providing legal aid, conducting training on rights of women, lobbying for necessary reforms of the existing laws, lobbying the authorities on women’s rights, issues and laws, investigating reports on violence against women and carrying out different activities for the rehabilitation of the survivors of different types of violence. To achieve their objectives, BNWLA has formed a number of cells and taken up the following programmes: The Legal Aid Cell provides assistance to the abused women with legal counselling, mediation and litigation services voluntarily. This cell has 18 legal aid clinics in different parts of the country. The Research and Communication Cell mainly conducts research, collects data and undertakes survey on women issues. The Investigation Wing undertakes investigations into incidents as rape, torture, murder, land rights, terrorism, deception, abduction, harassment etc. The Communication and Publication Wing publishes books and booklets on family, marriage divorce, dowry, and inheritance laws. The Training Cell organises training programmes for law enforcing agencies, government functionaries and NGOs dealing with issues relating to violence against women and children. A Shelter home, ‘Proshanti’, was established in 1993. The home provides shelter to women and children rescued from different jails, brothels and trafficking. BNWLA has been working on trafficking issues since 1991. The main purpose of this programme is to prevent trafficking of women and children from Bangladesh. The organisation provided legal aid to recoup unpaid salary to 18 female migrant workers. These 18 female workers went to Maldives in 1993 as garment workers. They were forced to work in an inhumane situation for more than 18 hours every day. They stayed in Maldives for four years, but received salary for only 1.3 years. When these workers came back to Bangladesh, they sought Bangladesh government’s intervention on this issue. But not being satisfied with the government’s role, the workers approached BNWLA. BNWLA has taken up the case of these 18 returnees from Maldives. It served a demand notice on the government in this regard. BNWLA has learnt that though efforts were made by the Bangladesh authorities to contact those concerned in Maldives, not much of a progress has been made. So far the workers have not got their outstanding salaries. The owner of the garment factory is currently absconding. BNWLA was one of the co-organisers of a two-day international conference on Temporary Migrant Workers of Bangladesh: Towards Developing a National Plan of Action held in April 2000 this year. Legislators, officials from different ministries and BMET, NGO representatives, human rights and legal aid organisations, academics and researchers participated in the conference. The future plans of BNWLA includes lobbying for law reform, providing more legal aid to the distressed migrant workers, providing informative support to the women at district level.
 Address: Bangladesh National Women Lawyers’ Association (BNWLA) Road # 27, House # 60/A Dhanmondi R/A Dhaka-1209 Tel: 880-2-8125866, 880-2-8123060, 0189 226212 E-mail:


Law / The Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association (BELA)'
« on: October 19, 2010, 02:33:39 AM »
The Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association (BELA), a non-profit and non-governmental organization of lawyers was set up in 1992 with the objective of establishing a sound environment and ecological order for all using law as tool. The formation of BELA was indeed a response to the global call for movement to protect and conserve natural environment and ecology that has strong justification in a rural agronomy based country like Bangladesh.

With the ever deteriorating environmental state of the country at the backdrop, Dr. Mohiuddin Farooque , the founder of BELA decided to pursue the cause of environmental justice through a motivated local advocacy group. The initial idea was to monitor and pursue implementation and observance of the existing laws on natural resource and environment management. As an advocacy group of young lawyers, BELA since then has been working out techniques and strategies to accord protection to environmental resources and thus safeguard the rights of the millions who depend on such resources.

Since inception, the organization has adopted various means to create awareness amongst major actors to activate the great bulk of environmental legislation. BELA has always emphasized on and advocated for wider participation in law making and policy planning to bring in changes in the isolated trend of law and policy framing. The efforts of BELA through public interest litigation have truly sensitized the concept of ‘environmental justice’ in the country that now has special courts to deal with environmental offences. To institutionalize its efforts, BELA ensures wider participation from both the government and non-governmental sector that has given it wide credibility and acceptance amongst all concerned.


Objectives & Strategies

The broad objective of BELA is to promote environmental justice and contribute towards the development of a sound environmental jurisprudence.

The specific objectives of the organization include:

Undertake studies on and research into the local, national and international regulatory regime on environment
Undertake legislative advocacy
Seek judicial or administrative relief to ensure implementation of existing environmental laws
Resolve environmental disputes through court cases, alternative dispute resolution, mediation and other means
Create greater awareness about environmental laws and issues
Initiate participatory processes to ensure environmental good governance
Provide legal assistance and support endeavours for protection of the environment and associated human rights
Develop networks with local, national and international groups/bodies/agencies working on environment
Develop and core group of environmental activists

Target Beneficiaries

The beneficiary of BELA’s activity is perhaps every human and non-human being. In attempting to protect people’s rights and legitimate interests, BELA’s efforts aimed from top echelon of the society and governance to the little mass whose lives and livelihood are often forfeited in various disguise and means.



The office of BELA is presently situated in House # 15A, Road # 3, Dhanmondi Residential Area, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

It also has two project offices in Tangail and Cox’s Bazar & are liasion office in Khulna.

Real Estate / What is Civil Engineering Surveying?
« on: October 19, 2010, 01:41:29 AM »
The civil engineering industry involves the design and construction of the facilities that shape the world we live in. From roads, railways and bridges to water supply pipes and power stations, this is all civil engineering.
Civil Engineering Surveyors are involved in every stage of the project from initial concept through design and construction, to monitoring the condition and performance of the completed structure.
Within this profession you could choose to work within Commercial Management (Quantity Surveying) or Geospatial Engineering
(Engineering Surveying).
Commercial Management
Commercial Managers, or quantity surveyors, are the financial managers of the civil engineering industry. They work alongside other professionals in preparing the documents on which projects are based, measuring the work completed on site and ensuring that the companies carrying out the construction are paid a fair price for it. Their responsibilities include:
Preparing documents, including legal documents;
Evaluating prices received from various contractors and subcontractors to see who should be appointed to do the work;
Preparing estimates of the likely cost of the construction of a project;
Advising engineers on financial issues;
Measuring and costing the work carried out;
Valuing the contract as work proceeds.
This profession also includes the following functions:
Estimating: calculating the cost of a project;
Procurement Engineering: purchasing the materials and services needed;
Planning: programming the construction and ensuring that it is carried out as specified;
Project Management: general management of the construction project;
Construction Law: advising on the legal aspects of the construction, including the settlement of claims and disputes.
Geospatial Engineering Surveying
Geospatial Engineers work within construction on the measurement and monitoring of projects, as well as producing maps, plans and charts of different features. The main profession within civil engineering is engineering surveying (sometimes known as land surveying). Engineering surveyors are generally responsible for:
Investigating land, using computer-based measuring instruments and geographical knowledge, to work out the best position to construct bridges, tunnels and roads;
Producing up-to-date plans which form the basis for the design of a project;
Setting out a site, so that a structure is built in the correct spot and to the correct size;
Monitoring the construction process to make sure that the structure remains in the right position, and recording the final as-built position;
Providing control points by which the future movement of structures such as dams or bridges can be monitored.
The term Geospatial Engineering includes the following specialist areas:
Engineering surveying: preparation of maps and plans for the planning and design of structures, as well as ensuring that the construction takes place to the dimensions and tolerances required;
Hydrographic surveying: measuring and mapping the earth's surface that is covered by water;
Photogrammetry: involves obtaining information from photographic images in order to produce a plan of an area;
Geographic Information Systems: involves collecting and manipulating geographic information and presenting the information in the form required;
Cartography/Visualisation: accurately and precisely producing maps or plans and representing the information in two or three dimensions.

Real Estate / some civil engineering sub discipline .
« on: October 19, 2010, 01:33:08 AM »
Coastal engineering:
Coastal engineering is concerned with managing coastal areas. In some jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to mean, respectively, defence against flooding and erosion. The term coastal defence is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to include techniques that allow erosion to claim land.
Building construction for several apartment blocks.

Construction engineering:
Construction engineering involves planning and execution of the designs from transportation, site development, hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineers. As construction firms tend to have higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms, many construction engineers tend to take on a role that is more business-like in nature: drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations, and closely-monitoring prices of necessary supplies.

Environmental engineering:
A filter bed, a part of sewage treatment.Environmental engineering deals with the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites, due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination. Among the topics covered by environmental engineering are pollutant transport, water purification, waste water treatment, air pollution, solid waste treatment and hazardous waste management. Environmental engineers can be involved with pollution reduction, green engineering, and industrial ecology. Environmental engineering also deals with the gathering of information on the environmental consequences of proposed actions and the assessment of effects of proposed actions for the purpose of assisting society and policy makers in the decision making process.
Environmental engineering is the contemporary term for sanitary engineering, though sanitary engineering traditionally had not included much of the hazardous waste management and environmental remediation work covered by the term environmental engineering. Some other terms in use are public health engineering and environmental health engineering.

Geotechnical engineering:
Geotechnical engineering is an area of civil engineering concerned with the rock and soil that civil engineering systems are supported by. Knowledge from the fields of geology, material science and testing, mechanics, and hydraulics are applied by geotechnical engineers to safely and economically design foundations, retaining walls, and similar structures. Environmental concerns in relation to groundwater and waste disposal have spawned a new area of study called geoenvironmental engineering where biology and chemistry are important.
Some of the unique difficulties of geotechnical engineering are the result of the variability and properties of soil. Boundary conditions are often well defined in other branches of civil engineering, but with soil, clearly defining these conditions can be impossible. The material properties and behavior of soil are also difficult to predict due to the variability of soil and limited investigation. This contrasts with the relatively well defined material properties of steel and concrete used in other areas of civil engineering. Soil mechanics, which define the behavior of soil, is complex due to stress-dependent material properties such as volume change, stress–strain relationship, and strength.

Hoover dam
Water resources engineering is concerned with the collection and management of water (as a natural resource). As a discipline it therefore combines hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, geology, conservation, and resource management. This area of civil engineering relates to the prediction and management of both the quality and the quantity of water in both underground (aquifers) and above ground (lakes, rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyze and model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount and content of water as it flows into, through, or out of a facility. Although the actual design of the facility may be left to other engineers. Hydraulic engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of pipelines, water supply network, drainage facilities (including bridges, dams, channels, culverts, levees, storm sewers), and canals. Hydraulic engineers design these facilities using the concepts of fluid pressure, fluid statics, fluid dynamics, and hydraulics, among others.

Materials engineering:
Another aspect of Civil engineering is materials science. Material engineering deals with ceramics such as concrete, mix asphalt concrete, metals Focus around increased strength, metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and carbon fibers.
Materials engineering also consists of protection and prevention like paints and finishes. Alloying is another aspect of material engineering, combining two different types of metals to produce a stronger metal.

Structural engineering:
Burj Khalifa, the world's tallest building, in Dubai
Clifton Suspension Bridge, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, in Bristol, UK
Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, moving (wheel) load, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc. The structural engineer must design structures to be safe for their users and to successfully fulfill the function they are designed for (to be serviceable). Due to the nature of some loading conditions, sub-disciplines within structural engineering have emerged, including wind engineering and

earthquake engineering:
Design considerations will include strength, stiffness, and stability of the structure when subjected to loads which may be static, such as furniture or self-weight, or dynamic, such as wind, seismic, crowd or vehicle loads, or transitory, such as temporary construction loads or impact. Other considerations include cost, constructability, safety, aesthetics and sustainability.
all the best

Real Estate / History of civil engineering
« on: October 19, 2010, 01:18:03 AM »
Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.
One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation (volume) computations.

ok ,now i am describe knowledge of structures:
Geography is the study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena.[2] A literal translation would be "to describe or write about the Earth". The first person to use the word "geography" was Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.). Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of natural and human phenomena (geography as a study of distribution), area studies (places and regions), study of man-land relationship, and research in earth sciences.[3] Nonetheless, modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called 'the world discipline'.[4] As "the bridge between the human and physical sciences," geography is divided into two main branches—human geography and physical geograph.

Geologyis the science and study of the solid Earth and the processes by which it is shaped and changed. Geology provides primary evidence for plate tectonics, the history of life and evolution, and past climates. In modern times, geology is commercially important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, is publically important for predicting and understanding natural hazards, plays an essential role in geotechnical engineering, and is a major academic discipline.

Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics. It is composed of particles of broken rock that have been altered by chemical and environmental processes that include weathering and erosion. Soil differs from its parent rock due to interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and the biosphere. It is a mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states.
Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with pore spaces. These pores contain soil solution (liquid) and air (gas). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three state system.Most soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm³. Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. Little of the soil composition of planet Earth is older than the Tertiary and most no older than the PleistoceneIn engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material.

Hydrology is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, including the hydrologic cycle and water resources. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of either earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage basin management and water chemistry, where water plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects.Hydrological research can inform environmental engineering, policy and planning.

Environmental science: is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.
Related areas of study include environmental studies and environmental engineering. Environmental studies incorporates more of the social sciences for understanding human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. Environmental engineering focuses on design and technology for improving environmental quality.
Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis.
Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s driven by (a) the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to analyze complex environmental problems, (b) the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation and (c) the growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. Events that spurred this development included the publication of Rachael Carson's landmark environmental book Silent Spring along with major environmental issues becoming very public, such as the 1969 Santa Barbara oil spill, and the Cuyahoga River of Cleveland, Ohio, "catching fire" (also in 1969), and helped increase the visibility of environmental issues and create this new field of study.

mechanics : is the branch of physics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment. The discipline has its roots in several ancient civilizations (see History of classical mechanics and Timeline of classical mechanics). During the early modern period, scientists such as Galileo, Kepler, and especially Newton, laid the foundation for what is now known as classical mechanics.

Use of Forum / our forum,,,,
« on: October 13, 2010, 01:06:39 AM »
i mind that is a medium for open discussion, such as a magazine.

2.Forum is a information place .

3.its a gather knowledge place .

4. forum is question place .

5.its also  a problem solve place .

6.really fun too!

7.overall its a love place & we love our forum so much

                                                              Every one should love our forum..

Real Estate / Generator sound & gas problem .
« on: October 11, 2010, 10:51:27 PM »
recently , a problem are   continuing  . when the current has gone then generator is open in this time sound and its gas quickly speed all basement . i am a student  i used inhale. if  the air circular system will develop then may be improve this situation . so  we hope  authority  consider this problem  a soon as possible ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,


Common Forum / Every one say how much people do?
« on: October 10, 2010, 02:02:33 PM »
 may be there are two types of mind  behavior
                                                                      1. say

some time  i observe,  most of  the  people  around  us they  only  say  but  dont  get  them proper work time .

is  it  the  reason . that   say all the best ?

                                            SOBAI  BOLTE PARE   KAJER SOMOI KAW  KE PAYA JAI NA              

Faculty Forum / How to change DIU mail ID password ?
« on: October 09, 2010, 08:01:01 PM »
some time we want to  change our  mail password , other website such as yahoo mail , g mail ete ,we can easily change password  but DIU  mail password can not change if any one known the system please give the system as soon as possible.................. 

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